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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 923 matches for " Timo Latvala "
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Linear Encodings of Bounded LTL Model Checking
Armin Biere,Keijo Heljanko,Tommi Junttila,Timo Latvala,Viktor Schuppan
Computer Science , 2006, DOI: 10.2168/LMCS-2(5:5)2006
Abstract: We consider the problem of bounded model checking (BMC) for linear temporal logic (LTL). We present several efficient encodings that have size linear in the bound. Furthermore, we show how the encodings can be extended to LTL with past operators (PLTL). The generalised encoding is still of linear size, but cannot detect minimal length counterexamples. By using the virtual unrolling technique minimal length counterexamples can be captured, however, the size of the encoding is quadratic in the specification. We also extend virtual unrolling to Buchi automata, enabling them to accept minimal length counterexamples. Our BMC encodings can be made incremental in order to benefit from incremental SAT technology. With fairly small modifications the incremental encoding can be further enhanced with a termination check, allowing us to prove properties with BMC. Experiments clearly show that our new encodings improve performance of BMC considerably, particularly in the case of the incremental encoding, and that they are very competitive for finding bugs. An analysis of the liveness-to-safety transformation reveals many similarities to the BMC encodings in this paper. Using the liveness-to-safety translation with BDD-based invariant checking results in an efficient method to find shortest counterexamples that complements the BMC-based approach.
Finnish 20th Century History in Oral Narratives
Pauliina Latvala
Folklore : Electronic Journal of Folklore , 1999,
Abstract:
Soomlase elu kujutamine p rimuslikus ajaloos
Pauliina Latvala
M?etagused. Hüperajakiri , 1999,
Abstract: In this article, I have addressed primarily the production processes underlying family history, its relationship to time and the ways in which finnish people has categorized the past and everyday life. My corpus of source materials, which is in written form, was collected 1997 through a collection competition called the Great Family History , organized by the Finnish Literature Society Folklore Archives in Helsinki. The purpose of the collection contest was to gather information concerning social processes of change as seen through the experiences of family and kin group as well as to identify what it means to be aware of one's own family history.Family histories play an important role in creating a picture of recent history. With the year 2000 nearly upon us, the 20th century naturally becomes part of our recent history: narratives are told concerning this century, its events are well-known. Research material contains information received from parents and grandparents which often goes back as far as the 19th century, even though the narration focuses on the nineteen hundreds. The main themes in family history concerning this century in Finland are: mass emigration to America that took place at the beginning of this century, the wars (1918, 1939-1945) and the post-war construction of welfare-state. There is also a great deal of interest in the 19th, 18th and even earlier centuries. A partly fictional reconstruction of everyday life is made with the aid of family history research and can reach back as far as the 16th century.Persons who produce family histories are most likely aware of the categories of official and unofficial history, each of which contains certain models and rules for narration. Unofficial history is considered to be oral history, and the transfer of oral memoirs to paper in writing is seen to be an interpretation which complements official history. For example emotions and personal experiences belong to the unofficial history. The significance of family history is thus that it ensures that the past is transmitted to future generations from a perspective important to the self. Each historical period produces and brings forth styles of speech and cultural models through which historical narrative is processed. When Finns write about their pasts or their own lives, the model used is often one of a survival tale, which begins with what could be interpreted as complaints of poverty and toiling from dawn to dusk. One noteworthy features is however, the fact that the narrative does not end here: Finns tell of wretchedness and want and transf
Technology for Elderly with Memory Impairment and Wandering Risk  [PDF]
Sami Per?l?, Kari M?kel?, Anna Salmenaho, Rami Latvala
E-Health Telecommunication Systems and Networks (ETSN) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/etsn.2013.21003
Abstract: Objective:The main objective of this project was to studyhow to secure the wandering of elderly persons diagnosed with dementia caused by Alzheimer’s disease by using healthcare technologies. Methods:The study was carried out during a three-year period (2008-2011) in the region of South Ostrobothnia, Finland. Thirty-two elderly persons living at home and diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease participated in the study. The ages of the intervention group ranged from 66 to 90 years; the average age was 81 years. A total of 63 different home care devices including 24 location based technologies were tested during the intervention.The choice of technology used was based on the individual needs of the elderly person. Results:Participants with mild stage memory impairment were able to use and benefit from the technology installed during the intervention to live more independently.The most useful devices were those that operated within the home. Nine of ten users of door alarm systems, five of nine users of GPS systems and all users of GSM systems were satisfied with the technologies. Conclusions:Location based alarm and access control technology can have a positive impact on the lives of elderly persons suffering from dementia. When chosen appropriately, technology can help to reduce or eliminate the wandering often associated with dementia.Regardless of the technology used, it should be installed when the elderly person is at the early stages of dementia; at later stages of the disease it is usually impossible for the elderly to adequately adopt the device.
Effect of Blast Furnace Sludge (BFS) Characteristics on Suitable Recycling Process Determining  [PDF]
Mamdouh Omran, Timo Fabritius, Timo Paananen
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering (JMMCE) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2017.54016
Abstract: The present study aims to give a detailed characterization of blast furnace sludge (BFS) by using different techniques, in order to determine the most effective recycling method to recover valuable metals from this waste. BFS is composed mainly of hematite, as its iron-bearing phase, and carbon, in addition to fractions of silicate and carbonate materials. The studied BFS shows relatively high contents of iron (Fe) (390 g.kg-1), and carbon (C) (290 g.kg-1), due to abundance of hematite and coke, while the concentration of zinc (Zn) (2.5 g.kg-1) is low. The XRD analyses indicated that, hematite is more concentrated in the fine fraction (<20 μm), while the coarser fraction (90 - 250 μm) is dominated by calcite, quartz and X-ray amorphous coke. SEM-EDX analyses confirmed that particles rich in iron and zinc were detected in the fine fraction (<20 μm) of the sludge. Due to high Fe and C content in BFS, it can be utilized as self-reducing material and briquetting represent a potential method for recycling of blast furnace sludge.
Measured and Perceived Physical Fitness, Intention, and Self-Reported Physical Activity in Adolescence  [PDF]
Timo Jaakkola, Tracy Washington
Advances in Physical Education (APE) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ape.2011.12004
Abstract: Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the associations among measured physical fitness, perceived fitness, intention towards future physical activity and self-reported physical activity through junior high school years. Methods: Study participants included 122 Finnish students who were 13 years old during Grade 7. The sample was comprised of 80 girls and 42 boys from 3 junior high schools (Grades 7-9). During the autumn semester of Grade 7, students completed fitness tests and a questionnaire analyzing self-perception of their physical fitness. The questionnaire delivered at Grade 8 included intention towards future physical activity. At Grade 9 students’ self-reported physical activity levels. Results: Structural Equation Modelling revealed an indirect path from physical fitness to self-reported physical activity via perceived physical fitness and intention towards future physical activity. The model also demonstrated a correlation between perceived physical fitness and physical activity. Squared multiple correlations revealed that perceived physical fitness explained 33 % of the actual physical fitness. Conclusions: The results of this study highlight the role of physical and cognitive variables in the process of adoption of physical activity in adolescence.
Use of Augmented Reality Methods to Support Legal Conflicts in the Planning Process for Wind Turbines Using the Example of the Landscape Conservation Area “Eulenkopf and Surroundings”  [PDF]
Timo Wundsam, Sascha M. Henninger
Energy and Power Engineering (EPE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/epe.2014.611030
Abstract: The world’s growing energy demand poses a serious problem. At the same time fossil fuels are finite, which we must work against. Therefore, the Federal Government of Germany has set itself the goal to push forward the use of renewable energy in order to completely do without the generation of nuclear energy by 2023. There are, however, no specific guidelines from the European Directive on the promotion of electricity from renewable energy sources for the internal electricity market regarding how high each share of the different production method should be and, above all, which specific aim should be achieved by the share of wind energy. Nevertheless, it presents a crucial step toward a nuclear phaseout and a concomitant change of course of the Federal Government of Germany in the spring of 2011 regarding the expansion of renewable energy, taking the nuclear catastrophe in Fukushima into account. Using new legal planning approaches, also including the area of Rhineland-Palatinate, opportunities should be provided to make previously protected land available for setting up facilities for the generation of renewable energy. However, it is important to examine the legal situation regarding the installation of these kinds of constructions more detailed, as no general statements can be made. This will be illustrated using the example of the landscape conservation area “Eulenkopf and surrounding area” in the district of Kaiserslautern. The stated goal of the Social Democrat/Green coalition of the federal state government of Rhineland-Palatinate is to considerably expand the generation of electricity from renewable energy sources so that by 2030 at least the entire electricity demand can be covered by those. Due to the enormous potential of wind power, it is therefore necessary to quintuple its share of electricity generation by 2020, compared to 2011 numbers. In order to achieve the desired political objectives, by 2030 the number of turbines has to be increased to around 2650, representing a capacity of 7500 MW. This increase gives reason for boundary conditions to manage the generation of wind energy to be adjusted. This is intended to facilitate management and simultaneously minimise negative effects, such as the “sprawling” of wind turbines.
The Cartan, Choquet and Kellogg properties for the fine topology on metric spaces
Anders Bj?rn,Jana Bj?rn,Visa Latvala
Mathematics , 2014,
Abstract: We prove the Cartan and Choquet properties for the fine topology on a complete metric space equipped with a doubling measure supporting a $p$-Poincar\'e inequality, $1 < p< \infty$. We apply these key tools to establish a fine version of the Kellogg property, characterize finely continuous functions by means of quasicontinuous functions, and show that capacitary measures associated with Cheeger supersolutions are supported by the fine boundary of the set.
The weak Cartan property for the p-fine topology on metric spaces
Anders Bj?rn,Jana Bj?rn,Visa Latvala
Mathematics , 2013,
Abstract: We study the p-fine topology on complete metric spaces equipped with a doubling measure supporting a p-Poincare inequality, 1 < p< oo. We establish a weak Cartan property, which yields characterizations of the p-thinness and the p-fine continuity, and allows us to show that the p-fine topology is the coarsest topology making all p-superharmonic functions continuous. Our p-harmonic and superharmonic functions are defined by means of scalar-valued upper gradients and do not rely on a vector-valued differentiable structure.
Sobolev spaces, fine gradients and quasicontinuity on quasiopen sets
Anders Bj?rn,Jana Bj?rn,Visa Latvala
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: We study different definitions of Sobolev spaces on quasiopen sets in a complete metric space equipped with a doubling measure supporting a p-Poincar\'e inequality with 1
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