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Bile Duct Strictures Caused by Solid Masses: MR in Differential Diagnosis and as a Prognostic Tool to Plan the Endoscopic Treatment
Tomasz Gorycki,Micha? Studniarek
Gastroenterology Research and Practice , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/729279
Abstract: The aim of the study was to assess how realiable is differential diagnosis and prognosis for endoscopic treatment with MR signal characteristics as the qualitative parameter and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) images in cases of bile duct obstructions caused by solid masses. Material and Methods. Retrospective study of MR and MRCP images in 80 patients (mean age 58?ys) was conducted. Mean signal intensity ratio (SIR) from planar MR images and MRCP linear measurements were compared between benign and malignant lesions and in groups including the size and number of stents placed during ERCP?(<?10?F?<) in 51 cases in which ERCP was performed. Results. Significantly higher SIR values were encountered in malignant lesions in T2W images ( ) and STIR T2W images ( ). Malignant lesions were characterised by longer strictures ( ) and greater proximal biliary duct dilatation ( ). High significance for predicting ERCP conditions was found with mean SIR in STIR T2W images and stricture length. Conclusion. Probability of malignancy of solid lesions obstructing biliary duct increased with higher SIR in T2W images and with longer strictures. Passing the stricture during ERCP treatment was easier and more probable in cases of shorter strictures caused by lesions with higher SIR in STIR T2W images. 1. Introduction There is an increase of number of patients undergoing magnetic resonance (MR) prior to endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) [1, 2]. MR with magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) offers wide range of qualitative and quantitative parameters characterising solid lesions resulting in biliary strictures allowing for better planning of intervention methods to reduce number of complications [1, 2]. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays an important role in evaluation of hepatobiliary system in all hepatic, suprapancreatic, and pancreatic segments. In many comparative imaging studies MRI shows similar or even higher diagnostic accuracy in focal hepatic lesions detection than multidetector computed tomography (MDCT, CT) [3–5]. When surroundings of the biliary tree in hepatic segment are concerned, MRI appears to have higher ability of precise characterization of observed hepatic lesions [3–5]. Also in the imaging of the pancreatic region of biliary duct MRI is significantly superior to CT in both detecting and excluding malignant conditions [4]. Conventional T1-weighted and T2-weighted images allow the evaluation of extraductal soft tissues with increasing diagnostic accuracy by demonstrating the extension of masses
-FLT PET/CT in Patients with Gastric Carcinoma
Bogdan Ma?kowski,Tomasz Staniuk,Ewa ?rutek,Tomasz Gorycki,Wojciech Zegarski,Micha? Studniarek
Gastroenterology Research and Practice , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/696423
Abstract: The aim of the study was to evaluate the usefulness of 18F-FLT PET/CT in the detection and differentiation of gastric cancers (GC). 104 consecutive patients (57 cases of adenocarcinoma tubulare (G2 and G3), 17 cases of mucinous adenocarcinoma, 6 cases of undifferentiated carcinoma, 14 cases of adenocarcinoma partim mucocellulare, and 10 cases of end stage gastric cancer) with newly diagnosed advanced gastric cancer were examined with FLT PET/CT. For quantitative and comparative analyses, the maximal standardized uptake value ( ) was calculated for both the tumors and noninvaded gastric wall. Results. There were found, in the group of adenocarcinoma tubulare, 1.5–23.1 ( ), in mucinous adenocarcinoma, 2.3–10.3 ( ), in undifferentiated carcinoma, 3.1–13.6 ( ), in adenocarcinoma partim mucocellulare, 2–25.3 ( ), and, in normal gastric wall, 1.01–2.55 ( ). For the level of 2.6 cut-off value between the normal wall and neoplasm FLT uptake from ROC analysis, all but five gastric cancers showed higher accumulation of FLT than noninfiltrated mucosa. Conclusion. Gastric cancer presents higher accumulation of 18F-FLT than normal, distended gastric mucosa. Significantly higher accumulation was shown in cancers better differentiated and with higher cellular density. 1. Introduction Gastric cancer (GC) is an aggressive neoplasm with very poor prognosis. In Poland, in 2010, a number of 5364 people died (3486 men and 1878 women) due to gastric cancer. During the last 4 decades, both morbidity and mortality have dropped significantly in Poland from the 1st place at the beginning of the 1970s to the 4th most common cancer related death in men and the 7th in females [1]. The treatment of choice for GC is complete tumor resection. Early detection and surgery have improved the results of treatment. However, many patients are still diagnosed with advanced-stage disease. Accurate determination of local invasion, tumor size and location, lymph node involvement, and distant metastases is of great importance in the qualification of patients to adequate treatment. Detection of early-stage GC by 18F-FDG PET is not successful, as FDG uptake is strongly related to tumor size, location, and histopathology, for example, a content of mucus [2, 3]. In 1998, 18F-FLT (FLT)—a new radiotracer with the potential ability to be captured by fast proliferating cells—was reported [4]. The authors found that FLT is accumulated in proliferating tissues by the action of thymidine kinase and is resistant to degradation. In PET, it produces high-contrast images of normal marrow and tumors in human.
How to Measure in the Near Field and in the Far Field  [PDF]
Tomasz Dlugosz, Hubert Trzaska
Communications and Network (CN) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/cn.2010.21010
Abstract: A background of the electromagnetic field (EMF) measurements is presented in the work. A special attention is given to the specificity of the measurements performed in the Near Field. Factors, that should be taken into consideration as during the measurements as well during their analysis, are discussed. Without their understanding and considering a comparison of the measurements’ results, meters’ calibration and EMF standards comparison between different centers is impossible.
Rehabilitation of an Existing Office Block  [PDF]
Tomasz Blaszczynski, Jacek Wdowicki
Engineering (ENG) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2011.39107
Abstract: A new owner wishes to refurbish the analysed building assembled in 70’s to modern intelligent office block and to develop up to 3000 m2 of a new part. The old office building has been in use until late 80’s. First two floors are made as a monolithic and the rest are prefabricated as RC frame with the shear walls in both directions. All aspects, which came from the coexistence of an old and new part of the office block, will be the scope of an article. The BW for Windows program has been used for computations. In our paper models of shear wall structures in the modernised part as well as the new adjacent part have been shown. The short period of time necessary to obtain the results of the analysis has allowed for a fully interactive structural design. Many analyses have been created to estimate structural space stiffness for existing and new part of the building. Analysis showed, that existing part deflections were 7 times less then permissible one and after concrete grade of a new part has been changed, deflections for both parts were almost the same.
Why Do the Main Sequence Stars Have Similar Chemical Composition?  [PDF]
Stanislaw Halas, Tomasz Durakiewicz
International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics (IJAA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ijaa.2012.21006
Abstract: In this short note we have reconsidered the Jeans criterion for gravitational contraction of a gas nebula at different temperatures, from the present-day background radiation temperature (2.8 K) to those which existed at the early stage of the Universe. We demonstrate that the initial mass of quasars cannot be of the order of single galaxy masses, but rather 106 solar mass only. If they have larger masses, it must be the result of subsequent accretion process. Nevertheless quasars, formed prior to the stars, were the immediate source of the elements heavier than helium.
The Biomechanical Aetiology of the So-Called Idiopathic Scoliosis. The Role of Gait and Standing at “Ease” on the Right Leg in the Development of the Deformity  [PDF]
Tomasz Karski, Jacek Karski
Surgical Science (SS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2014.52008

The article presents the biomechanical etiology of the so-called idiopathic scoliosis. The research was conducted in the years 1985-2013, but the importance of the observations connected with the so-called idiopathic scoliosis were completed in 2007 (4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9). All types of spine deformity are proved to have a connection with gait and with standing at ease on the right leg. Every type of scoliosis begins to develop at the age of 2 - 3. The article provides short information about new screening tests and new exercises in the course of causal prophylaxis and treatment.

What More is Folk Psychology?
Tomasz Grzegorek , Tomasz Grzegorek
Studia Psychologiczne , 2011, DOI: 10.2478/v10167-011-0004-9
Abstract: Oridinary describing and explaining of everyday behavior became an object of systematic psychological study in the late-40s. The results create a picture of folk psychology as a primitive version of scientific psychology, kind of "naive" theory which is rather false. The picture represents folk psychology only as a speculative artefact, but there is also another notion of folk psychology as a basic conceptual schema which organizes experience. The specific scientific approach to folk psychology is described, some arguments against the view of folk psychology as a theory are pointed and the alternative notion of folk psychology is demonstrated in this article.
Steinhaus' lattice-point problem for Banach spaces
Tomasz Kania,Tomasz Kochanek
Mathematics , 2013,
Abstract: Steinhaus proved that given a~positive integer $n$, one may find a circle surrounding exactly $n$ points of the integer lattice. This statement has been recently extended to Hilbert spaces by Zwole\'{n}ski, who replaced the integer lattice by any infinite set that intersects every ball in at most finitely many points. We investigate Banach spaces satisfying this property, which we call (S), and characterise them by means of a~new geometric property of the unit sphere which allows us to show, e.g., that all strictly convex norms have (S), nonetheless, there are plenty of non-strictly convex norms satisfying (S). We also study the corresponding renorming problem.
Uncountable sets of unit vectors that are separated by more than 1
Tomasz Kania,Tomasz Kochanek
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: Let $X$ be a Banach space. We study the circumstances under which there exists an uncountable set $\mathcal A\subset X$ of unit vectors such that $\|x-y\|>1$ for distinct $x,y\in \mathcal A$. We prove that such a set exists if $X$ is quasi-reflexive and non-separable; if $X$ is additionally super-reflexive then one can have $\|x-y\|\geqslant 1+\varepsilon$ for some $\varepsilon>0$ that depends only on $X$. If $K$ is a non-metrisable compact, Hausdorff space, then the unit sphere of $X=C(K)$ also contains such a subset; if moreover $K$ is perfectly normal, then one can find such a set with cardinality equal to the density of $X$; this solves a problem left open by S. K. Mercourakis and G. Vassiliadis.
The ideal of weakly compactly generated operators acting on a Banach space
Tomasz Kania,Tomasz Kochanek
Mathematics , 2012, DOI: 10.7900/jot.2012jun23.1959
Abstract: We call a bounded linear operator acting between Banach spaces weakly compactly generated ($\mathsf{WCG}$ for short) if its range is contained in a weakly compactly generated subspace of its codomain. This notion simultaneously generalises being weakly compact and having separable range. In a comprehensive study of the class of $\mathsf{WCG}$ operators, we prove that it forms a closed surjective operator ideal and investigate its relations to other classical operator ideals. By considering the $p$th long James space $\mathcal{J}_p(\omega_1)$, we show how properties of the ideal of $\mathsf{WCG}$ operators (such as being the unique maximal ideal) may be used to derive results outside ideal theory. For instance, we identify the $K_0$-group of $\mathscr{B}(\mathcal{J}_p(\omega_1))$ as the additive group of integers.
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