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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 17440 matches for " Tian Chan "
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Scope of claim coverage in patents of fufang Chinese herbal drugs: Substitution of ingredients
Xinsheng Wang, Jiaher Tian, Albert Chan
Chinese Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1749-8546-6-30
Abstract: In Chinese medicine practice, single herbal ingredient prescriptions are referred to as danfang whereas multiple herbal ingredients prescriptions are fufang which is more widely used than danfang due to the synergistic effects. Many herbal ingredients in a fufang prescription may be replaced by one or several other herbal combinations without failing to produce similar therapeutic effects. For example, Rhizoma Coptidis (Huanglian), Cortex Phellodendri (Huangbai) and Radix Scutellariae Baicalensis (Huangqin) share similar functions and may be replaced with each other for clearing heat, drying dampness, draining fire and relieving toxicity. Ginseng, when taken orally as adaptogen, aphrodisiac and nourishing stimulant, may be substituted by other herbs in the ginseng family, such as Dangshen and Huangqi.The existence of multiple substitutes often makes patent owners concerned about limiting the scope of their claims to a particular herbal combination. For example, if someone obtains a fufang patent X comprising A, B, C and D, does a composition consisting of A, B, C and P, or a composition consisting of A, B, C, E and F infringe patent X? The answer to this hypothetical question depends on how the court interprets the scope of the claim coverage in a fufang patent.To ascertain the precise scope of a patent, one must look at (1) the literal scope of a patent claim and (2) the scope of claim coverage under the Doctrine of Equivalents. Claim construction analysis begins with the literal words of the claim, which generally carries their ordinary and customary meanings [1]. The claims 'must be read in view of the specification, of which they are a part' [2].The Doctrine of Equivalents extends the patentee's right to exclude others from making, using, selling or importing the patented invention beyond the literal scope of the claims. Infringement under the Doctrine of Equivalents is an equitable doctrine devised for 'situations where there is no literal infringement but [whe
Fabrication of CuO nanoparticle interlinked microsphere cages by solution method
Qi JianQuan,Tian HuYong,Li LongTu,Chan HelenLaiWah
Nanoscale Research Letters , 2007,
Abstract: Here we report a very simple method to convert conventional CuO powders to nanoparticle interlinked microsphere cages by solution method. CuO is dissolved into aqueous ammonia, and the solution is diluted by alcohol and dip coating onto a glass substrate. Drying at 80 °C, the nanostructures with bunchy nanoparticles of Cu(OH)2can be formed. After the substrate immerges into the solution and we vaporize the solution, hollow microspheres can be formed onto the substrate. There are three phases in the as-prepared samples, monoclinic tenorite CuO, orthorhombic Cu(OH)2, and monoclinic carbonatodiamminecopper(II) (Cu(NH3)2CO3). After annealing at 150 °C, the products convert to CuO completely. At annealing temperature above 350 °C, the hollow microspheres became nanoparticle interlinked cages.
Topic-adjusted visibility metric for scientific articles
Linda S. L. Tan,Aik Hui Chan,Tian Zheng
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: Measuring the impact of scientific articles is important for evaluating the research output of individual scientists, academic institutions and journals. While citations are raw data for constructing impact measures, there exist biases and potential issues if factors affecting citation patterns are not properly accounted for. In this work, we address the problem of field variation and introduce an article level metric useful for evaluating individual articles' visibility. This measure derives from joint probabilistic modeling of the content in the articles and the citations amongst them using latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) and the mixed membership stochastic blockmodel (MMSB). Our proposed model provides a visibility metric for individual articles adjusted for field variation in citation rates, a structural understanding of citation behavior in different fields, and article recommendations which take into account article visibility and citation patterns. We develop an efficient algorithm for model fitting using variational methods. To scale up to large networks, we develop an online variant using stochastic gradient methods and case-control likelihood approximation. We apply our methods to the benchmark KDD Cup 2003 dataset with approximately 30,000 high energy physics papers.
Institutional risk factors for norovirus outbreaks in Hong Kong elderly homes: a retrospective cohort study
Hualiang Lin, Sammy Ng, Shelley Chan, Wai Chan, Krystal CK Lee, Suzanne C Ho, Linwei Tian
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-297
Abstract: A cohort of 748 elderly homes was followed up from January 2005 to December 2007; each elderly home was treated as one observation unit and the outcome event was the norovirus outbreak. Cox regression models were fitted to estimate the rate ratio (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the potential risk factors.A total of 276 norovirus outbreaks were confirmed during the study period; the outbreak rate was 12.2 (95% CI: 9.9-14.6) per 100 home-years; elderly homes with a larger capacity (RR = 1.4, 95% CI: 1.3-1.5 (per 30-resident increment)), a higher staff-to-resident ratio (RR = 1.2, 95% CI: 1.1-1.3 (per 1/30 increment) and better wheelchair accessibility (RR = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.3-3.2) were found to have an elevated norovirus outbreak rate in Hong Kong elderly homes; Elderly homes with partitions between beds had a lower rate of norovirus outbreaks (RR = 0.6, 95% CI: 0.4-0.8).Elderly home capacity, staff-to-resident ratio and wheelchair accessibility were risk factors for norovirus outbreaks in Hong Kong elderly homes. Partitions between beds were a protective factor of norovirus outbreaks. These results should be considered in the infection control in Hong Kong elderly homes.Hong Kong is facing an ageing population. In 2006, 12.4% of Hong Kong population were over 65 years old [1]. The population projection showed that the proportion of the elderly would go up to 21.9% in 2026 and 26.8% in 2033, respectively [2]. In 2005, there were about 60,000 elderly people residing in elderly homes, accounting for about 7% of the population aged 65 years old and above [3]. Residential care homes for the elderly are an important part of the health care system for the old age group. Evidence has shown that infection is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the institutionalized elderly [4]. An atypically high level of norovirus outbreak has been noticed in Hong Kong in early May 2006; most of the outbreaks were located in the elderly homes [5]. Healthcare-associated n
Hospitalizations for varicella in children and adolescents in a referral hospital in Hong Kong, 2004 to 2008: A time series study
Johnny YC Chan, Linwei Tian, YW Kwan, WM Chan, CW Leung
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-366
Abstract: The hospital discharge database of Princess Margaret Hospital was retrospectively analyzed for admissions associated with varicella from 2004 to 2008. Meteorological data were obtained from the monthly meteorological reports from the Hong Kong Observatory website. Time series analysis was performed with Poisson regression using a Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) approach.During the study period, 598 children were hospitalized for varicella. The mean age on admission was 57.6 months, and the mean duration of hospitalization was 3.7 days. The overall complication rate was 47%. The mean monthly relative humidity, especially in cool seasons, was inversely correlated with the monthly varicella cases of the same month.Varicella can lead to serious complications and prolonged hospitalization, even in previously healthy children. Lower relative humidity in cool seasons is associated with higher number of paediatric varicella hospital admissions. These findings are useful for a better understanding of the pattern of paediatric varicella hospitalization in Hong Kong.Varicella, or chickenpox, is an infectious disease caused by the ubiquitous varicella-zoster virus (VZV). It used to be considered a relatively benign communicable disease of childhood [1]. However, serious complications can occur, including secondary bacterial skin and soft tissue infections, cerebellitis, encephalitis, pneumonia and coagulopathy [1,2]. Hospitalization rates due to chickenpox are considerably high in developed countries, especially among children. The reported chickenpox complication rates range from 40.7% to 83.3% of children hospitalized with the condition in various studies [3-5]. Furthermore, a mortality rate of 2-3 per 100,000 affected persons has been reported [1]. Therefore, varicella remains an important public health issue worldwide. Despite the availability of a safe and effective varicella vaccine since 1986, there is no recommendation for universal vaccination against varicella i
Equilibrium in Classical Confucian “Economy”  [PDF]
Shirley Chan
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2012.22015
Abstract: In a modern economy, “equilibrium” means that supply and demand is equal. It is at this point that the allocation of goods and services is at its most efficient, this being because the amount of goods and the amount of goods in demand are equally balanced. The market equilibrium therefore is determined by supply and demand. This paper looks at the concept of “equilibrium” in some of the early Confucian texts and its possible implications in economic activities. In the Confucian context equilibrium, or what can be termed as the ultimate equilibrium, is to be understood in a broader sense where balances and harmony at different levels (e.g. individual and society) need to be sought in order to achieve a model of sustainable development. The ultimate equilibrium may provide an alternative approach to social welfare and economic prosperity creating universal harmony and better living for humans. In Confucian ideology, governing for the welfare of the people is not merely a question of increasing personal income and wealth; it requires implementation on a priority basis, taking into consideration the formation of an orderly society based on the enforcement of moral and ethical standards with the existence of a benevolent government which appropriates things according to the principles of harmony and order to achieve what can be termed as the “great equilibrium”—equilibrium that is not simply defined by balanced economic forces as in modern economic theory; but rather is used to suggest an ideal state of harmony in self fulfilment and socio-political order through incentives and by appropriate means.
Language Learner Autonomy and Learning Contract: A Case Study of Language Majors of a University in Hong Kong  [PDF]
Mable Chan
Open Journal of Modern Linguistics (OJML) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2015.52013
Abstract: With the aim of developing first year undergraduate students’ awareness and ability of autonomous learning, they were asked to do self-access work in an academic English proficiency course through drafting a learning contract outlining their learning objectives and submitting learning evidence regularly in the course of the semester. This study examines the content of the learning contract and the English language learning beliefs reflected from the learning objectives formulated, plus questionnaire results, and determines whether university students in Hong Kong are ready for autonomous learning or not. Based on the findings, the study examines whether Hong Kong university students are ready for autonomous learning, and discusses ways to deal with the challenges which might impede implementation of language learner autonomy in Hong Kong.
Chemical Constituents and Biological Studies of the Leaves of Grevillea robusta
Ta-Hsien Chuang,Hsiu-Hui Chan,Tian-Shung Wu,Chien-Fu Li
Molecules , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/molecules16119331
Abstract: Three new compounds: Graviquinone (1), cis-3-hydroxy-5-pentadecylcyclohexanone (2), and methyl 5-ethoxy-2-hydroxycinnamate (3), and thirty-eight known compounds were isolated and identified from the leaves of Grevillea robusta. The structures of these compounds were determined by spectroscopic and chemical transformation methods. Graviquinone (1) showed the strongest cytotoxicity against MCF-7, NCI-H460, and SF-268 cell lines. Methyl 2,5-dihydroxycinnamate (4), graviphane (13), and dehydrograviphane (14) exhibited very potent DPPH scavenging activity compared with α-tocopherol. Methyl 2,5-dihydroxycinnamate (4) and bis-norstriatol (17) demonstrated strong inhibition of L-DOPA oxidation by mushroom tyrosinase compared with kojic acid.
The role of basic health insurance on depression: an epidemiological cohort study of a randomized community sample in Northwest China
Donghua Tian, Zhiyong Qu, Xiaohua Wang, Jing Guo, Fan Xu, Xiulan Zhang, Cecilia Chan
BMC Psychiatry , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-244x-12-151
Abstract: Participants were selected from 32 communities in two northwestern Chinese cities through a three-stage random sampling. Three waves of interviews were completed in April 2006, December 2006, and January 2008. The baseline survey was completed by 4,079 participants. Subsequently, 2,220 participants completed the first follow-up, and 1,888 completed the second follow-up. Depression symptoms were measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D).A total of 40.0% of participants had at least one form of health insurance. The percentages of participants with severe depressive symptoms in the three waves were 21.7%, 22.0%, and 17.6%. Depressive symptoms were found to be more severe among participants without health insurance in the follow-up surveys. After adjusting for confounders, participants without health insurance were found to experience a higher risk of developing severe depressive symptoms than participants with health insurance (7 months: OR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.09-1.82; p?=?0.01; 20 months: OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.37-2.61; p?<?0.001).A lack of basic health insurance can dramatically increase the risk of depression based on northwestern Chinese community samples.Major depressive disorder is a serious and recurrent disorder linked to diminished role functioning and quality of life, medical morbidity and mortality [1,2]. According to a recent study by the World Health Organization (WHO), the average lifetime and 12-month prevalence estimates of DSM-IV major depressive disorder were 14.6% and 5.5% in ten high-income countries and 11.1% and 5.9% in eight low- to middle-income countries [3]. China is in the period of "type-transforming", and people are facing various perplexities and problems. A large-scale mental health survey in 2009 revealed that the prevalence of mental disorders among the population aged 15 and older reached 17.5%, of which 6.7% had mood disorders, including depression [4]. The prevalence of depression among the senior populatio
Numerical Simulation of Local and Non-Local Effects of Vegetation Change and Urbanization in a Semi-Arid Region in China

CHEN Lei,TIAN Wen-shou,WANG Chan,

高原气象 , 2009,
Abstract: Using a mesoscale model,the local and non-local responses of the atmosphere to changes in vegetation cover and surface types in a semi-arid region are analysed.The results show that the changes in vegetation cover have a complex effect on the surface temperature with a significant diurnal cycle.Contrast to a strong and persistent warming caused by urbanization of the area,decreases in vegetation cover only give rise to a weak and intermitted warming depending on the partition of the surface net available en...
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