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OALib Journal期刊

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Physicochemical and Microbiological Quality of Springs in Kyambogo University Propinquity  [PDF]
Timothy Omara, Winfred Nassazi, Monica Adokorach, Sarah Kagoya
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105100
Abstract:
The availability of usable water in an area is the first indication of its demonstrated ability to sustain life. In peri-urban areas, urbanites utilize water from springs and compete disapprovingly for it amongst themselves and with animals. The straggling populace and the compromised sanitation are deteriorating spring water sources. There is an urgent need to analyze springs to ascertain their bacteriological and physical quality for possible cross contaminations that may be of public health importance. This study evaluated the bacteriological and physical profile of water from three springs in Kyambogo University vicinity. Two weekly water samples from each spring for five weeks were obtained and analyzed. The physicochemical parameters (temperature, pH, turbidity, electrical conductivity, chlorides and sulphates), total coliform and E. coli counts of the samples were determined. The mean temperature of the water samples from Katalina, Airport spring 1 and Airport spring 2 were 20.53℃ ± 1.2, 21.53 ± 0.60 and 20.33 ± 1.62 respectively. The corresponding statistical mean pH values were 5.33 ± 0.25, 6.30 ± 0.10 and 7.10 ± 0.46. All the springs were found to be microbiologically contaminated with total coliforms and E. coli above WHO permissible limits. Conclusively, water from the sampled springs are not safe for drinking and the immediate strategy is to boil or treat the water before drinking. Drainage ditches should be constructed uphill of the springs to divert torrential flowing rain water which carry contaminants washed from Kyambogo hill.
An Efficient Tasks Scheduling Algorithm for Distributed Memory Machines with Communication Delays
Fatma A. Omara,Amin Allam
Information Technology Journal , 2005,
Abstract: : The scheduling of multiple interacting tasks of a single parallel program is considered the most important issue to exploit the true performance of the multiprocessor system. The problem is to find a schedule that will minimize the execution time (Make_Span) of a program. On the other hand, task scheduling on a multiprocessor system with and without communication delays is known to be NP-complete problem. Consequently, many heuristic algorithms have been developed, each of which may find optimal scheduling under different circumstances. One of the well known iterative algorithms is the hill-climbing. This algorithm starts with a complete solution and searches to improve this solution by choosing a better neighbor based on a cost function. This will lead to a local optimum which is considered the main drawback of this algorithm. The research in this study concerns to develop an efficient iterative algorithm for scheduling problem based on the hill-climbing. Present algorithm satisfies a local optimum that is very close to the global one in a reasonable amount of time. In most experiments, it satisfies the actual global optimum.
Performance Analysis and Design of A Wireless Networks
Fatma Omara,Ragab El Saiedy,Reham Anwer
International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology , 2010,
Abstract: Business rules have been defined as "declarations" of policy or conditions that must be satisfied to determine how operational decisions and the organization must be made. In other words, business rules specify action on the occurrence of particular business events, including" state of being" changes concerning individuals and groups of individuals infrastructure, consumables, informational resources, and even business activities. The aim is to discuss an approach to business rules centric development paradigm, known as Manchester Business Rules Management which comprises of a number of activities and techniques. The Basic idea is applying the elicitation organization, and management of business rules for implementing atomic read/write shared memory in mobile ad hoc network according to the Geoquorum algorithm. It also associates rule statements with information entities of their universe of discourse, in order to facilitate their management by allowing rules grouping and retrieval according to different criteria.
An Investigation about obstacles of Mobile Commerce in Iran (A case study in Saravan City)
Baqer Kord,Dawood Karimzadegan,Mehrab Omara
International Journal of Computer Science Issues , 2012,
Abstract: The main purpose of the present paper is an investigation about obstacles and challenges in development of mobile commerce in Iran. To notice the present infrastructure and the ratio of high influence of mobile commerce and its availability and being at the hand of common people as one of main tools in mobile commerce, in the world as well as in Iran, people have tendency and are going for mobile commerce and it is also attracting general attentions of people. In this paper it investigate the unique benefits of mobile commerce using a descriptive field survey to access barriers and obstacles which are facing to the development of mobile commerce. Samples and statistical research population are teachers in Saravan city of Sistan and Baluchestan in south of Iran which are using mobile phone for paying light and water bills or doing business and financial transactions. The samples were choosing among 300 of so-call teachers which selected in order random tools of data collection was questionnaire which collected after 15 days. The data were analyzed by SPSS software. The result of this analysis is showing that information technology, in the development of mobile commerce is facing many problems and challenges such as: the limitation in extension of internet band, inappropriate user accepted connector mobile equipments, none existence of using mobile commerce culture in trade, lack of the security feeling for users technical equipment limitations and also mobile network stability. And scale of importance of each one from the view of users is different. At the end to overcome these problems and barriers and to accelerate the development of mobile commerce which is the requirement of the modern life, with the results based on and come out from the present paper some strategies are going to be shown.
Water Desalination Using a Humidification-Dehumidification Technique—A Detailed Review  [PDF]
A. E. Kabeel, Mofreh H. Hamed, Z. M. Omara, S. W. Sharshir
Natural Resources (NR) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2013.43036
Abstract:

Solar humidification-dehumidification desalination technology has been reviewed in detail in this paper. This review would also throw light on the scope for further research and recommendations in active distillation system by humidification and dehumidification (HDH). Also in this article, a review has been done on different types of (HDH) systems. Thermal modeling was done for various types of humidification and dehumidification(HDH) distillation system. From the present review, it is found that the humidification-dehumidification desalination process HDH will be a suitable choice for fresh water production when the demand is decentralized. HDH is a low temperature process where total required thermal energy can be obtained from solar energy. Capacity of HDH units is between that produced by conventional methods and solar stills. Moreover, HDH is distinguished by simple operation and maintenance. Also from the present condensed review, it was observed that an increase in evaporator and condenser surface areas significantly improves system productivity. But prior to implementing any techniques in design improvement, it is necessary to optimize the MEH unit by optimizing its component size to understand the effect of feed water and air flow rates. Although a fair amount of simulation studies have been conducted in the past, further design simulation is required to fully understand the complicated

Smoking Cessation in Long-Term Conditions: Is There “An Opportunity in Every Difficulty”?
Kamran Siddiqi,Omara F. Dogar,Najma Siddiqi
International Journal of Population Research , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/251048
Abstract: Introduction. Smoking plays a causal role in several long-term conditions and worsens their outcomes. Focusing on six such conditions, we present a narrative review of seminal studies on the prevalence and impact of continued tobacco use on these conditions; the effectiveness of cessation interventions; the extent to which patients receive these interventions, and barriers to providing and taking up these interventions. Methods. A conceptual framework was used to identify questions for a series of focused literature reviews. Findings were synthesized and the literature was examined to identify themes common across these conditions. Results. Smoking prevalence is either similar or higher in patients with established long-term conditions compared to the general population. Continued smoking accelerates disease progression, worsens outcomes, and risks poor treatment compliance or further complications. There is strong evidence for the effectiveness of cessation interventions in achieving smoking abstinence. Despite this, only a small proportion of patients receive such interventions. Important barriers to uptake include concerns about weight management and drug safety, higher nicotine dependency and codependency, comorbidity, and misperceptions about the benefits of cessation. Conclusion. The benefits of offering smoking cessation in patients with long-term conditions are far too great for it to remain of a low priority. 1. Introduction Tobacco use is responsible for 5.5 million deaths and 4% of the global burden of disease in terms of disability adjusted life-years [1]. Tobacco’s causal association with several long-term conditions (e.g., coronary heart disease (CHD), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)) has long been established [2, 3]. In others (e.g., diabetes, schizophrenia), although tobacco does not play a causal role, its use is thought to worsen outcomes [4]. Using six prevalent long-term conditions as examples, CHD, diabetes, COPD, asthma, schizophrenia, and HIV/AIDS, we examine whether tobacco cessation in patients with established long-term conditions deserves a stronger focus than it currently receives. In this paper, we highlight some of the pivotal studies relevant to (i) the prevalence and impact of continued tobacco use on the outcomes of these conditions; (ii) the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of cessation interventions; (iii) the extent to which patients receive cessation interventions, and (iv) key barriers to providing and taking up of these interventions. By highlighting some of the seminal work carried out in this
SPECTROPHOTOMETRY MICRODETERMINATION OF SOME ANTIHYPERTENSIVE DRUGS IN PURE FORM AND IN PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATIONS
SHAMA,SAYED A; AMIN,ALAA S; OMARA,HANY;
Journal of the Chilean Chemical Society , 2011, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-97072011000100009
Abstract: simple, rapid, accurate, precise and sensitive spectrophotometric method for the microdetermination of enalapril maleate (enm) and lisinopril dihydrate (lis) has been developed. the method is based on oxidation of the drug by potassium permanganate in acidic medium and determine the unreacted oxidant by measuring the decrease in absorbance for three different acidic dyes; acid red 73 (ar), amaranth dye [acid red 27] (am) and acid orange 7 (ao) at a suitable λmax (510, 521 and 484 nm for enm and 509, 521 and 485 nm for lis), respectively. regression analysis of beer's law plots showed good correlation in the concentration ranges 0.7-12, 0.5-7.6 and 0.6-9.5 μg ml-1 and 0.5-9.0, 0.4-6.1 and 0.4-7.2 μg ml-1 for enm and lis using ar, am and ao, respectively. the apparent molar absorptivity, sandell sensitivity, detection and quantitation limits are calculated. statistical treatment of the results reflects that the proposed procedures are precise, accurate and easily applicable for the determination of enm and lis in pure and in pharmaceutical preparations.
Padr?es de distribui??o espacial de comunidades campestres sob plantio de eucalipto
Pillar, Valério De Patta;Boldrini, Ilsi Iob;Lange, Omara;
Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-204X2002000600003
Abstract: the study aimed at evaluating spatial vegetation patterns, based on species and plant functional types (c3, c4), to relate these patterns to light conditions and to generate hypothesis about the temporal dynamics of the grassland vegetation in response to the development of a two year old eucalyptus plantation. the survey was carried out on 66 plots of 0.25 m2 located between the rows of eucalyptus, on four transects across the boundary of the plantation. a total of 164 species was found in the survey. species had their cover-abundance estimated in each plot and were classified with respect to the photosynthetic pathway. in one of the transects, light conditions under the canopy were evaluated; significant association between shading and community patterns in terms of species (p = 0.001) and functional types (p = 0.007) was found. the results allow to postulate the hypothesis that the increase in shading with the development of the eucalyptus canopy produces reduction in the cover-abundance of c4 species and increase in c3 species, more tolerant to shading.
Homocysteine, folic acid and vitamin B12 levels in serum of epileptic children
ON Eldeen, SH Abd Eldayem, RH Shatla, NA Omara, SS Elgammal
Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics , 2012,
Abstract: The relationship between increased homocysteine (Hcy) level and epileptic seizure remains controversial in human, despite a growing evidence of the pro-convulsive effect of the hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) observed in the animal studies. The mechanism of this association with epileptogenesis has not been clearly understood, although there is emerging evidence to support the unfavorable effects of some anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) on the plasma homocysteine (Hcy) concentrations. The aim of this study was to uncover the relationship between the levels of homocysteine (Hcy), the cofactors involved in its metabolism as folic acid and vitamin B12 and anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) in epileptic patients. Serum level of homocysteine (Hcy), folic acid and vitamin B12 was measured in 60 patients with idiopathic epilepsy; and its level was compared to 30 healthy children serving as control group. No significant difference was found regarding the plasma homocysteine (Hcy) levels between patients (both receiving anti-epileptics and non anti-epileptic drug users) and controls. Epileptic patients on polytherapy showed higher mean serum levels of homocysteine (Hcy) and lower mean serum levels of folic acid compared to those on monotherapy. However, the mean serum levels of homocysteine (Hcy), vitamin B12 and folic acid showed non significant differences between patients using valproic acid (VPA) or carbamazepine (CBZ). Duration of AED therapy showed a significant positive correlation with mean serum levels of homocysteine (Hcy) and a significant negative correlation with mean serum levels of folic acid. To conclude; AEDs upset the homeostatic balance of homocysteine (Hcy) and its cofactors and cause abnormalities in their serum levels.
Padr es de distribui o espacial de comunidades campestres sob plantio de eucalipto
Pillar Valério De Patta,Boldrini Ilsi Iob,Lange Omara
Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira , 2002,
Abstract: O trabalho objetivou descrever padr es de distribui o espacial da composi o florística e de tipos funcionais (C3, C4) de espécies, relacionar estes padr es a condi es de luz e gerar hipóteses sobre a dinamica da vegeta o campestre em resposta ao desenvolvimento de uma floresta de eucalipto plantada há dois anos. O levantamento foi realizado em 66 parcelas de 0,25 m2 nas entrelinhas do plantio de eucalipto, em quatro transec es atravessando a bordadura da floresta. Foram encontradas 164 espécies, as quais tiveram sua abundancia-cobertura estimada em cada parcela e foram classificadas quanto à rota fotossintética. Em uma das transec es foi avaliado o nível de radia o solar incidente nas parcelas, tendo sido encontrada associa o significativa entre padr o de sombreamento e composi o de espécies (P = 0,001) e composi o de tipos funcionais (P = 0,007). Os resultados permitem postular a hipótese de que a diminui o da radia o incidente no estrato inferior, durante o desenvolvimento inicial do eucalipto, determina redu o da cobertura com espécies C4 e aumento com espécies C3, mais tolerantes ao sombreamento.
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