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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 301083 matches for " Timothy J. Haney "
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The Sociological Determination: A Reflexive Look at Conducting Local Disaster Research after Hurricane Katrina  [PDF]
Timothy J. Haney, James R. Elliott
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2013.31002
Abstract:

This paper examines the process of collecting data on New Orleanians affected by Hurricane Katrina. It does so by focusing upon the experiences of local researchers who were simultaneously conducting research on and within the disaster. It also documents one research team’s attempt to generate a random sample of residents from several New Orleans neighborhoods, stratified both by racial composition and level of damage. Further, it describes the challenges associated with navigating complex bureaucracies that are themselves affected by the disaster. Results demonstrate that our methods for drawing samples from six New Orleans neighborhoods yielded highly representative samples, even in heavily damaged neighborhoods where the long-term displacement required a multi-pronged strategy that involved contact by mail, telephone, and visits to local churches. The paper concludes by making recommendations for facilitating future research by locally affected researchers.

 

Doing what Sociologists do: A student-engineered exercise for understanding workplace inequality
Timothy J. Haney
The Journal of Scholarship of Teaching and Learning , 2009,
Abstract: This exercise is designed to help instructors, even those with moderate to relatively large enrollments, lead students through interviews and data analysis. Instructors in a number of fields including sociology, economics, political science, public policy, anthropology, business, or human services may find this exercise useful. Students devise their own research questions and interview questions from course readings on workplace and labor market inequality. They are responsible for conducting four short interviews; two with service-sector employees and two with managers or owners of similar establishments. Students are then responsible for assessing the extent to which the two sides converge and diverge. Along with a description of the exercise, I present a suggested format for students’ final papers, as well as sample research questions, interview questions, and sample establishment-types that students may use to create their own independent research project. My students are often surprised by the richness of their data and the consistency of their conclusions with existing theory and empirical research findings.
Alternative Methods for Analysis of Cyanobacterial Populations in Drinking Water Supplies: Fluorometric and Toxicological Applications Using Phycocyanin  [PDF]
Nancy J. Leland, James F. Haney
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2018.108042
Abstract: The management of cyanobacteria and potential exposure to associated biotoxins requires the allocation of scarce resources across a range of freshwater resources within various jurisdictions. Cost effective and reliable methods for sample processing and analysis form the foundation of the protocol yielding reliable data from which to derive important decisions. In this study the utilization of new methods to collect, process and analyze samples enhanced our ability to evaluate cyanobacterial populations. Extraction of phycocyanin using the single freeze thaw method provided more accurate and precise measurements (CV 4.7% and 6.4%), offering a simple and cost-effective means to overcome the influence of morphological variability. In-vacuo concentration of samples prior to ELISA analysis provided a detection limit of 0.001 μg·L?1 MC. Fractionation of samples (<0.2 μm, <2.0 μm, <50 μm, WLW and BFC) influenced our interpretations and improved our ability to establish a causative relationship between phycocyanin and microcystin levels in two aquatic systems with distinctly different cyanobacterial populations. In a Microcystis spp. dominant system Log MC (ng·L?1) = ?0.279 + (1.368 ? Log PC (μg·L?1) while in an Aphanizomemon spp. dominant system Log MC (ng·L?1) = 0.385 + (0.449 ? Log PC (μg·L?1). These methods and sampling protocol could be used in other aquatic systems across a broader regional landscape to estimate the levels of microcystins.
Evaluation of H3A for Determination of Plant Available P vs. FeAlO Strips  [PDF]
Richard L. Haney, Elizabeth B. Haney, R. Daren Harmel, Douglas R. Smith, Mike J. White
Open Journal of Soil Science (OJSS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojss.2016.611017
Abstract: Phosphorus is an essential nutrient for plant growth but in excess is a source of environmental pollution. Fertilizer additions of P are recommended based on soil tests; however, the commonly applied P extractants are often applied outside of their design criteria (specifically soil pH). As a result, soil tests can produce inaccurate estimates of plant available P in the soil, which either increases P loss in runoff, contributing to eutrophication, or decreases crop production contributing to economic loss.? In this study, 200 diverse soils from across the US were extracted with Mehlich 3, water, H3A-3, and FeAlO strips. Comparison with FeAlO was critical, as this method is accepted as the “gold standard” for plant-available P, but it is rarely used in commercial labs because of time and financial constraints. H3A-3 produced mean, median, standard deviations that are very similar to FeAlO strip results and low relative errors (<10%), as well as highly correlated regression relationships (r2 > 0.96 with slopes 0.95 - 0.98). Although Mehlich 3 and water were correlated with FeAlO, Mehlich 3 (strongly acidic) extracted much more P than FeAlO, and water (low buffering capacity) extracted much less P across the range of soil pH values. Thus, H3A-3 provides an improved methodology to accurately determine plant-available P by mimicking root exudate action in the soil, while avoiding the time-consuming and costly FeAlO procedure. In the face of high-profile water quality impairments with enormous economic costs, such advancements are critical to balance agronomic production with environmental concerns.
Removal of Lithium Citrate from H3A for Determination of Plant Available P  [PDF]
Richard L. Haney, Elizabeth B. Haney, Douglas R. Smith, Michael J. White
Open Journal of Soil Science (OJSS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojss.2017.711022
Abstract: The soil extractant, H3A, has undergone several iterations to extract calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), aluminum (Al), potassium (K), phosphorus (P), ammonium (NH4-N) and nitrate (NO3-N) under ambient soil conditions. Few soil extractants currently used by commercial and university soil testing laboratories can perform multi-nutrient extraction without over- or under-estimating at least one nutrient. Soil pH and plant root exudates have a strong influence on nutrient availability and H3A was developed to mimic soil conditions. Lithium citrate was previously used in the H3A formulation, but resulted in a cloudy supernatant in some samples, complicating laboratory analyses. In this study, we removed lithium citrate and compared the nutrients extracted from the modified (H3A-4) to the established (H3A-3) solutions. We found that the new extractant, H3A-4, produced a clear supernatant even in soils with low pH and high iron and aluminum concentrations. H3A-4 accurately predicts plant available nutrients and is a viable choice for commercial and laboratory settings due to its ease of use.
Spions Increase Biofilm Formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa  [PDF]
Carl Haney, John J. Rowe, Jayne B. Robinson
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology (JBNB) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jbnb.2012.324052
Abstract: Limited research has suggested iron oxide nanoparticles (FeNP) have an inhibitory effect against several different genera of bacteria: Staphylococcus, Bacillus and Pseudomonas spp. In this study we looked at the effect of three different sets of Fe3O4 nanoparticles (FeNPs) on the development of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 biofilms. Two of the tested NPs were SPIONs (Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles). Exposure of cells to the SPIONs at concentrations up to 200 μg/ml resulted in an increase in biofilm biomass by 16 h under static conditions and a corresponding increase in cell density in the bulk liquid. In contrast, these biofilms had decreased levels of extracellular DNA (eDNA). Fe(II) levels in the supernatants of biofilms formed in the presence of FeNPs exceeded 100 μM compared with 20 μM in control media without cells. Spent cell supernatants had little effect on Fe(II) levels. Cells also had an effect on the aggregation behavior of these nanoparticles. SPIONs incubated with cells exhibited a decrease in the number and size of FeNP aggregates visible using light microscopy. SPIONs resuspended in fresh media or spent culture supernatants formed large aggregates visible in the light microscope upon exposure to a supermagnet; and could be pelleted magnetically in microtitre plate wells. In contrast, SPION FeNPs incubated with cells were unaffected by exposure to the supermagnet and could not be pelleted. The results of this study indicate a need to reconsider the effects of FeNPs on bacterial growth and biofilm formation and the effect the bacterial cells may have on the use and recovery of SPIONs.
Overcoming beta-agonist tolerance: high dose salbutamol and ipratropium bromide. Two randomised controlled trials
Sarah Haney, Robert J Hancox
Respiratory Research , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1465-9921-8-19
Abstract: Two double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover studies of inhaled formoterol 12 μg twice daily in patients with asthma.High-dose salbutamol: 36 hours after the last dose of 1 week of formoterol or placebo treatment, 11 subjects inhaled methacholine to produce a 20% fall in FEV1. Salbutamol 5 mg was then administered via nebuliser and the FEV1 was monitored for 20 minutes. Ipratropium: 36 hours after the last dose of 1 week of formoterol or placebo treatment, 11 subjects inhaled 4.5% saline to produce a 20% fall in FEV1. Salbutamol 200 μg or ipratropium bromide 40 μg was then inhaled and the FEV1 was monitored for 30 minutes. Four study arms compared the response to each bronchodilator after formoterol and placebo. Analyses compared the area under the bronchodilator response curves, adjusting for changes in pre-challenge FEV1, dose of provocational agent and FEV1 fall during the challenge procedure.The response to nebulised salbutamol was 15% lower after formoterol therapy compared to placebo (95% confidence 5 to 25%, p = 0.008). The response to ipratropium was unchanged.Long-acting beta-agonist treatment induces tolerance to the bronchodilator effect of beta-agonists, which is not overcome by higher dose nebulised salbutamol. However, the bronchodilator response to ipratropium bromide is unaffected.Patients with asthma who are poorly controlled on inhaled corticosteroids are often prescribed long-acting beta-agonists [1,2]. However, most asthmatics continue to need short acting beta-agonists for relief of breakthrough symptoms and for treatment during asthma exacerbations. Despite accumulating evidence that tolerance develops to the bronchodilator effects of beta-agonists, the effect of regular long-acting beta-agonists on the response to treatment of exacerbations is rarely considered in treatment guidelines.Tolerance to the systemic [3] and bronchoprotective [4] effects of beta-agonists is known to occur during regular beta-agonist use. It was previously thought
Tolerance to bronchodilation during treatment with long-acting beta-agonists, a randomised controlled trial
Sarah Haney, Robert J Hancox
Respiratory Research , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1465-9921-6-107
Abstract: Random-order, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. After 1 week without beta-agonists, 13 asthmatic subjects inhaled formoterol 12 μg twice daily or matching placebo for 1 week. Eight hours after the first and last doses subjects inhaled methacholine to produce a 20% fall in FEV1. Salbutamol 100, 200 and 400 μg (cumulative dose) was then given at 5-minute intervals and FEV1 was measured 5 minutes after each dose. After a 1 week washout subjects crossed over to the other treatment. Unscheduled use of beta-agonists was not allowed during the study. The main outcome variable was the area under the salbutamol response curve.The analysis showed a significant time by treatment interaction indicating that the response to salbutamol fell during formoterol therapy compared to placebo. After 1 week of formoterol the area under the salbutamol response curve was 48% (95% confidence interval 28 to 68%) lower than placebo. This reduction in response remained significant when the analyses were adjusted for changes in the pre-challenge FEV1 and dose of methacholine given (p = 0.001).The bronchodilator response to salbutamol is significantly reduced in patients taking formoterol. Clinically relevant tolerance to rescue beta-agonist treatment is likely to occur in patients treated with long-acting beta-agonists.Long-acting beta-agonists are often added to inhaled corticosteroids to improve asthma control.[1] Despite this, most patients still need a short-acting beta-agonist for relief of breakthrough symptoms. The possibility that chronic long-acting beta-agonist use might adversely affect the acute response to short-acting beta-agonists is rarely considered.It is well known that regular use of long-acting beta-agonists leads to tolerance to their bronchoprotective effects (their ability to prevent bronchoconstriction).[2,3] Studies looking for bronchodilator tolerance have had more variable results.[4,5] This has led to a widespread belief that clinically significant t
Soil Organic C:N vs. Water-Extractable Organic C:N  [PDF]
Richard L. Haney, Alan. J. Franzluebbers, Virginia. L. Jin, Mari-Vaughn. Johnson, Elizabeth. B. Haney, Mike. J. White, Robert. D. Harmel
Open Journal of Soil Science (OJSS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojss.2012.23032
Abstract: Traditionally, soil-testing laboratories have used a variety of methods to determine soil organic matter, yet they lack a practical method to predict potential N mineralization/immobilization from soil organic matter. Soils with high micro-bial activity may experience N immobilization (or reduced net N mineralization), and this issue remains unresolved in how to predict these conditions of net mineralization or net immobilization. Prediction may become possible with the use of a more sensitive method to determine soil C:N ratios stemming from the water-extractable C and N pools that can be readily adapted by both commercial and university soil testing labs. Soil microbial activity is highly related to soil organic C and N, as well as to water-extractable organic C (WEOC) and water-extractable organic N (WEON). The relationship between soil respiration and WEOC and WEON is stronger than between respiration and soil organic C (SOC) and total organic N (TON). We explored the relationship between soil organic C:N and water-extractable organic C:N, as well as their relationship to soil microbial activity as measured by the flush of CO2 following rewetting of dried soil. In 50 different soils, the relationship between soil microbial activity and water-extractable organic C:N was much stronger than for soil organic C: N. We concluded that the water-extractable organic C:N was a more sensitive measurement of the soil substrate which drives soil microbial activity. We also suggest that a water-extractable organic C:N level > 20 be used as a practical threshold to separate those soils that may have immobilized N with high microbial activity.
Analysis Methods for the Determination of Anthropogenic Additions of P to Agricultural Soils  [PDF]
Richard L. Haney, Virginia L. Jin, Mari-Vaughn V. Johnson, Elizabeth B. Haney, R. Daren Harmel, Jeffrey G. Arnold, Michael J. White
Open Journal of Soil Science (OJSS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojss.2015.52007
Abstract:

Phosphorus loading and measurement is of concern on lands where biosolids have been applied. Traditional soil testing for plant-available P may be inadequate for the accurate assessment of P loadings in a regulatory environment as the reported levels may not correlate well with environmental risk. In order to accurately assess potential P runoff and leaching, as well as plant uptake, we must be able to measure organic P mineralized by the biotic community in the soil. Soils with varying rates of biosolid application were evaluated for mineralized organic P during a 112-day incubation using the difference between P measured using a rapid-flow analyzer (RFA) and an axial flow Varian ICP-OES. An increase in the P mineralized from the treated soils was observed from analysis with the Varian ICP-OES, but not with the RFA. These results confirm that even though organic P concentrations have increased due to increasing biosolid application, traditional soil testing using an RFA for detection, would not accurately portray P concentration and potential P loading from treated soils.

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