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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 207479 matches for " Timothy P. Robinson "
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The Cost of Antibiotic Mass Drug Administration for Trachoma Control in a Remote Area of South Sudan
Jan H. Kolaczinski ,Emily Robinson,Timothy P. Finn
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001362
Abstract: Background Mass drug administration (MDA) of antibiotics is a key component of the so-called “SAFE” strategy for trachoma control, while MDA of anthelminthics provides the cornerstone for control of a number of other neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Simultaneous delivery of two or more of these drugs, renowned as “integrated NTD control,” is being promoted to reduce costs and expand intervention coverage. A cost analysis was conducted alongside an MDA campaign in a remote trachoma endemic area, to inform budgeting for NTD control in South Sudan. Methods and Findings A first round of antibiotic MDA was conducted in the highly trachoma endemic county of Mayom, Unity state, from June to August 2010. A core team of seven staff delivered the intervention, including recruitment and training of 44 supervisors and 542 community drug distributors. Using an ingredients approach, financial and economic costs were captured from the provider perspective in a detailed costing database. Overall, 123,760 individuals were treated for trachoma, resulting in an estimated treatment coverage of 94%. The economic cost per person treated was USD 1.53, excluding the cost of the antibiotic azithromycin. Ninety four per cent of the delivery costs were recurrent costs, with personnel and travel/transport costs taking up the largest share. Conclusions In a remote setting and for the initial round, MDA of antibiotics was considerably more expensive than USD 0.5 per person treated, an estimate frequently quoted to advocate for integrated NTD control. Drug delivery costs in South Sudan are unlikely to decrease substantially during subsequent MDA rounds, as the major cost drivers were recurrent costs. MDA campaigns for delivery of one or more drugs in South Sudan should thus be budgeted at around USD 1.5 per person treated, at least until further costing data for delivery of other NTD drugs, singly or in combination, are available.
The Global Livestock Impact Mapping System (GLIMS) as a tool for animal health applications
Gianluca Franceschini,Timothy P. Robinson,Karl Morteo,Dario Dentale
Veterinaria Italiana , 2009,
Abstract: Recent concerns expressed by various national and international organisations about global livestock sector development and its consequences on the environment and on human and animal health suggest the need to reinforce efforts to monitor and collect more accurate and detailed statistics on livestock. Modern technologies for the organisation, analysis, dissemination and presentation of data and results enhance the contribution that these statistics can make towards the planning of efficient and sustainable animal production and health interventions. To this end, the Food and Agriculture Organization Animal Production and Health Division (FAO-AGA) has developed the Global Livestock Impact Mapping System (GLIMS). GLIMS provides a repository for sub-national data pertaining to the livestock sector and produces and distributes, through various channels and formats, a number of global public products, namely: the Gridded Livestock of the World (GLW), mapping the spatial distribution of the main livestock species, the Global Livestock Production and Health Atlas (GLiPHA), disseminating sub-national geo-referenced statistics, and the AGA Livestock Sector Briefs, which are concise national reports on the livestock sector. These products have a variety of applications. The authors focus attention on applications in the field of animal health, both to increase knowledge of the occurrence of livestock diseases and to assess their impact.
Improving Risk Models for Avian Influenza: The Role of Intensive Poultry Farming and Flooded Land during the 2004 Thailand Epidemic
Thomas P. Van Boeckel, Weerapong Thanapongtharm, Timothy Robinson, Chandrashekhar M. Biradar, Xiangming Xiao, Marius Gilbert
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0049528
Abstract: Since 1996 when Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza type H5N1 first emerged in southern China, numerous studies sought risk factors and produced risk maps based on environmental and anthropogenic predictors. However little attention has been paid to the link between the level of intensification of poultry production and the risk of outbreak. This study revised H5N1 risk mapping in Central and Western Thailand during the second wave of the 2004 epidemic. Production structure was quantified using a disaggregation methodology based on the number of poultry per holding. Population densities of extensively- and intensively-raised ducks and chickens were derived both at the sub-district and at the village levels. LandSat images were used to derive another previously neglected potential predictor of HPAI H5N1 risk: the proportion of water in the landscape resulting from floods. We used Monte Carlo simulation of Boosted Regression Trees models of predictor variables to characterize the risk of HPAI H5N1. Maps of mean risk and uncertainty were derived both at the sub-district and the village levels. The overall accuracy of Boosted Regression Trees models was comparable to that of logistic regression approaches. The proportion of area flooded made the highest contribution to predicting the risk of outbreak, followed by the densities of intensively-raised ducks, extensively-raised ducks and human population. Our results showed that as little as 15% of flooded land in villages is sufficient to reach the maximum level of risk associated with this variable. The spatial pattern of predicted risk is similar to previous work: areas at risk are mainly located along the flood plain of the Chao Phraya river and to the south-east of Bangkok. Using high-resolution village-level poultry census data, rather than sub-district data, the spatial accuracy of predictions was enhanced to highlight local variations in risk. Such maps provide useful information to guide intervention.
Gender Differences in Experiencing US Daily Life  [PDF]
John P. Robinson
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2014.56068

The American Time-Use Survey (ATUS), conducted by the US Bureau of the Census for the Bureau of Labor Statistics, has been collecting data on how Americans spend their time since 2003, using the method of the daily time diary. In these diaries, survey respondents are asked to recall all of their activities across the previous 24 hours. In 2010, the ATUS began supplementing these simple activity accounts with ratings on five psychological states (sad, tired, stress, pain and happy) from a Social Well-Being (SWB) index designed to capture how these respondents feel as they engage in these daily activities. Thus, this ATUS study basically provides a continuous national monitor of Americans’ everyday subjective quality of life (QOL)—and in “real time” as personally experienced by respondents. Analysis of these 2010-12 ATUS SWB ratings from more than 12,000 Americans aged 15 and older reveal that women score significantly higher than men on all five factors, even though only one of the adjectives (happy) was in the positive direction. Thus, US women described their daily activities as more stressful, tiring, sad and painful, but at the same time also describing their activities as making them feel happier (suggesting that women see their lives as more engaging, intense or energizing). In order to control for this gender difference, a simple scale was derived from two of the items that conveyed basically the same emotional state, namely happy and sad. When these ratings on two items were paired, virtually no gender difference was found; nor were many gender differences found when they rated these feelings on the same activity. However, there were dramatic subjective differences across activities that were largely shared by both men and women, with child play, religious, volunteer and fitness activities rated near the top of enjoyment and with medical, housework and work activities nearer the bottom. These results seem generally consistent with enjoyment ratings in earlier national time-use surveys.

Mapping the Global Distribution of Livestock
Timothy P. Robinson, G. R. William Wint, Giulia Conchedda, Thomas P. Van Boeckel, Valentina Ercoli, Elisa Palamara, Giuseppina Cinardi, Laura D'Aietti, Simon I. Hay, Marius Gilbert
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0096084
Abstract: Livestock contributes directly to the livelihoods and food security of almost a billion people and affects the diet and health of many more. With estimated standing populations of 1.43 billion cattle, 1.87 billion sheep and goats, 0.98 billion pigs, and 19.60 billion chickens, reliable and accessible information on the distribution and abundance of livestock is needed for a many reasons. These include analyses of the social and economic aspects of the livestock sector; the environmental impacts of livestock such as the production and management of waste, greenhouse gas emissions and livestock-related land-use change; and large-scale public health and epidemiological investigations. The Gridded Livestock of the World (GLW) database, produced in 2007, provided modelled livestock densities of the world, adjusted to match official (FAOSTAT) national estimates for the reference year 2005, at a spatial resolution of 3 minutes of arc (about 5×5 km at the equator). Recent methodological improvements have significantly enhanced these distributions: more up-to date and detailed sub-national livestock statistics have been collected; a new, higher resolution set of predictor variables is used; and the analytical procedure has been revised and extended to include a more systematic assessment of model accuracy and the representation of uncertainties associated with the predictions. This paper describes the current approach in detail and presents new global distribution maps at 1 km resolution for cattle, pigs and chickens, and a partial distribution map for ducks. These digital layers are made publically available via the Livestock Geo-Wiki (http://www.livestock.geo-wiki.org), as will be the maps of other livestock types as they are produced.
Characterization of a Novel Mouse Model of Multiple Myeloma and Its Use in Preclinical Therapeutic Assessment
Rosemary A. Fryer, Timothy J. Graham, Emma M. Smith, Simon Walker-Samuel, Gareth J. Morgan, Simon P. Robinson, Faith E. Davies
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0057641
Abstract: To aid preclinical development of novel therapeutics for myeloma, an in vivo model which recapitulates the human condition is required. An important feature of such a model is the interaction of myeloma cells with the bone marrow microenvironment, as this interaction modulates tumour activity and protects against drug-induced apoptosis. Therefore NOD/SCIDγcnull mice were injected intra-tibially with luciferase-tagged myeloma cells. Disease progression was monitored by weekly bioluminescent imaging (BLI) and measurement of paraprotein levels. Results were compared with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histology. Assessment of model suitability for preclinical drug testing was investigated using bortezomib, melphalan and two novel agents. Cells engrafted at week 3, with a significant increase in BLI radiance occurring between weeks 5 and 7. This was accompanied by an increase in paraprotein secretion, MRI-derived tumour volume and CD138 positive cells within the bone marrow. Treatment with known anti-myeloma agents or novel agents significantly attenuated the increase in all disease markers. In addition, intra-tibial implantation of primary patient plasma cells resulted in development of myeloma within bone marrow. In conclusion, using both myeloma cell lines and primary patient cells, we have developed a model which recapitulates human myeloma by ensuring the key interaction of tumour cells with the microenvironment.
Dr. Andries Albertus Odendaal snr., evangeliedraer in ’n multi-dimensionele konteks. ’n Kort historiese oorsig en sendingkundige evaluering van sy lewe en werk (Deel II)
P Robinson
Acta Theologica , 2009,
Abstract: This is the second of two articles which briefly introduce the life and work of a so-called “local missionary” of the Dutch Reformed Church in South Africa. This second part of the article discusses Odendaal’s involvement in theological and pastoral training, as well as his continued contributions on synodical level, in particular his endeavour for church unity, his appreciation of and working in the vernacular, his appointment as Bible translator, his passion for preaching the gospel, a testing experience in his life, and the way in which he was honoured by old students and the University of the Free State. The article concludes with a short missiological assessment of Odendaal’s life and work. Article is in Afrikaans
Die “Evangeliese Sending” 2010 – uitgedien of relevant?
P Robinson
Acta Theologica , 2011,
Abstract: The ‘Evangelical Mission’ 2010: Obsolete or Relevant? The Evangelical Mission (EM) dates its official history back to 1846 with the establishment of the Evangelical Alliance with as common goal ‘to promote unity and fellowship among Christians for more effective witness to the gospel’ and ‘to foster interpersonal relationships of common faith, trust and prayer’. This they achieved by several general mission conferences: Liverpool 1860, London 1888, and New York 1900. Several youth organisations, like SVM and YMCA and some Churches received membership. Nevertheless the EA was always less keen on their structural expression of unity. The movement invested high hopes on the International Mission Conference at Edinburgh 1910 to accelerate its goal of world evangelisation. Several factors lead to dissatisfaction with the outcomes and later developments regarding church-based mission. Eventually the EA group withdrew from the churches’ ecumenical movement. A process of re-grouping and re-defining of its identity followed, leading to the watershed Lausanne Conference 1974 and its subsequent structures and projects. The movement presents itself energetically to the 21st century in Cape Town during its Edinburgh 2010 Conference. Article text in Afrikaans
Dr. Andries Albertus Odendaal snr., evangeliedraer in ’n multi-dimensionele konteks. ’n Kort historiese oorsig en sendingkundige evaluering van sy lewe en werk (Deel I)
P Robinson
Acta Theologica , 2009,
Abstract: The events in Parts 1 and 2 of this article cover the period from July 1917 to April 2004. Part 1 briefly introduces the life and work of a so-called “local missionary” of the Dutch Reformed Church in South Africa. The advantage of such an autobiographical approach is that it unlocks valuable information, which would otherwise be passed unnoticed, leaving an incomplete if not skewed portrayal of some developments in the past. Part 1 discusses the following aspects: The hardships of life on a small farm in South Africa during the 1920s and 1930s; the difficulty in obtaining thorough school education; the demands of training as a DRC missionary; challenges of running a so-called “mission congregation” within the same geographical borders as the sending church or churches; language acquisition in multi-language situations, and the lonely road of improving academic qualifications. Article is in Afrikaans
Instability of Money Demand: Recent Evidence for Thailand  [PDF]
Komain Jiranyakul, Timothy P. Opiela
Modern Economy (ME) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/me.2014.58083

This study examines the short-run and long-run stability properties of money demand in Thailand using the monetary aggregates M1, M2 and M3, for the period from 1993Q1 to 2012Q4. We use the dynamic OLS specification of Stock and Watson (1993) and Ball (2001), and the estimation technique of the Johansen cointegration test to determine the stability of money demand. The results from the Johansen cointegration test reveal that there is only a long-run relationship between M1 money demand and real GDP (a proxy for real income) and interest rate. In the short run, only a change in real GDP affects M1 money holdings. In the long-run both real GDP and an interest rate determine money demand. The short-run instability of M1 money demand makes it difficult for the monetary authorities to use M1 as an intermediate target to control intermediate-run and long-run inflation.

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