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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3508 matches for " Tobias Hoch "
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Snack food intake in ad libitum fed rats is triggered by the combination of fat and carbohydrates
Tobias Hoch,Monika Pischetsrieder,Andreas Hess
Frontiers in Psychology , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00250
Abstract: Snack food like potato chips substantially contributes to energy intake in humans. In contrast to basic food, snacks are consumed additionally to other meals and may thereby lead to non-homeostatic energy intake. Snack food is also frequently associated with hedonic hyperphagia, a food intake independent from hunger. Analysis of brain activity patterns by manganese-enhanced MRI has previously revealed that the intake of potato chips in ad libitum fed rats strongly activates the reward system of the rat brain, which may lead to hedonic hyperphagia. The purpose of the present study was to develop a two-choice preference test to identify molecular determinants of snack food triggering extra food intake in ad libitum fed rats. Different kinds of test food were presented three times a day for 10 min each time. To minimize the influence of organoleptic properties, each test food was applied in a homogenous mixture with standard chow. Food intake as well as food intake-related locomotor activity were analyzed to evaluate the effects induced by the test foods in the two-choice preference test. In summary, fat (F), carbohydrates (CH), and a mixture of fat and carbohydrates (FCH) led to a higher food intake compared to standard chow. Notably, potato chip test food (PC) was highly significantly preferred over standard chow (STD) and also over their single main macronutrients F and CH. Only FCH induced an intake comparable to PC. Despite its low energy density, fat-free potato chip test food (ffPC) was also significantly preferred over STD and CH, but not over F, FCH, and PC. Thus, it can be concluded that the combination of fat and carbohydrates is a major molecular determinant of potato chips triggering hedonic hyperphagia. The applied two-choice preference test will facilitate future studies on stimulating and suppressive effects of other food components on non-homeostatic food intake.
Manganese-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Mapping of Whole Brain Activity Patterns Associated with the Intake of Snack Food in Ad Libitum Fed Rats
Tobias Hoch, Silke Kreitz, Simone Gaffling, Monika Pischetsrieder, Andreas Hess
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0055354
Abstract: Non-homeostatic hyperphagia, which is a major contributor to obesity-related hyperalimentation, is associated with the diet’s molecular composition influencing, for example, the energy content. Thus, specific food items such as snack food may induce food intake independent from the state of satiety. To elucidate mechanisms how snack food may induce non-homeostatic food intake, it was tested if manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) was suitable for mapping the whole brain activity related to standard and snack food intake under normal behavioral situation. Application of the MnCl2 solution by osmotic pumps ensured that food intake was not significantly affected by the treatment. After z-score normalization and a non-affine three-dimensional registration to a rat brain atlas, significantly different grey values of 80 predefined brain structures were recorded in ad libitum fed rats after the intake of potato chips compared to standard chow at the group level. Ten of these areas had previously been connected to food intake, in particular to hyperphagia (e.g. dorsomedial hypothalamus or the anterior paraventricular thalamic nucleus) or to the satiety system (e.g. arcuate hypothalamic nucleus or solitary tract); 27 areas were related to reward/addiction including the core and shell of the nucleus accumbens, the ventral pallidum and the ventral striatum (caudate and putamen). Eleven areas associated to sleep displayed significantly reduced Mn2+-accumulation and six areas related to locomotor activity showed significantly increased Mn2+-accumulation after the intake of potato chips. The latter changes were associated with an observed significantly higher locomotor activity. Osmotic pump-assisted MEMRI proved to be a promising technique for functional mapping of whole brain activity patterns associated to nutritional intake under normal behavior.
The Hawaiian cave planthoppers (Homoptera: Fulgoroidea: Cixiidae) - A model for rapid subterranean speciation?
Hannelore Hoch
International Journal of Speleology , 1997,
Abstract: After the successful colonization of a single ancestral species in the Hawaiian Islands, planthoppers of the cixiid genus Oliarus underwent intensive adaptive radiation resulting in 80 described endemic species. Oliarus habitats range from montaneous rain forests to dry coastal biotopes and subterranean environments. At least 7 independant evolutionary lines represented by different species have adapted to lava tubes on Molokai (1), Maui (3), and Hawaii Island (3). Behavioral and morphological studies on one of these evolutionary lines on Hawaii Island, the blind, flight- and pigmentless Oliarus polyphentus have provided evidence for reproductive isolation between allopatric populations which may in fact be separate species. Significant differences in song parameters were observed even between populations from neighbouring lava tubes, although the planthoppers are capable of underground migration through the voids and cracks of the mesocavernous rock system which is extant in young basalt: after a little more than 20 years, lava tubes within the Mauna Ulu 1974 flow had been colonized by O. ‘polyphenius” individuals, most probably originating from a near-by forestkipuka. Amazingly, this species complex is found on the youngest of the Hawaiian Islands, with probably less than 0.5 m.y., which suggests rapid speciation processes. Field observations have led to the development of a hypothesis to match underground speciation with the dynamics of vegetational succession on the surface of active volcanoes. Planthopper range partitioning and geographic separation of populations by young lava flows, founder events and small population size may be important factors involved in rapid divergence.
Ichthyotherapy as Alternative Treatment for Patients with Psoriasis: A Pilot Study
Martin Grassberger,W. Hoch
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2006, DOI: 10.1093/ecam/nel033
Abstract: Ichthyotherapy (therapy with the so-called ‘Doctorfish of Kangal’, Garra rufa) has been shown to be effective in patients with psoriasis in the Kangal hot springs in Turkey. This study evaluates the efficacy and safety of ichthyotherapy in combination with short-term ultraviolet A sunbed radiation in the treatment of psoriasis under controlled conditions. We retrospectively analyzed 67 patients diagnosed with psoriasis who underwent 3 weeks of ichthyotherapy at an outpatient treatment facility in Lower Austria between 2002 and 2004. Main outcome measures are as follows: overall relative reduction in Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI) score; proportion of patients with an improvement in their PASI score of ≥75% (PASI-75) and ≥50% (PASI-50); patient-reported outcomes assessed with a custom questionnaire; and patient follow-up with a questionnaire sent out in March 2005. Safety was evaluated by reviewing adverse events and vital signs. Overall there was a 71.7% reduction in PASI score compared to baseline (P < 0.0001). Of the 67 patients studied, 31 (46.3%) achieved PASI-75 and 61 patients (91%) achieved at least PASI-50. Patients reported substantial satisfaction with the treatment. The reported mean remission period was 8.58 months [95% confidence interval (CI) 6.05–11.11]. A total of 87.5% of patients reported a more favorable outcome with ichthyotherapy, when asked to compare ichthyotherapy to other previously tried therapies. Sixty-five percent stated that after the relapse their symptoms were less severe than before treatment. There were no significant adverse events. The benefit demonstrated in this study along with the favorable safety profile suggests that ichthyotherapy could provide a viable treatment option for patients with psoriasis.
What I've Learned from E-Patients
Dan Hoch ,Tom Ferguson
PLOS Medicine , 2005, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0020206
Abstract:
What I've learned from E-patients.
Hoch Dan,Ferguson Tom
PLOS Medicine , 2005,
Abstract:
O sagrado na política [resenha]
Lothar Carlos Hoch
Caminhando , 2010,
Abstract: Book Review of ROSA, Ronaldo Sathler. O Sagrado da Política. A dimens o esquecida na prática crist . S o Paulo: Fonte Editorial, 2010. 122 p. ISBN 978-85-86671-29-6 [Translation of the title: The Sacred in Politics: a forgotten dimension of Christian praxis]
An Action Principle for the Masses of Dirac Particles
Felix Finster,Stefan Hoch
Physics , 2007, DOI: 10.4310/ATMP.2009.v13.n6.a2
Abstract: A variational principle is introduced which minimizes an action formulated for configurations of vacuum Dirac seas. The action is analyzed in position and momentum space. We relate the corresponding Euler-Lagrange equations to the notion of state stability. Examples of numerical minimizers are constructed and discussed.
E-Commerce Business Models and Search Engine Dependency  [PDF]
Tobias Klatt
iBusiness (IB) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ib.2013.53B041
Abstract:

E-Commerce business models attracted a great deal of attention in the last years. An increasing number of bargains are realized via online transactions. However, some business models suffer distinctly under changes of search engine algorithms while others experience continuous stable traffic. This paper sheds light on the drivers of the unpunished e-commerce businesses based on a case-by-case analysis of 43 business models in the German Internet market. The analysis reveals that more stable business models are characterized by diversified customer arrivals which are obtained by a focused product management, multiple marketing channeling, freemium registration strategies and a subtle way to attract customer trust.

The Generalized wH Value  [PDF]
Tobias Hiller
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2014.43034
Abstract:

In this note, we generalize the wHSh value [1] [2] for CO values.

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