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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4859 matches for " Tim Reynolds "
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The triple test as a screening technique for Down syndrome: reliability and relevance
Tim Reynolds
International Journal of Women's Health , 2010, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJWH.S8548
Abstract: riple test as a screening technique for Down syndrome: reliability and relevance Review (5007) Total Article Views Authors: Tim Reynolds Published Date May 2010 Volume 2010:2 Pages 83 - 88 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJWH.S8548 Tim Reynolds Clinical Chemistry Department, Queen’s Hospital, Burton-on-Trent, Staffordshire, UK Abstract: The triple test is a second trimester screening test used to identify those pregnant women who should be offered a diagnostic test to identify whether their fetus has an aneuploidy. It was first described in 1988, but has largely been superseded by newer tests either conducted earlier in the first trimester (ie, the combined test, using ultrasound measurement of nuchal translucency,pregnancy-associated plasma protein A, and human chorionic gonadotrophin [hCG]) or in the second trimester (ie, the quadruple test, using α-fetoprotein, hCG, uE3, and inhibin). These newer tests have been introduced because they offer greater detection and lower screen positive results thereby enhancing diagnosis rates, while decreasing the risk of iatrogenic harm caused by the invasive testing required when collecting suitable sample tissue. Noninvasive alternatives to the triple test have been identified, but these have not been adopted despite 13 years of development. It is likely, therefore, that the triple test (or variants thereof) will continue to be used in routine antenatal care for the foreseeable future.
The triple test as a screening technique for Down syndrome: reliability and relevance
Tim Reynolds
International Journal of Women's Health , 2010,
Abstract: Tim ReynoldsClinical Chemistry Department, Queen’s Hospital, Burton-on-Trent, Staffordshire, UKAbstract: The triple test is a second trimester screening test used to identify those pregnant women who should be offered a diagnostic test to identify whether their fetus has an aneuploidy. It was first described in 1988, but has largely been superseded by newer tests either conducted earlier in the first trimester (ie, the combined test, using ultrasound measurement of nuchal translucency,pregnancy-associated plasma protein A, and human chorionic gonadotrophin [hCG]) or in the second trimester (ie, the quadruple test, using α-fetoprotein, hCG, uE3, and inhibin). These newer tests have been introduced because they offer greater detection and lower screen positive results thereby enhancing diagnosis rates, while decreasing the risk of iatrogenic harm caused by the invasive testing required when collecting suitable sample tissue. Noninvasive alternatives to the triple test have been identified, but these have not been adopted despite 13 years of development. It is likely, therefore, that the triple test (or variants thereof) will continue to be used in routine antenatal care for the foreseeable future.Keywords: pregnancy, screening test, antenatal, Down syndrome
An Instantiation-Based Approach for Solving Quantified Linear Arithmetic
Andrew Reynolds,Tim King,Viktor Kuncak
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: This paper presents a framework to derive instantiation-based decision procedures for satisfiability of quantified formulas in first-order theories, including its correctness, implementation, and evaluation. Using this framework we derive decision procedures for linear real arithmetic (LRA) and linear integer arithmetic (LIA) formulas with one quantifier alternation. Our procedure can be integrated into the solving architecture used by typical SMT solvers. Experimental results on standardized benchmarks from model checking, static analysis, and synthesis show that our implementation of the procedure in the SMT solver CVC4 outperforms existing approaches for quantified linear arithmetic.
Hourglass Automata
Yuki Osada,Tim French,Mark Reynolds,Harry Smallbone
Computer Science , 2014, DOI: 10.4204/EPTCS.161.16
Abstract: In this paper, we define the class of hourglass automata, which are timed automata with bounded clocks that can be made to progress backwards as well as forwards at a constant rate. We then introduce a new clock update for timed automata that allows hourglass automata to be expressed. This allows us to show that language emptiness remains decidable with this update when the number of clocks is two or less. This is done by showing that we can construct a finite untimed graph using clock regions from any timed automaton that use this new update.
On Deciding Local Theory Extensions via E-matching
Kshitij Bansal,Andrew Reynolds,Tim King,Clark Barrett,Thomas Wies
Computer Science , 2015, DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-21668-3_6
Abstract: Satisfiability Modulo Theories (SMT) solvers incorporate decision procedures for theories of data types that commonly occur in software. This makes them important tools for automating verification problems. A limitation frequently encountered is that verification problems are often not fully expressible in the theories supported natively by the solvers. Many solvers allow the specification of application-specific theories as quantified axioms, but their handling is incomplete outside of narrow special cases. In this work, we show how SMT solvers can be used to obtain complete decision procedures for local theory extensions, an important class of theories that are decidable using finite instantiation of axioms. We present an algorithm that uses E-matching to generate instances incrementally during the search, significantly reducing the number of generated instances compared to eager instantiation strategies. We have used two SMT solvers to implement this algorithm and conducted an extensive experimental evaluation on benchmarks derived from verification conditions for heap-manipulating programs. We believe that our results are of interest to both the users of SMT solvers as well as their developers.
Decision Making about Risk of Infection by Young Adults with CF
Lisa Reynolds,Gary Latchford,Alistair J. A. Duff,Miles Denton,Tim Lee,Daniel Peckham
Pulmonary Medicine , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/658638
Abstract: Young people with cystic fibrosis (CF) are asked to avoid a number of environments associated with increased infection risk, but in practice they need to balance this with competing priorities such as building and sustaining relationships with friends and family. This study explored the process by which young people make these decisions. Mixed methods were used: a vignette study presenting choices around engaging in activities involving a degree of infection risk and a thematic analysis of participant's accounts of their decision making. The eight participants chose to engage in high risk behaviours in 59% of the choices. All participants chose to engage in at least one risky behavior, though this was less likely when the risk was significant. Thematic analysis revealed large areas of misunderstanding and lack of knowledge, leading to some potentially worrying misconceptions about the nature of infections and risk. Young people with CF are not currently making informed decisions around activities that involve increased risk of infection, and there is an urgent need for CF teams to address this in information provision. 1. Introduction Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common transmitted genetic disease affecting Caucasians. It is characterised by a defect in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene which controls chloride transport in cells. This leads to a buildup of thick and sticky mucous, causing numerous complications, particularly in the respiratory and digestive systems. It also significantly increases susceptibility to respiratory infection, with subsequent lung damage and eventual mortality. CF is life limiting and previously considered a paediatric condition, but advances in treatment have witnessed a gradual increase in life expectancy [1] and a corresponding focus on the impact of the condition on psychosocial functioning in young adulthood. The treatment burden in CF is extremely intrusive, and adherence to CF medication in young people is a topic of understandable interest [2]. Less well studied is adherence to guidelines on reducing risk of infection. Significant risks are posed by infections such as Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PsA) [3, 4], some strains of which are highly contagious, and for people with CF known to cause exacerbations in respiratory symptoms and increased morbidity. Efforts to reduce infection rates include complete segregation of all patients with CF in clinic to reduce cross infection. Particular infections are associated with particular environments. Known
Verifying Real-time Commit Protocols Using Dense-time Model Checking Technology
Omar I. Al-Bataineh,Mark Reynolds,Tim French,Terry Woodings
Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract: The timed-based automata model, introduced by Alur and Dill, provides a useful formalism for describing real-time systems. Over the last two decades, several dense-time model checking tools have been developed based on that model. The paper considers the verification of real-time distributed commit protocols using dense-time model checking technology. More precisely, we model and verify the well-known timed two phase commit protocol in three different state-of-the-art real-time model checkers: UPPAAL, Rabbit, and RED, and compare the results.
Specifying Robustness
John C. McCabe-Dansted,Tim French,Mark Reynolds,Sophie Pinchinat
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: This paper proposes a new logic RoCTL* to model robustness in concurrent systems. RoCTL* extends CTL* with the addition of Obligatory and Robustly operators, which quantify over failure-free paths and paths with one more failure respectively. We present a number of examples of problems to which RoCTL* can be applied. The core result of this paper is to show that RoCTL* is expressively equivalent to CTL* but is non-elementarily more succinct. We present a translation from RoCTL* into CTL* that preserves truth but may result in non-elementary growth in the length of the translated formula as each nested Robustly operator may result in an extra exponential blowup. However, we show that this translation is optimal in the sense that any equivalence preserving translation will require an extra exponential growth per nested Robustly. We also compare RoCTL* to Quantified CTL* (QCTL*) and hybrid logics.
The development of a network for community-based obesity prevention: the CO-OPS Collaboration
Steven Allender, Melanie Nichols, Chad Foulkes, Rebecca Reynolds, Elizabeth Waters, Lesley King, Tim Gill, Rebecca Armstrong, Boyd Swinburn
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-132
Abstract: Key activities of the collaboration to date have included the development of a set of Best Practice Principles and knowledge translation and exchange activities to promote the application (or use) of evidence, evaluation and analysis in practice.The establishment of the CO-OPS Collaboration is a significant step toward strengthening action in this area, by bringing together research, practice and policy expertise to promote best practice, high quality evaluation and knowledge translation and exchange. Future development of the network should include facilitation of further evidence generation and translation drawing from process, impact and outcome evaluation of existing community-based interventions.The lessons presented in this paper may help other networks like CO-OPS as they emerge around the globe. It is important that networks integrate with each other and share the experience of creating these networks.Overweight and obesity is one of the major threats to the health of Australians, as it affects a significant proportion of the population (about 60% of adults and 25% of children) and is a key risk factor in the development of chronic diseases such as type II diabetes, coronary heart disease and many cancers [1]]. Obesity prevalence has risen rapidly in recent decades and also disproportionately affects people from socially and economically disadvantaged backgrounds [2-7].The behavioural patterns contributing to high rates of obesity include increased consumption of high energy density foods and beverages, low consumption of fruit and vegetables and a shift to less active transport and more sedentary leisure time activities [8-10]. Obesity develops in a social and environmental context in which facilities, policies, economic factors and socio-cultural influences promote these behaviours [11,12]. Thus, it is likely that education and treatment approaches alone will not be sufficient to reverse the obesity epidemic or its socio-economic gradient [13].A number of
Positive Psychology in the Elementary Classroom: The Influence of Strengths-Based Approaches on Children’s Self-Efficacy  [PDF]
Rod Galloway, Bronwyn Reynolds
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2015.39003
Abstract:

Despite the positive psychology movement being relatively young and academic research is still building in this area, there is growing confidence that identifying and developing children’s strengths could have profound long-term learning benefits. The intended outcome of this investigation is to contribute to the knowledge base about learning success when children’s emerging preferences, passions and abilities are recognized and developed. This paper explores the foundations of strengths-based approaches for education and presents the findings of a case study that suggests strengths-based approaches have a positive effect on student self-efficacy.

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