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Hospital Delivery Room versus Outdoor Birthing Place: Differences in Airborne Microorganisms and Their Impact on the Infant  [PDF]
Tobias C. Olofsson, Alejandra Vàsquez
Open Journal of Medical Microbiology (OJMM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojmm.2013.31005
Abstract:

The incidence of allergic airway diseases continues to increase in industrial countries while remaining much more stable in developing countries. Allergens inhaled are eventually also swallowed and evidently the gastrointestinal immune system has a role in regulating allergic responses in the pulmonary as well as the GI system. While some studies have pointed out the role of probiotic bacteria as a supplementary protection against the early development of various allergies, little attention has been paid to the composition of the airborne microflora first and continuosly inhaled by newborns and infants. This study compares the composition of two airborne microbial communities, one from hospital delivery rooms and the other from a nature reserve, evidently in use as a birthing place as early as 7500 B.C. around the air from the outdoor birthing place was marked by a far greater variation in microbial composition and a much higher representation of fungi than the air from the hospitals. The dominant bacterial species from the delivery rooms were Staphylococcus areus and Micrococcus luteus, originating from the staff and the hospital environment; the outdoor flora, however, was dominated by Pseudomonas spp. and Bacillus spp. In addition, 56% of all the bacterial isolates from the delivery rooms were most closely related to strains previously associated with clinical infections, whereas only 15% of isolates in the outdoor bacterial sample had such relationships. The role of airborne microorganisms could be important to infants with developing immune systems considering the microbial bias of hospital air presented in this study.

Symbionts as Major Modulators of Insect Health: Lactic Acid Bacteria and Honeybees
Alejandra Vásquez, Eva Forsgren, Ingemar Fries, Robert J. Paxton, Emilie Flaberg, Laszlo Szekely, Tobias C. Olofsson
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0033188
Abstract: Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are well recognized beneficial host-associated members of the microbiota of humans and animals. Yet LAB-associations of invertebrates have been poorly characterized and their functions remain obscure. Here we show that honeybees possess an abundant, diverse and ancient LAB microbiota in their honey crop with beneficial effects for bee health, defending them against microbial threats. Our studies of LAB in all extant honeybee species plus related apid bees reveal one of the largest collections of novel species from the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium ever discovered within a single insect and suggest a long (>80 mya) history of association. Bee associated microbiotas highlight Lactobacillus kunkeei as the dominant LAB member. Those showing potent antimicrobial properties are acquired by callow honey bee workers from nestmates and maintained within the crop in biofilms, though beekeeping management practices can negatively impact this microbiota. Prophylactic practices that enhance LAB, or supplementary feeding of LAB, may serve in integrated approaches to sustainable pollinator service provision. We anticipate this microbiota will become central to studies on honeybee health, including colony collapse disorder, and act as an exemplar case of insect-microbe symbiosis.
Monitoring human papillomavirus prevalence in urine samples: a review
Enerly E, Olofsson C, Nyg rd M
Clinical Epidemiology , 2013, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CLEP.S39799
Abstract: nitoring human papillomavirus prevalence in urine samples: a review Review (636) Total Article Views Authors: Enerly E, Olofsson C, Nyg rd M Published Date March 2013 Volume 2013:5 Pages 67 - 79 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CLEP.S39799 Received: 31 October 2012 Accepted: 28 December 2012 Published: 12 March 2013 Espen Enerly, Cecilia Olofsson, Mari Nyg rd Department of Research, Cancer Registry of Norway, Oslo, Norway Abstract: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the main cause of cervical cancer, and many countries now offer vaccination against HPV to girls by way of government-funded national immunization programs. Monitoring HPV prevalence in adolescents could offer a near-term biological measure of vaccine impact, and urine sampling may be an attractive large-scale method that could be used for this purpose. Our objective was to provide an overview of the literature on HPV DNA detection in urine samples, with an emphasis on adolescents. We searched the PubMed database using the terms “HPV” and “urine” and identified 21 female and 14 male study populations in which HPV prevalence in urine samples was reported, four of which included only asymptomatic female adolescents. We provide herein an overview of the recruitment setting, age, urine sampling procedure, lesion type, HPV assay, and HPV prevalence in urine samples and other urogenital samples for the studies included in this review. In female study populations, concordance for any HPV type and type-specific concordance in paired urine and cervical samples are provided in addition to sensitivity and specificity. We concluded that few studies on HPV prevalence in urine samples have been performed in asymptomatic female adolescent populations but that urine samples may be a useful alternative to cervical samples to monitor changes in HPV prevalence in females in the post-HPV vaccination era. However, care should be taken when extrapolating HPV findings from urine samples to the cervix. In males, urine samples do not seem to be optimal for monitoring HPV prevalence due to a low human genomic DNA content and HPV DNA detection rate compared to other urogenital sites. In each situation the costs and benefits of HPV DNA detection in urine compared to alternative monitoring options should be carefully considered.
Monitoring human papillomavirus prevalence in urine samples: a review
Enerly E,Olofsson C,Nygård M
Clinical Epidemiology , 2013,
Abstract: Espen Enerly, Cecilia Olofsson, Mari Nyg rdDepartment of Research, Cancer Registry of Norway, Oslo, NorwayAbstract: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the main cause of cervical cancer, and many countries now offer vaccination against HPV to girls by way of government-funded national immunization programs. Monitoring HPV prevalence in adolescents could offer a near-term biological measure of vaccine impact, and urine sampling may be an attractive large-scale method that could be used for this purpose. Our objective was to provide an overview of the literature on HPV DNA detection in urine samples, with an emphasis on adolescents. We searched the PubMed database using the terms “HPV” and “urine” and identified 21 female and 14 male study populations in which HPV prevalence in urine samples was reported, four of which included only asymptomatic female adolescents. We provide herein an overview of the recruitment setting, age, urine sampling procedure, lesion type, HPV assay, and HPV prevalence in urine samples and other urogenital samples for the studies included in this review. In female study populations, concordance for any HPV type and type-specific concordance in paired urine and cervical samples are provided in addition to sensitivity and specificity. We concluded that few studies on HPV prevalence in urine samples have been performed in asymptomatic female adolescent populations but that urine samples may be a useful alternative to cervical samples to monitor changes in HPV prevalence in females in the post-HPV vaccination era. However, care should be taken when extrapolating HPV findings from urine samples to the cervix. In males, urine samples do not seem to be optimal for monitoring HPV prevalence due to a low human genomic DNA content and HPV DNA detection rate compared to other urogenital sites. In each situation the costs and benefits of HPV DNA detection in urine compared to alternative monitoring options should be carefully considered.Keywords: cervical cancer, HPV, surveillance, vaccination, virology, cervix
Negotiating figurations for feminist methodologies - a manifest for the fl@neur
Jennie Olofsson
Graduate Journal of Social Science , 2008,
Abstract:
Local Riemann Hypothesis for complex numbers
Rikard Olofsson
Mathematics , 2006,
Abstract: In this paper a special class of local zeta functions is studied. The main theorem states that the functions have all zeros on the line Re (s)=1/2. This is a natural generalization of the result of Bump and Ng stating that the zeros of the Mellin transform of Hermite functions have Re (s)=1/2.
A computation of Poisson kernels for some standard weighted biharmonic operators in the unit disc
Anders Olofsson
Mathematics , 2007,
Abstract: We compute Poisson kernels for integer weight parameter standard weighted biharmonic operators in the unit disc with Dirichlet boundary conditions. The computations performed extend the supply of explicit examples of such kernels and suggest similar formulas for these Poisson kernels to hold true in more generality. Computations have been carried out using the open source computer algebra package Maxima.
Large supremum norms and small Shannon entropy for Hecke eigenfunctions of quantized cat maps
Rikard Olofsson
Mathematics , 2007, DOI: 10.1007/s00220-008-0627-x
Abstract: This paper concerns the behavior of eigenfunctions of quantized cat maps and in particular their supremum norm. We observe that for composite integer values of N, the inverse of Planck's constant, some of the desymmetrized eigenfunctions have very small support and hence very large supremum norm. We also prove an entropy estimate and show that our functions satisfy equality in this estimate. In the case when N is a prime power with even exponent we calculate the supremum norm for a large proportion of all desymmetrized eigenfunctions and we find that for a given N there is essentially at most four different values these assume.
A Brownian optimal switching problem under incomplete information
Marcus Olofsson
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: In this paper we study an incomplete information optimal switching problem in which the manager only has access to noisy observations of the underlying Brownian motion $\{W_t\}_{t \geq 0}$. The manager can, at a fixed cost, switch between having the production facility open or closed and must find the optimal management strategy using only the noisy observations. Using the theory of linear stochastic filtering, we reduce the incomplete information problem to a full information problem, show that the value function is non-decreasing with the amount of information available, and that the value function of the incomplete information problem converges to the value function of the corresponding full information problem as the noise in the observed process tends to $0$.
Size-biased branching population measures and the multi-type $x\log x$ condition
Peter Olofsson
Statistics , 2010, DOI: 10.3150/09-BEJ211
Abstract: We investigate the $x\log x$ condition for a general (Crump--Mode--Jagers) multi-type branching process with a general type space by constructing a size-biased population measure that relates to the ordinary population measure via an intrinsic martingale $W_t$. Sufficiency of the $x\log x$ condition for a non-degenerate limit of $W_t$ is proved and conditions for necessity are investigated.
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