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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 5327 matches for " Timothy Barkham "
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Surveillance for Clostridium difficile Infection: ICD-9 Coding Has Poor Sensitivity Compared to Laboratory Diagnosis in Hospital Patients, Singapore
Monica Chan,Poh Lian Lim,Angela Chow,Mar Kyaw Win,Timothy M. Barkham
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0015603
Abstract: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is an increasingly recognized nosocomial infection in Singapore. Surveillance methods include laboratory reporting of Clostridium difficile toxin assays (CDTA) or use of International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision (ICD-9) discharge code 008.45. Previous US studies showed good correlation between CDTA and ICD-9 codes. However, the use of ICD-9 codes for CDI surveillance has not been validated in other healthcare settings.
Genetic lesions within the 3a gene of SARS-CoV
Timothy HP Tan, Timothy Barkham, Burtram C Fielding, Chih-Fong Chou, Shuo Shen, Seng Lim, Wanjin Hong, Yee-Joo Tan
Virology Journal , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1743-422x-2-51
Abstract: Numerous isolates of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) have been completely sequenced [1-4]. In most cases, only synonymous or non-synonymous substitutions have been reported within the major viral genes, which include replicase 1a/1b gene products, spike, membrane, nucleocapsid and envelope [1-4]. On the other hand, large insertions or deletions have been found in the part of viral genome that encodes the SARS-CoV accessory proteins which have no viral homologues. The ORF 8a/8b region appears to be particularly prone to mutations as deletions of up to 415 bp have been observed in some isolates [2]. Although these mutations do not appear to have any adverse effect on the survival of the virus, it is conceivable that these mutations may have effects on viral pathogenesis in vivo, as have been observed for other coronaviruses [5].We have previously reported that a frameshift mutation occurs within the 3a gene of culture-derived SARS-CoV, which results in a protein with a distinctively shorter N-terminus than the wild-type form [6]. Protein 3a is one of the SARS-CoV accessory proteins and the expression of the 3a protein has been demonstrated during both in vitro and in vivo infection [5]. To determine if the mutation arises from repeated passages of the virus or if the mutation exists in the virus that is replicating in SARS-CoV infected patients, we analyzed viral RNA isolated directly from 8 clinical samples and determined the sequence of the 3a gene. Interestingly, we have found evidence of a heterogeneous population of subgenomic RNA 3 (sgRNA3) transcripts in patients with acute SARS-CoV infection containing copies of wild-type and mutant 3a genes.Total RNA was extracted from 8 patients confirmed with SARS-CoV infection, as defined by WHO guidelines. The use of clinical samples for this study was approved by the Tan Tock Seng Hospital ethics committee. Reverse transcription (RT, Superscript II RT, Invitrogen) was performed on all samples
Improving the Clinical Diagnosis of Influenza—a Comparative Analysis of New Influenza A (H1N1) Cases
Adrian K. Ong,Mark I. Chen,Li Lin,Adriana S. Tan,Ni Win Nwe,Timothy Barkham,Seow Yian Tay,Yee Sin Leo
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0008453
Abstract: The presentation of new influenza A(H1N1) is broad and evolving as it continues to affect different geographic locations and populations. To improve the accuracy of predicting influenza infection in an outpatient setting, we undertook a comparative analysis of H1N1(2009), seasonal influenza, and persons with acute respiratory illness (ARI) in an outpatient setting.
Serological Response in RT-PCR Confirmed H1N1-2009 Influenza A by Hemagglutination Inhibition and Virus Neutralization Assays: An Observational Study
Mark I. Chen,Ian G. Barr,Gerald C. H. Koh,Vernon J. Lee,Caroline P. S. Lee,Robert Shaw,Cui Lin,Jonathan Yap,Alex R. Cook,Boon Huan Tan,Jin Phang Loh,Timothy Barkham,Vincent T. K. Chow,Raymond T. P. Lin,Yee-Sin Leo
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0012474
Abstract: We describe the serological response following H1N1-2009 influenza A infections confirmed by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).
Rule of Fives: Identifying Critical Misalignment of Strategic Choices in Organizational Design  [PDF]
Timothy Nerenz
Open Journal of Business and Management (OJBM) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojbm.2019.71003
Business leaders, consultants, teaching professionals, researchers, and academic theorists have long recognized the importance of strategic choice alignment as a determinant of firm performance and as a measure of strategic leadership competence. But how do we know which organizational elements need to be aligned? How do we determine if those elements are aligned or misaligned, and how do we prioritize misalignments which most urgently need to be corrected? This paper proposes a ten-element best-fit alignment stack of strategic choice meta-frameworks drawn from the author’s expe-rience as both a business leader and graduate school professor and offers a simple assessment mechanism that identifies the most critical misalignments in a firm.
Changes in undergraduate student alcohol consumption as they progress through university
Bridgette M Bewick, Brendan Mulhern, Michael Barkham, Karen Trusler, Andrew J Hill, William B Stiles
BMC Public Health , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-8-163
Abstract: Data were collected over three years from 5895 undergraduate students who began their studies in either 2000 or 2001. Longitudinal data (i.e. Years 1–3) were available from 225 students. The remaining 5670 students all responded to at least one of the three surveys (Year 1 n = 2843; Year 2 n = 2219; Year 3 n = 1805).Students reported consuming significantly more units of alcohol per week at Year 1 than at Years 2 or 3 of their degree. Male students reported a higher consumption of units of alcohol than their female peers. When alcohol intake was classified using the Royal College of Physicians guidelines [1] there was no difference between male and females students in terms of the percentage exceeding recommended limits. Compared to those who were low level consumers students who reported drinking above low levels at Year 1 had at least 10 times the odds of continuing to consume above low levels at year 3. Students who reported higher levels of drinking were more likely to report that alcohol had a negative impact on their studies, finances and physical health. Consistent with the reduction in units over time students reported lower levels of negative impact during Year 3 when compared to Year 1.The current findings suggest that student alcohol consumption declines over their undergraduate studies; however weekly levels of consumption at Year 3 remain high for a substantial number of students. The persistence of high levels of consumption in a large population of students suggests the need for effective preventative and treatment interventions for all year groups.Heavy alcohol intake amongst the student population has implications for the individual, educational institutions, and wider society [2-4]. Students have been reported to drink at higher levels than non-student peers [5-9], making this an issue of public health concern given the negative social and health consequences of heavy intake [10] and the link with other unhealthy behaviours (e.g. cigarette smoking
Reducing work disability in Ankylosing Spondylitis – development of a work instability scale for AS
Gill Gilworth, Paul Emery, Nick Barkham, M Glyn Smyth, Philip Helliwell, Alan Tennant
BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2474-10-68
Abstract: New items generated from qualitative interviews were combined with items from the RA-WIS to form a draft AS-WIS. Rasch analysis was used to examine the scaling properties of the AS-WIS using data generated through a postal survey. The scale was validated against a gold standard of expert assessment, a test-retest survey examined reliability.Fifty-seven participants who were in work returned the postal survey. Of the original 55 items 38 were shown to fit the Rasch model (χ2 37.5; df 38; p 0.494) and free of bias for gender and disease duration. Following analysis for discrimination against the gold standard assessments 20 items remained with good fit to the model (χ2 24.8; df 20; p 0.21). Test-retest reliability was 0.94.The AS-WIS is a self-administered scale which meets the stringent requirements of modern measurement. Used as a screening tool it can identify those experiencing a mismatch at work who are at risk of job retention problems and work disability. Work instability is emerging as an important indication for the use of biologics, thus the AS-WIS has the potential to become an important outcome measure.Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of joints and entheses, typically affecting patients in their 20s when they are establishing their careers. Although estimates for Work Disability (WD) in AS vary [1,2] it is clear that absence from work and problems with job retention due to AS are significant. AS has been reported as the reason some patients have to change their occupation, reduce their hours of work, or find their career progression limited [3].The period prior to WD is one of Work Instability (WI), defined as the consequences of a mismatch between a person's functional ability and the demands of their job, potentially threatening continuing employment if not addressed [4]. WI has attracted less attention than WD in the literature, however as a clinical concept it may be a key factor in the management of individuals with rheuma
Health-information seeking on the Internet and current smoking status: Evidence from the national health interview survey  [PDF]
Timothy S. Killian
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2012.23042
Abstract: Two research questions were addressed. First, what are the differences between internet searchers and non-searchers for health-related information among current and former smokers? Second, does searching the internet for health-related information predict current smoking status in a multivariate model that controls for variations in sociodemographic and family characteristics? Data collected from 10,929 current and former smokers who participated in the 2009 National Health Interview Survey showed significant differences in sociodemographic and family characteristics between searchers and non-searchers. Importantly, searching the internet for health-related information made an independent contribution to the prediction of current smoking status in a multinomial logistic regression model. This study is significant in that it utilized a nationally representative sample to examine the correlation between internet use and smoking behavior and supports ongoing efforts of public health advocates to continue their efforts in developing and delivering online smoking cessation programs.
Powder River Basin Coal: Powering America  [PDF]
Timothy J. Considine
Natural Resources (NR) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2013.48063

Powder River Basin (PRB) coal in Wyoming and Montana is used to produce 18 percent of the electricity consumed in the United States. Coal production from the PRB more than doubled between 1994 and 2009. PRB coal companies produced greater amounts of coal at declining real prices over much of this period through investment in equipment and production systems that achieved massive economies of scale. The bulk of PRB coal is shipped to the middle part of America from Texas in the south to Michigan in the north and New York in the east. States that consume significant amounts of PRB coal have electricity rates well below the national average. The largest industrial users of electricity are in these regions. Replacing PRB coal would require almost 5.5 trillion cubic feet of natural gas per year, representing a 26 percent increase in demand. Such an increase in gas consumption would increase prices for natural gas by roughly 76 percent. In such a world, U.S. energy users would pay $107 billion more each year for electricity and natural gas. Hence, by using PRB coal, the U.S. economy avoids $107 billion per year in higher energy costs. Estimates reported in the literature indicate that the gross environmental damages from PRB coal production are $27 billion. Hence, the net social benefits of PRB coal are $80 billion per year. Given the large size and low cost of these reserves, PRB coal will likely supply societal energy needs well into the future as long as the public and their elected officials are willing to accept the environmental impacts in return for the substantial economic benefits from using PRB coal.

The Moral Value of Yorùbá Moonlight Tales  [PDF]
Timothy Adeyemi Akanbi
Open Journal of Modern Linguistics (OJML) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2014.44040
Abstract: Considerable attention has been given to oral literature in Yorùbá language. Oral literature, as regards children lullaby, children rhymes and moonlight tales are not left out. However, most of the earlier writings on folktales are centred only on the compilation of these oral literatures. However, Isola (1995) and Akinyemi (2004) have made some attempts in explaining the educational significance of these oral literatures. While Isola (1995) looks at children lullaby and children rhymes in relation to the intellectual and social development of the African child, Akinyemi’s focus is on oral literature as it relates to the indigenous education for children. Our focus in this paper is on the moral value of this oral literature to both the youth and the adult. We also opine that moonlight tales, because of their moral values, should be included in the curriculum of both the primary and secondary schools. This paper, which is a deviation from the moonlight stories mentioned in Akinyemi (2004), does not look at the pranks of the tortoise but human beings. Lessons, which the stories pass across, are highlighted.
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