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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 78 matches for " Tomoharu Kurayama "
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Astrometric Microlensing of Distant Sources due to the Stars in the Galaxy
Mareki Honma,Tomoharu Kurayama
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1086/339160
Abstract: We investigate properties of astrometric microlensing of distant sources (such as QSOs and radio galaxies) caused by stars in the Galaxy, mainly focusing on application to the VERA (VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry) project. Assuming typical parameters for the Galaxy disk and bulge, we show that the maximum optical depth for astrometric shift of 10 micro-arcsec level is 8.9x10^{-2} for QSO-disk lensing case and 3.8x10^{-2} for QSO-bulge lensing case. We also find that the maximum optical depth for QSO-disk lensing is larger by an order of magnitude than that for disk-disk or bulge-disk lensing case (assuming a typical source distance of 8 to 10 kpc). In addition to optical depth, we also calculate the event rate and find that the maximum event rate for QSO-disk lensing case is 1.2x10^{-2} event per year, which is about 30 times greater than that for disk-disk lensing case. This high event rate implies that if one monitors 10 QSOs behind the Galactic center region for 10 years, at least one astrometric microlensing event should be detected. Therefore, monitoring distant radio sources with VERA can be a new tool to study astrometric microlensing caused by stars in the Galaxy. We discuss the implications of astrometric microlensing for VERA by focusing on estimating the lens mass, and also present some possible candidates of radio sources toward which astrometric microlensing events should be searched for with VERA. (abridged)
Properties of Intrinsic Polarization Angle Ambiguities in Faraday Tomography
Kohei Kumazaki,Takuya Akahori,Shinsuke Ideguchi,Tomoharu Kurayama,Keitaro Takahashi
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1093/pasj/psu030
Abstract: Faraday tomography is a powerful method to diagnose polarizations and Faraday rotations along the line of sight. The quality of Faraday tomography is, however, limited by several conditions. Recently, it is reported that Faraday tomography indicates false signals in some specific situations. In this paper, we systematically investigate the condition of the appearance of false signals in Faraday tomography. We study this by pseudo-observing two sources within a beam, and change in the intrinsic polarization angles, rotation measures, intensities, and frequency coverage. We find that false signals arise when rotation measure between the sources is less than 1.5 times the full width at half maximum of the rotation measure spread function. False signals also depend on the intensity ratio between the sources and are reduced for large ratio. On the other hand, the appearance of false signals does not depend on frequency coverage, meaning that the uncertainty should be correctly understood and taken into consideration even with future wide-band observations such as Square Kilometer Array (SKA).
Annual Parallax Distance and Secular Motion of the Water Fountain Source IRAS 18286-0959
Hiroshi Imai,Tomoharu Kurayama,Mareki Honma,Takeshi Miyaji
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1093/pasj/65.2.28
Abstract: We report on results of astrometric observations of water vapor masers in the "water fountain" source IRAS 18286-0959 (I18286) with the VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry (VERA). These observations yielded an annual parallax of IRAS 18286-0959, pi=0.277+/-0.041 mas, corresponding to a heliocentric distance of D=3.61(+0.63)(-0.47) kpc. The maser feature, whose annual parallax was measured, showed the absolute proper motion of (mu_alpha, mu_delta)=(-3.2 +/- 0.3, -7.2 +/- 0.2) [mas/yr]. The intrinsic motion of the maser feature in the internal motions of the cluster of features in I18286 does not seem to trace the motion of the bipolar jet of I18286. Taking into account this intrinsic motion, the derived motion of the maser feature is roughly equal to that of the maser source I18286 itself. The proximity of I18286 to the Galactic midplane (z~10 pc) suggests that the parental star of the water fountain source in I18286 should be intermediate-mass AGB/post-AGB star, but the origin of a large deviation of the systemic source motion from that expected from the Galactic rotation curve is still unclear.
Outer Rotation Curve of the Galaxy with VERA I: Trigonometric parallax of IRAS 05168+3634
Nobuyuki Sakai,Mareki Honma,Hiroyuki Nakanishi,Hirofumi Sakanoue,Tomoharu Kurayama,Katsunori M. Shibata,Makoto Shizugami
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1093/pasj/64.5.108
Abstract: We report measurement of trigonometric parallax of IRAS 05168+3634 with VERA. The parallax is 0.532 +/- 0.053 mas, corresponding to a distance of 1.88+0.21/-0.17 kpc. This result is significantly smaller than the previous distance estimate of 6 kpc based on kinematic distance. This drastic change in the source distance revises not only physical parameters of IRAS 05168+3634, but also its location of the source, placing it in the Perseus arm rather than the Outer arm. We also measure proper motions of the source. A combination of the distance and the proper motions with systemic velocity yields rotation velocity ({\Theta}) of 227+9/-11 km s-1 at the source, assuming {\Theta}0 = 240 km s-1. Our result combined with previous VLBI results for six sources in the Perseus arm indicates that the sources rotate systematically slower than the Galactic rotation velocity at the LSR. In fact, we show observed disk peculiar motions averaged over the seven sources in the Perseus arm as (Umean, Vmean) = (11 +/- 3, -17 +/- 3) km s-1, indicating that these seven sources are systematically moving toward the Galactic center, and lag behind the Galactic rotation.
The outer rotation curve project with VERA: Trigonometric parallax of IRAS 05168+3634
Nobuyuki Sakai,Mareki Honma,Hiroyuki Nakanishi,Hirofumi Sakanoue,Tomoharu Kurayama,the VERA collaboration
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1017/S1743921312021199
Abstract: We present a measurement of the trigonometric parallax of IRAS 05168+3634 with VERA. The parallax is 0.532 +/- 0.053 mas, corresponding to a distance of 1.88 +0.21/-0.17 kpc. This is significantly closer than the previous distance estimate of 6 kpc based on a kinematic distance measurement. This drastic change in the source distance implies the need for revised values of not only the physical parameters of IRAS 05168+3634, but it also implies a different location in the Galaxy, placing it in the Perseus arm rather than the Outer arm. We also measured the proper motion of the source. A combination of the distance and proper motion with the systemic velocity yields a rotation velocity {\Theta} = 227 +9/-11 km s^-1 at the source position, assuming {\Theta}_0 = 240 km s^-1. Our result, combined with previous VLBI results for six sources in the Perseus arm, indicates that the sources rotate systematically more slowly than the Galactic rotation velocity at the local standard of rest. In fact, we derive peculiar motions in the disk averaged over the seven sources in the Perseus arm of (U_mean, V_mean) = (11 +/- 3, -17 +/- 3) km s^-1, which indicates that these seven sources are moving systematically toward the Galactic Center and lag behind the overall Galactic rotation.
Astrometry of Star Forming Region IRAS 05137+3919 in the far outer Galaxy
Mareki Honma,Tomoya Hirota,Yukitoshi Kan-ya,Noriyuki Kawaguchi,Hideyuki Kobayashi,Tomoharu Kurayama,Katsuhisa Sato
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1093/pasj/63.1.17
Abstract: We present the results of astrometric observations with VERA toward the H2O maser sources in IRAS 05137+3919, which is thought to be located in the far outer Galaxy. We have derived the parallax of \pi = 0.086 +/- 0.027 mas, which corresponds to the source distance of D=11.6+5.3-2.8 kpc. Although the parallax measurement is only 3-sigma level and thus the distance uncertainty is considerably large, we can strongly constrain the minimum distance to this source, locating the source at the distance from the Sun greater than 8.3 kpc (or 16.7 kpc from the Galaxy's center) at 90% confidence level. Our results provide an astrometric confirmation that this source is located in the far outer Galaxy beyond 15 kpc from the Galaxy center, indicating that IRAS 05137+3919 is one of the most distant star-forming regions from the Galaxy center.
Annual Parallax Measurements of an Infrared Dark Cloud MSXDC G034.43+00.24 with VERA
Tomoharu Kurayama,Akiharu Nakagawa,Satoko Sawada-Satoh,Katsuhisa Sato,Mareki Honma,Kazuyoshi Sunada,Tomoya Hirota,Hiroshi Imai
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1093/pasj/63.3.513
Abstract: We have measured the annual parallax of the H2O maser source associated with an infrared dark cloud MSXDC G034.43+00.24 from the observations with VERA (VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry). The parallax is 0.643 +/- 0.049 mas, corresponding to the distance of 1.56 +0.12/-0.11 kpc. This value is less than the half of the previous kinematic distance of 3.7 kpc. We revise the core mass estimates of MSXDC G034.43+00.24, based on virial masses, LTE masses and dust masses and show that the core masses decrease from the previous estimations of ~1000 Mo to hundreds of Mo. The spectral type derived from the luminosity also changes from O9.5 to B1 in the case of MM1. This spectral type is still consistent with that of the massive star. The radial velocity derived from the flat rotation model is smaller than the observed velocity, which corresponds to the peculiar motion of ~40 km/s in the line-of-sight direction.
Outer Rotation Curve of the Galaxy with VERA III: Astrometry of IRAS 07427-2400 and Test of the Density-Wave Theory
Nobuyuki Sakai,Hiroyuki Nakanishi,Mitsuhiro Matsuo,Nagito Koide,Daisuke Tezuka,Tomoharu Kurayama,Katsunori M. Shibata,Yuji Ueno,Mareki Honma
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: We report the trigonometric parallax of IRAS 07427-2400 with VERA to be 0.185 $\pm$ 0.027 mas, corresponding to a distance of 5.41$^{+0.92}_{-0.69}$ kpc. The result is consistent with the previous result of 5.32$^{+0.49}_{-0.42}$ kpc obtained by Choi et al. (2014) within error. To remove the effect of internal maser motions (e.g., random motions), we observed six maser features associated with IRAS 07427-2400 and determined systematic proper motions of the source by averaging proper motions of the six maser features. The obtained proper motions are ($\mu_{\alpha}$cos$\delta$, $\mu_{\delta}$) = ($-$1.79 $\pm$ 0.32, 2.60 $\pm$ 0.17) mas yr$^{-1}$ in equatorial coordinates, while Choi et al. (2014) showed ($\mu_{\alpha}$cos$\delta$, $\mu_{\delta}$) = ($-$2.43 $\pm$ 0.02, 2.49 $\pm$ 0.09) mas yr$^{-1}$ with one maser feature. Our astrometry results place the source in the Perseus arm, the nearest main arm in the Milky Way. Using our result with previous astrometry results obtained from observations of the Perseus arm, we conducted direct (quantitative) comparisons between 27 astrometry results and an analytic gas dynamics model based on the density-wave theory and obtained two results. First is the pitch angle of the Perseus arm determined by VLBI astrometry, 11.1 $\pm$ 1.4 deg, differing from what is determined by the spiral potential model (probably traced by stars), $\sim$ 20 deg. The second is an offset between a dense gas region and the bottom of the spiral potential model. The dense gas region traced by VLBI astrometry is located downstream of the spiral potential model, which was previously confirmed in the nearby grand-design spiral galaxy M51 in Egusa et al. (2011).
VLBI Observation of Microquasar Cyg X-3 during an X-ray State Transition from Soft to Hard in the 2007 May-June Flare
Jeong-Sook Kim,Soon-Wook Kim,Tomoharu Kurayama,Mareki Honma,Tetsuo Sasao,Sang Joon Kim
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/772/1/41
Abstract: We present a radio observation of microquasar Cyg X-3 during an X-ray state transition from ultrasoft to hard state in the 2007 May$-$June flare using the VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry (VERA) at 22 GHz. During the transition, a short-lived mini-flare of ${\lesssim}3$ hr was detected prior to the major flare. In such a transition, a jet ejection is believed to occur, but there have been no direct observations to support it. An analysis of Gaussian fits to the observed visibility amplitudes shows a time variation of the source axis, or a structural change, during the mini-flare. Our model fits, together with other multiwavelength observations in the radio, soft, and hard X-rays, and the shock-in-jet models for other flaring activities at GHz wavebands, suggest a high possibility of synchrotron flares during the mini-flare, indicative of a predominant contribution from jet activity. Therefore, the mini-flare with an associated structural change is indicative of a jet ejection event in the state transition from ultrasoft to hard state.
Outer Rotation Curve of the Galaxy with VERA II: Annual Parallax and Proper Motion of the Star-Forming Region IRAS21379+5106
Hiroyuki Nakanishi,Nobuyuki Sakai,Tomoharu Kurayama,Mitsuhiro Matsuo,Hiroshi Imai,Ross A. Burns,Takeaki Ozawa,Mareki Honma,Katsunori Shibata,Noriyuki Kawaguchi
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1093/pasj/psv012
Abstract: We conducted astrometric VLBI observations of water-vapor maser emission in the massive star forming region IRAS 21379+5106 to measure the annual parallax and proper motion, using VERA. The annual parallax was measured to be $0.262 \pm 0.031$ mas corresponding to a trigonometric distance of $3.82^{+0.51}_{-0.41}$ kpc. The proper motion was $(\mu_\alpha\cos{\delta}, \mu_\delta)=(-2.74 \pm 0.08, -2.87 \pm 0.18)$ mas yr$^{-1}$. Using this result, the Galactic rotational velocity was estimated to be $V_\theta=218\pm 19$ km s$^{-1}$ at the Galactocentric distance $R=9.22\pm0.43$ kpc, when we adopted the Galactic constants $R_0=8.05\pm 0.45$ kpc and $V_0=238\pm 14$ km s$^{-1}$. With newly determined distance, {the bolometric luminosity of the central young stellar object was re-evaluated to $(2.15\pm 0.54)\times 10^3 L_\odot$, which corresponds to spectral type of} B2--B3. Maser features were found to be distributed along a straight line from south-west to north-east. In addition, a vector map of the internal motions constructed from the residual proper motions implies that maser features trace a bipolar flow and that it cannot be explained by simple ballistic motion.
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