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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1373 matches for " Thorsten Ernstberger "
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Implant-related MRI artifacts of determined interbody test spacers: artifact calculations due to implant parameters in a porcine spine model  [PDF]
Thorsten Ernstberger
Health (Health) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/health.2009.13035
Abstract: Aim: Intervertebral spacers for anterior spine fusion are made of different materials, which can affect the post-fusion MRI scans. Suscep- tibility artifacts specially for implants made of titanium alloys can decrease the image quality. This study focused on the influence of deter-mined implant parameters like shape and implant volume in MRI artifacting independent from se-lected MRI-sequences. Methods: In this study the post-implantation MRI scans of determined cuboids and cylinders were evaluated. All in-terbody test implants were made of titanium alloys. MRI scans were carried out by using T1 TSE sequences. The total artifact volume (TAV) of all examined implants were calculated for sta-tistical t-test correlation and implant volume (IV)/TAV-relation. Results: Considering all ex-amined test implants with an increasing implant size the TAV became significant larger (p<0,001) with simultaneous reduction of the respective IV/TAV-relation. According to an intergroup TAV- correlation for cylinders and cuboids with an equivalent implant volume the cylindric test im-plants demonstrated a significant smaller arti-fact range (p<0,05). Conclusions: Based on these results the MRI artifacts of larger test im-plants were more limited to the to the implant’s direct surroundings. In this connection for im- plants with identical material volumes a cylin- dric shape demonstrated more advantages con- sidering MRI artifacting than cubic forms.
Score Evaluation of MRI Sequence Type Related Artifacts after Interbody Fusion with Metallic Implants—A Spine Specimen Study  [PDF]
Thorsten Ernstberger, Gottfried Buchhorn, Gabert Heidrich
Open Journal of Medical Imaging (OJMI) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojmi.2012.22010
Abstract: Introduction: According to anterior spine fusion intervertebral disc spacers made of titanium or cobalt-chromium al-loys are of special interest. With regard to postoperative problems implant related artifacts can lead to a decreased MRI evaluation. The focus of this study was to compare the respective implant artifact artifact range dependend on different MRI sequences. To simplify artifact evaluation we introduced in this study a new developed 0-1-2 score. Material and Methods: We performed an MRI artifact evaluation of 2 different metallic intervertebral disc spacers (cobalt-chromium and titanium alloy). A carcass porcine spine was employed. Considering 12 defined spinal regions of interest we evaluated the respective implant artifact properties independent from the total artifact volume by using a new developed 0-1-2 score. The artifact range was documented for 15 different MRI-sequences. Results: For the titanium spacer as well as the cobalt-chromium-spacer an MRI evaluation of the implant/disc space situation could not be carried out. In contrast to the cobalt chromium spacer the titanium spacer allowed a good differentiation of the spinal canal opposite to the implant. Optimal MRI imaging results for both metallic intervertebral disc spacers could be achieved considering TSE sequences. Conclusion: A comparison of these two metallic spacers showed in all examined sequences clear advantages in favour of the titanium spacer. The best MRI representation of both tested implants by reducing implant related artifacts could be achieved with fast spin echo (TSE-) sequences. In spite of the use of TSE sequences a variability of susceptibility artifacts has to be included with regard to implant shape and material. With regard to the results of this study the easy use of a new developed artifact score represented a useful help to compare implant related MRI artifact properties independent from the actual implant related total artifact volume.
Score based assessment of implant-related post fusion MRI artifacts focused on different interbody disc spacers: An in vitro study  [PDF]
Thorsten Ernstberger, Gabert Heidrich, Hans-Michael Klinger, Mike Herbert Baums
Open Journal of Clinical Diagnostics (OJCD) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojcd.2012.22005
Abstract: Interbody disc spacers for anterior spine fusion are made of different materials, such as titanium alloys or carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP). Implant-related susceptibility artifacts can decrease the quality of MRI scans. This cadaveric study aimed to demonstrate the extent that implant-related MRI artifacting affects the post fusion differentiation of the spinal canal (SC) and intervertebral disc space (IDS). In 6 cadaveric porcine spines, we evaluated the post-im- plantation MRI scans of a titanium and CFRP spacer that differed in shape and surface qualities. A spacer made of human cortical bone was used as a control. A defined evaluation unit was divided into regions of interest (ROI) to characterize the SC and IDS. Considering 15 different MRI sequences read independently by an interobserver-validated team of specialists artifact-affected image quality of the median MRI slice was rated on a modified score of 0-1-2-3. A maximum score of 15 points for the SC and 9 points for the IDS (100%) was possible. Turbo spin echo sequences produced the best scores for both spacers and the control. Only the control achieved a score of 100%. For the IDS the titanium and CFRP spacer maximally scored 0% and 74%, for the SC 80% and 99%, respectively. By using favored T1 TSE sequences the CFRP-spacer represented clear advantages in post fusion spinal imaging. Independent of artifact dimensions the used scoring system allowed us to create an implant-related ranking of MRI scan quality in reference to the bone control.
Imaging characteristics of metallic interbody spacers: in vitro score evaluation of susceptibility artifacts considering different MRI sequences  [PDF]
T. Ernstberger, G. Heidrich, G. Buchhorn
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2010.32023
Abstract: Aim: Intervertebral spacers for anterior spine fusion are made of different materials, such as titanium, carbon or cobalt-chrome, which can affect the post- fusion MRI scans. Implant-related susceptibility artifacts can decrease the quality of MRI scans, thwar- ting proper evaluation. This cadaver study aimed to demonstrate the extent that implant-related MRI artifacting affects the post-fusion evaluation of intervertebral spacers. Methods: In a cadaveric porcine spine, we evaluated the post-implantation MRI scans of 2 metallic intervertebral spacers (TiAL6V4, CoCrMo) that differed in shape, material, surface qualities and implantation technique. A spacer made of human cortical bone was used as a control. The median sagittal MRI slice was divided into 12 regions of interest (ROI). Results: No significant differences were found on 15 different MRI sequences read independently by an interobserver-validated team of specialists (P>0.05). Artifact-affected image quality was rated on a score of 0-1-2. A maximum score of 24 points (100%) was possible. Turbo spin echo sequences produced the best scores for all spacers and the control. Only the control achieved a score of 100%. The titanium and cobalt-chrome spacers scored 62.5% and 50%, respectively. Conclusions: Our scoring system allowed us to create an implant-related rank- ing of MRI scan quality in reference to the control that was independent of artifact dimensions. Even with turbo spin echo sequences, the susceptibility artifacts produced by the metallic spacers showed a high degree of variability. Despite optimum sequen- cing, implant design and material are relevant factors in MRI artifacting.
Analysts' Forecast Accuracy in Germany: The Effect of Different Accounting Principles and Changes of Accounting Principles
Jürgen Ernstberger,Simon Krotter,Christian Stadler
BuR : Business Research , 2008,
Abstract: This paper assesses the influence of an adoption of IAS/IFRS or US GAAP on the financial analysts’ forecast accuracy in a homogenous institutional framework. Our findings suggest that the forecast accuracy is higher for estimates based on IFRS or US GAAP data than for forecasts based on German GAAP data. Moreover, in the year of switching from German GAAP to US GAAP the forecast accuracy is lower than in other years. The paper contributes to prior research by providing evidence about the usefulness of international accounting data and about the adoption effects of a change to such accounting principles.
Beacon-driven Leader Based Protocol over a GE Channel for MAC Layer Multicast Error Control  [PDF]
Zhao LI, Thorsten HERFET
Int'l J. of Communications, Network and System Sciences (IJCNS) , 2008, DOI: 10.4236/ijcns.2008.12019
Abstract: In wireless networks current standard MAC layer protocols don’t provide any error correction scheme for broadcast/multicast. In this paper, we enhance a Leader Based Protocol (LBP) and propose a Beacon-driven Leader Based Protocol (BLBP) for the MAC layer multicast error control. To guarantee a very low Packet Loss Ratio (PLR) under strict delay constraints for video multicast over a Gilbert-Elliott (GE) channel, we analyze BLBP and compare it with LBP and different application layer multicast error control schemes via simulation experiments. Both the theoretical analysis and simulation results show that BLBP can correct nearly all the errors for all receivers in the MAC layer and is more efficient than LBP. BLBP is also more efficient than the application layer Automatic Repeat request (ARQ) scheme and the total multicast delay is much shorter. BLBP is very good for real-time multicast applications with strict delay constraints.
A Novel Adaptive Hybrid Error Correction Scheme for Wireless DVB Services  [PDF]
Guoping TAN, Thorsten HERFET
Int'l J. of Communications, Network and System Sciences (IJCNS) , 2008, DOI: 10.4236/ijcns.2008.12023
Abstract: Real-time applications usually not only have a certain Packet Loss Ratio (PLR) requirement but also can have strict delay constraints. In the past, we proposed a Hybrid Error Correction (HEC) scheme with Packet Repetition (PR) technique for guaranteeing a certain PLR requirement under strict delay constraints. Unfortunately, the HEC-PR scheme can only work efficiently in multicast scenarios with small group size and small link PLR. Our further studies show that better performance can be obtained by combining the HEC-PR scheme with other traditional HEC schemes such as Type I HARQ and Type II HARQ techniques. Based on this idea, in this paper, a novel Adaptive HEC (AHEC) scheme combining the HEC-PR scheme with Type I and Type II HARQ techniques is proposed to satisfy a certain PLR requirement for delay bounded multicast services. Furthermore, the performance of the AHEC scheme is optimized by choosing the scheme with the least needed redundancy information automatically among the three HEC schemes. Finally, by applying the AHEC scheme in a typical wireless DVB scenario, we analyze the performances of the AHEC scheme and compare it with the HEC-PR scheme and an Adaptive Forward Error Correction (AFEC) scheme. The results show that the proposed AHEC scheme outperforms both the AFEC scheme and the HEC-PR scheme.
Review on the Functional Determinants and Durability of Shape Memory Polymers
Thorsten Pretsch
Polymers , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/polym2030120
Abstract: Shape memory polymers (SMP) belong to the class of stimuli-responsive materials and have generated significant research interest. Their capability to retain an imposed, temporary shape and to recover the initial, permanent shape upon exposure to an external stimulus depends on the “functional determinants”, which in simplistic terms, can be divided into structural/morphological and processing/environmental factors. The primary aim of the first part of this review is to reflect the knowledge about these fundamental relationships. In a next step, recent advances in shape memory polymer composites are summarized. In contrast to earlier reviews, studies on the impairment of shape memory properties through various factors, such as aging, compression and hibernation, lubricants, UV light and thermo-mechanical cycling, are extensively reviewed. Apart from summarizing the state-of-the-art in SMP research, recent progress is commented.
Error Estimates of a Computational Method for Generalised Connecting Orbits
Thorsten Pampel
The Open Numerical Methods Journal , 2009, DOI: 10.2174/1876389801002010006]
Abstract: We provide error estimates for an approximation method to compute simultaneously solutions of two dynamical systems each with given asymptotic behaviour and both coupled only by conditions on initial values. The method applies to compute connecting orbits point to point, point to periodic and periodic to periodic as in the literature and in numerical applications. Since our set up is more general, we call solutions of our systems generalised connecting orbits and provide further applications like Skiba points in economic models or solutions with a discontinuity. By specifying the asymptotic rates our method also applies to the computation of solutions converging in a strongly stable manifold. The numerical analysis shows that the error decays exponentially with the length of the approximation intervals even in the strongly stable case and for periodic solutions. For orbits connecting hyperbolic equilibria this is in agreement with known results in the literature. In our method we select appropriate asymptotic boundary conditions which depend typically on parameters. In order to solve these types of boundary value problems we set up an iterative procedure which is called boundary corrector method.
The Physics probed by the P_T Dependence of the Nuclear Suppression Factor
Renk, Thorsten
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology , 2013,
Abstract: The nuclear suppression factor R_AA of single inclusive hadrons measured in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions was the first observable to study jet quenching, i.e. the final state interaction of hard parton showers with the surrounding bulk matter. While its transverse momentum (P_T) dependence of R_AA observed at RHIC was weak and hence never decisive in constraining models, there is now a strong and non-trivial P_T dependence observed at the LHC. This has been a challenge for several models which worked well at RHIC kinematics. However, in more general terms it is also of importance to understand what physical properties of the hard process and the parton-medium interaction are reflected in R_AA(P_T). The results of the work presented here suggest that the two main effects underlying the P_T dependence are the Quantum-Chromodynamics scale evolution of the fragmentation function and the limited distance (set by the typical medium length scale) for which a shower evolves in the medium.
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