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The 2-series eicosanoids are structurally related lipid-soluble hormones synthesized by cyclooxygenase enzymes from arachidonic acid. These compounds have well-established roles in the inflammatory response and the coagulation cascade. More recently, the eicosanoids have garnered attention for their potential roles in cancers of the lung, colon, breast, and brain. In this paper, we review the contributions of the different cyclooxygenase metabolites (i.e. prostaglandins, prostacyclins and thromboxanes) to cancer development, progression and recurrence, with special attention paid to their relevance to glioma biology. Our review suggests that 2-series eicosanoids merit further study as possible targets for therapy in patients with glioma.