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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 91 matches for " Tiiu Koff "
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The sedimentary sequence from the Lake ū i outcrop, central Latvia: implications for late glacial stratigraphy
Tiiu Koff,Jaanus Terasmaa
Estonian Journal of Earth Sciences , 2011, DOI: 10.3176/earth.2011.2.05
Abstract: Sediment samples from an outcrop in the near-shore area of Lake ū i (Vidzeme Heights, Central Latvia) were investigated using palaeobotanical (pollen and macrofossil analysis) and lithological (grain-size analysis) methods and accelerator mass spectrometry 14C dating. A dark, organic-rich sediment layer was found below 1.7 m of sandy layers approximately 30 cm above the present lake level. Radiocarbon dating of a wood sample from the lowermost layer (11 050 ± 60 14C BP, 13 107–12 721 cal BP) shows that the layer is of late glacial age. The composition of the pollen spectra is characterized by Betula nana, Cyperaceae pollen and spores of Equisetum, confirming that the lowermost sediments were formed during the late glacial. Fossils of obligate aquatic organisms in the upper layer, which include oospores of Characeae and seeds of Potamogeton, indicate an open water environment. Pollen of Myriophyllum and Potamogeton and non-pollen palynomorphs, such as algal Botryococcus and Pediastrum cf. boryanum, confirm this conclusion. The pollen assemblage from the greyish loam layer following this lacustrine phase shows a pattern characteristic of the Younger Dryas vegetation before the start of the real expansion of birch forests at the beginning of the Holocene.
Migrant Participation in Local European Democracies: Understanding Social Capital through Social Movement Analysis
Harlan Koff
Migraciones internacionales , 2005,
Abstract: Se analiza el capital social en el contexto de las respuestas a la inmigracion que no proviene de la Unión Europea en cuatro ciudades europeas: Lille y Toulouse, en Francia, y Florencia y Bari, en Italia. El análisis de las variaciones en la participación de los inmigrantes en la política de los partidos políticos locales y en las organizaciones no gubernamentales indica que el capital social no es una construcción monolítica y que para entender su papel se deben incluir las diferencias cualitativas. El análisis de los movimientos sociales se usa para explicar estas diferencias al examinar la presencia y la autonomía de los empresarios del movimiento social inmigrante, el carácter de las estructuras de oportunidad política local en los que estas élites actúan y el marco cultural que influye significativamente en los regímenes de integración local.
Cultural Borders in an Autobiographical Narrative
Tiiu Jaago
Folklore : Electronic Journal of Folklore , 2012,
Abstract: This article examines the life story of a woman born in a village in southern Estonia in 1918. It is based on two life stories told in Estonian and one told in Russian, as well as a story about her home. The stories were written at the initiative of the researcher between 1996 and 2004 and are stored in public archives. These texts have been chosen in that they are characteristic of the multifaceted phenomenon of inter-cultural contact: the narrator is of Estonian descent; she was imprisoned during the German occupation and taken to Germany, where she lived among local Germans and Red Army soldiers after the war; she married a man of Russian descent who served in the Red Army; from 1948, she and her family lived in a culturally diverse environment in Kohtla-J rve. The focus of this research is on the manifestation of cultural borders at the levels of life history, self-description and cultural context. The narrator presents herself as a person who is not constrained by cultural borders. The relative importance of various cultures in her life and her self-perception is dependent on the general historical and political context and the context of everyday life at the stage of her life that is being described. This aspect emphasises the flexible and volatile nature of cultural borders; however, the analysis of the text reveals the permanence of cultural borders – the narrator cannot step out of her cultural background when describing a culture that she sees as ‘other’.
Conflict, Experience and Nostalgia in Family Narratives. On the Example of Estonia and Finland
Tiiu Jaago
Folklore : Electronic Journal of Folklore , 1999,
Reimo, Tiiu
Knygotyra , 2006,
Abstract: Preservation of national cultural heritage has been during the last years actively discussed both on institutional and state levels. In October 2003 the working group on digital preservation by theMinistry of Culture elaborated preservation guidelines Strategy of digital preservation of Estonian cultural heritage for years 2004–2007. The strategy is based on the principles of eEurope 2002Action Plan (2000) and Lund Principles (2001).The state strategy is aimed to achieve collaboration of different memory institutions in order to elaborate an unified view on cultural heritage and its digitisation as well as to preservation of digitally created cultural heritage. It is also important to guarantee preservation of cultural heritage and to make it accessible to the public use through the contemporary possibilities of informationand communication technologies. Digitisation and preservation of digitized heritage will be coordinated by the state. The main coordinators are the Ministry of Culture, The Ministry of Educationand Science, the State Chancellery and the National Archive.The methodology of decision making for digital preservation is based on the principles of the UNESCO programme Memory of the World. The choice of objects for digitisation is based on need and expediency that can be evaluated on the ground of acultural value of an object, conservation risks, physical condition of an object and necessity of use.In 2004–2005 metadata requirements for digital preservation were elaborated. The guidelines foresee that digitized objects will be described by four categories of metadata: administrative andtechnical metadata, metadata on access inhibitors and restrictions of use and descriptive metadata. Estonian documentary heritage is located today in different memory institutions: in state or public institutions like archives, libraries and museums, in private possession, in religious and scientific institutions and in possession of the third sector (different organisations). For reasons of the historical development considerable part of documentary heritage is also located outside Estonia (Sweden, USA, Canada, Australia, Russia etc).The projects of red books as well as different digitisation projects have been in practice for some years in all Estonian memory institutions. Libraries are pioneers in initiating collaborationprojects in digitisation. Due to the joint efforts of the National Library, the Archive Library of the Estonian Literature Museum and the Tallinn University Academic Library a big collection of old Estonian newspapers is available by intern
Rahvaluule m iste kujunemine Eestis
Tiiu Jaago
M?etagused. Hüperajakiri , 1999,
Abstract: The 1990s was a tumultuous decade in the Estonian society - the crisis in Estonian folkloristic studies was reflected in the following phenomena: theory lagged behind practice, the research priorities hitherto (Kalevala-song, folklore's poetics) were substituted for newer ones (folk religion, heritage group folklore), modern folklore arose as equal next to the folklore of the past. Among other things the new situation demanded the modernisation of the definition of folklore. Besides folkloristic practice the definition is also shaped by local scientific tradition (vertical cultural axis) and currently prevalent international cultural contacts (horizontal cultural axis).In the 19th century, during the period of beginning and early development Estonian folklore has been influenced mainly by folklore in German language, at the turn of the century it was also influenced by Finnish folklore - the dialogue with Finland has lasted till now; during the Soviet period after WW2 prevailed research trends characteristic to Russian folklore, by 1990s it had cast aside Russian folkloristic trends paving the way for introducing European and, more significantly, American folkloristic trends and emerging them into Estonian folklore.In Estonia the science of folklore can be considered as a sub-discipline of philology and all the periods mentioned above are characterised by the prevalence of text-centred research trends and linguistic research methods in folklore. Parallelly, the Estonian folklore has been interested in the historical aspect of oral traditions. 1930s and 1990s are characterised by a growing concern towards historical-ethnological research. The emergence of modern folklore into Estonian folklore has shifted the research preference from text to presentation. Reforms in science demanded also the modernisation of the definition of folklore.For the introductory course in folklore science at the University of Tartu I have formulated the notion as following: Folk poetry or folklore is a syncretical intellectual heritage of a culturally homogeneous group. It holds knowledge, experience and aesthetics. Folklore is developed, preserved and spread via communication process and it is characterised by constant change.
Konflikt, kogemus ja nostalgia perep rimuses Eesti ja Soome n itel
Tiiu Jaago
M?etagused. Hüperajakiri , 1999,
Abstract: The need to know one's ancestry has been justified by mythical, legal, as well as scientific explanations. But why do we discuss it and write about it in the modern society?We must search for the reasons for our interest in family heritage in the common elements of the earlier tradition and new forms of culture. Therefore, there is no need to study merely oral narratives, or separate them strictly from heritage in written form.The current article centres on the purpose of family heritage at the end of the 20th century, based on the structure of family narratives in two written sources. The manuscripts were taken from the Estonian collection entitled Eesti Elulood (EE), [Estonian Life Stories] available in the Estonian Archives of Cultural History in the Estonian Museum of Literature, and from the Finnish collection Suvun suuri kertomus (SSK) [The Great Family History] available in the Finnish Literature Society Folklore Archives in Helsinki. Nearly 1,500 of the total of 20,000 pages of the first collection (Life stories of the Estonians submitted for the 1996 collection contest The Fate of Me and My Close Ones in the Course of History ) and approximately 1,300 pages of the total of 40,000 of the other (the outcome of the 1997 Finnish national contest for collecting family heritage) were covered for the present article. As to the Estonian manuscripts the selection was based on the contents of heritage (the collection focuses on life stories, and therefore does not contain accounts about ancestry and the life of ancestors); as to the Finnish material I tended to give priority to narratives about peasant ancestries, as it seemed to comply best with the selected Estonian material.The narrators were mainly from village communities, although nowadays they may be settled in towns. The majority of them were born during the period between the two world wars. Written narratives reflect an opposition between the stability and harmony and the crisis after WW2. The reason for it is objective due to the life of the generation under discussion and ongoing historical events. In the 1920s-1930s, today's narrators-respondents were young children. This period is often characterised as a period of stability and security, followed by a very critical change in society. In Estonia, people's lives were interrupted by war and political reforms, which ran to the extremes with the arrests and deportations in 1941 and 1949. In Finland, life was affected by the war, emigration from Karelia due to the re-establisment of Russian borders; the most significant change was associated wit
Mis sealt t useb, soost sinine, soost sinine, maast punane?
Tiiu Jaago
M?etagused. Hüperajakiri , 1997,
Abstract: The usage of color words in runo songs depends on: the possibilities of the existing language; the poetics of the runo song, the regional style, the world concept at the time of the runo song's creation.The frequency of using color words depends on the song's plot (they are mostly connected with marring fantasies and puzzle songs) and inside that, on its turn, on the song type. Colors are connected with not a certain song but rather with historically developed stereotypical phrases. In a runo song they mark certain situations or phenomena. Blue and red in parallel verses hint to border situations in man's life (wedding, birth) or in nature (the border of night and day). The pair of colors has other meanings as well as it is statistically often found and semantically many-sided.Of 772 songs, color names were mentioned in 175 and all in all 37 different color words were used. Of the contemporary Estonian well-known color names were used red, blue, gray, black, white, rarely were used green and yellow from the list were absent brown, pink, violet, orange. Runo songs were recorded in the 19th century. Black, white, red, blue became the basic color names already before the 17th century. Instead of yellow, golden is often used. Green as a basic color name has been known since the middle of the 17th century and is found in runo songs only occasionally. Brown - a loan word from the 18th century - is not at all found in runo songs. From this we can not actually conclude that the stereotypical runo song expressions connected with color words had been formed before the 17th century. For example we often meet in runo songs the word gray as a basic color name, but it became a basic color only in the 18th century. At the same time, the earlier basic color name bright (`haldjas') noting green, is absent in runo songs (it is used in the contemporary meaning that marks shining, glowing or the color of a limited group of notions - i.e. the greenness of trees). The glossary of runo songs was still developing in the 18th century. Earlier color names (white, black, red, blue) give ample stereotypical expressions, red-blue in different meanings and word pictures.
Lugu ja sündmus jutu-uurimises: situatsioonianalüüsist kontekstianalüüsini
Tiiu Jaago
M?etagused. Hüperajakiri , 2009,
Abstract: The article discusses a development tendency in narrative research, focuses on the situation analysis worked out by Aino Laagus in the early 1970s, and introduces the boundaries of structuralism and constructivism in the study of true life stories during the past forty years. Leaving aside the distribution of themes and motifs and genre research methods, the article poses two main questions: (i) what is the situation analysis method and (ii) how can it be applied in contemporary context-centred narrative research. The article primarily demonstrates the relationships between situation analysis and the study of life history and (oral) narrative history.
Rahvaluule e-kursused: uudishimust kogemuseni
Tiiu Jaago
M?etagused. Hüperajakiri , 2008,
Abstract: There are three types of online folklore courses available at the University of Tartu: epublications of open access study materials (subject web sites, e-lectures, and e-textbooks), video lectures (e.g., on DVD), virtual e-learning environment with limited access(three main e-learning platforms are used in Estonia: WebCT, Moodle, IVA). In this article I focus on my eight years of experience with WebCT, having worked as a learner, course compiler (including designer) as well as the lecturer.The need for web-based courses increased together with the growth and the broadened opportunities in the use of WWW. The fact that the web site of Estonian Folklore (www.folklore.ee) already featured a number of electronic databases as well as e-publications introduced the need for the use of these materials in educational work. WebCT enables the user to present material in written and audio format, present lore texts as audio or video recordings or images and thus present web lore in an entirely natural context. Present-day students have grown up in the computer era, which is why searching the Web for material is as natural to them as searching for information in books once was. At the stage of familiarising myself with WebCT (2000–2002) I put together course materials while the web materials were technologically integrated by Lehti Pilt, education technologist at the University of Tartu. In 2003–2004, I acquired skills of preparing a WebCT course (formulate the subject, determine the e-course structure, consider learning assignments and methods, the use of WebCT devices, etc.) and by 2006 I had developed skills of designing the course, taking part in courses and seminars, compiling courses and carrying these out. This was an active process of acquiring new information which consummated with the introduction of the new version of WebCT in 2006, which for me was a serious setback: I had to do extra technical work at converting the courses from the old version of WebCT to the new one. Regardless of that, WebCT has turned into an equal (though not alternative) work environment to conventional learning (traditional classroom sessions). This, however, is not a common apprehension: students who are not comfortable with computer communication are sure to mention it in formal feedback, while the opposite version (of students officially protesting against traditional learning) is very rare indeed. In informal feedback, however, preferences and objections of both types of learning are proportional. On the one hand, it seems that at its present stage, the students and the gener
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