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Search Results: 1 - 6 of 6 matches for " Thorlakson Tannis "
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Reducing subsistence farmers’ vulnerability to climate change: evaluating the potential contributions of agroforestry in western Kenya
Thorlakson Tannis,Neufeldt Henry
Agriculture & Food Security , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/2048-7010-1-15
Abstract: Subsistence farmers are among the people most vulnerable to current climate variability. Climate models predict that climate change will lead to warmer temperatures, increasing rainfall variability, and increasing severity and frequency of extreme weather events. Agroforestry, or the intentional use of trees in the cropping system, has been proposed by many development practitioners as a potential strategy to help farmers reduce their vulnerability to climate change. This study explores whether and, if so, how agroforestry techniques can help subsistence farmers reduce their vulnerability to climate change. From field research conducted in western Kenya, we find that households are not currently coping with climate-related hazards in a sustainable way. Farmers are aware of this, and believe that the most effective way to adapt to climate-related shocks is through improving their general standard of living. We evaluated agroforestry as one possible means of improving farmers’ well-being. By comparing farmers engaged in an agroforestry project with a control group of neighboring farmers, we find that involvement in agroforestry improves household’s general standard of living via improvements in farm productivity, off-farm incomes, wealth and the environmental conditions of their farm. We conclude that agroforestry techniques can be used as an effective part of a broader development strategy to help subsistence farmers reduce their vulnerability to climate-related hazards.
CIDER Session ~ Online Teaching in International Contexts: Towards a sociocultural perspective of teaching presence
Tannis Morgan
International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning , 2008,
Abstract: Re-broadcast of a presentation on original research entitled: Online Teaching in International Contexts: Towards a sociocultural perspective of teaching presence.
Evaluating the Quality of Randomized Controlled Trials that Examine the Efficacy of Natural Health Products: A Systematic Review of Critical Appraisal Instruments
Anne Marie Whelan,Tannis M. Jurgens,Lindsay Lord
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2009, DOI: 10.1093/ecam/nem186
Abstract: The purpose of this project was to conduct a systematic review to identify instruments designed to evaluate the quality of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of natural health products (NHPs). Instruments were examined for inclusion of items assessing methods, identity and content of the NHP, generalizability of results and instructions for use. Online databases, websites, textbooks and reference lists were searched to identify instruments. Relevance assessment and data extraction of articles were completed by two investigators and disagreements were settled by the third investigator. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Of the 4442 citations identified, 29 were potentially relevant with 16 meeting the criteria for inclusion. None of the instruments stated they were validated; content in the four areas of interest varied considerably. The most common items included randomization sequence generation (100%), blinding (100%), allocation concealment (75%) and participant flow (75%). Only nine of the NHP instruments included at least one item to appraise the specific content of the NHP. The CONSORT Statement for Herbal Interventions most closely addressed the four areas of interest; however, this instrument was specific for herbs. There is a need for the development of a validated instrument for assessment of the quality of RCTs that would be useful for herbs as well as other NHPs.
Development and evaluation of an instrument for the critical appraisal of randomized controlled trials of natural products
Tannis Jurgens, Anne Whelan, Melissa MacDonald, Lindsay Lord
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-9-11
Abstract: Three phases of the project included: 1) using experts and a Delphi process to reach consensus on a list of items essential in describing the identity of an NP; 2) compiling a list of non-NP items important for evaluating the quality of an RCT using systematic review methodology to identify published instruments and then compiling item categories that were part of a validated instrument and/or had empirical evidence to support their inclusion and 3) conducting a field test to compare the new instrument to a published instrument for usefulness in evaluating the quality of 3 RCTs of a NP and in applying results to practice.Two Delphi rounds resulted in a list of 15 items essential in describing NPs. Seventeen item categories fitting inclusion criteria were identified from published instruments for conventional medicines. The new assessment instrument was assembled based on content of the two lists and the addition of a Reviewer's Conclusion section. The field test of the new instrument showed good criterion validity. Participants found it useful in translating evidence from RCTs to practice.A new instrument for the critical appraisal of RCTs of NPs was developed and tested. The instrument is distinct from other available assessment instruments for RCTs of NPs in its systematic development and validation. The instrument is ready to be used by pharmacy students, health care practitioners and academics and will continue to be refined as required.The use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) has steadily increased in North America in the last 2 decades. Coinciding with the increase in use, the scientific evaluation of the efficacy and safety of CAM practices and products is also on the rise. In fact, a recent editorial reported that in 2008 more than 7500 CAM trials were indexed in MEDLINE [1].The evaluation of the efficacy of CAM practices and products using the same methodology used for conventional practices and products is controversial. It can be argued tha
Defining bioidentical hormones for menopause-related symptoms
Whelan,Anne Marie; Jurgens,Tannis M.; Trinacty,Melanie;
Pharmacy Practice (Internet) , 2011, DOI: 10.4321/S1886-36552011000100003
Abstract: in the last decade, the use of bioidentical hormones (bhs) to treat menopause-related symptoms has become increasingly popular. however, the many different definitions of bhs have led to a great deal of confusion often making it difficult for health care providers to discuss this area with patients. objective: the purpose of this paper was to produce a concise definition of bioidentical hormones, based on a review of the literature. methods: searches, using systematic review methodology, were conducted from inception to june 2010 in pubmed, embase, ipa, the journal of international compounding and the internet to identify definitions of bioidentical hormones. there were no restrictions on type, date or language of publication. included papers/website included those that contained a definition of bhs. definitions were extracted, similarities and differences summarized, and these were then examined to produce a concise definition. results: sixty-three definitions were found. based on the analysis of similarities and differences, the following definition, comprised of three components (term being defined; category to which term belongs; distinctive characteristics of term) was produced: "bioidentical hormones are chemical substances that are identical in molecular structure to human hormones." conclusions: this definition clearly and concisely explains the meaning of bhs which should lead to a common understanding of the term and limit confusion among health care providers, the general public and the scientific community.
Exploring consumer and pharmacist views on the professional role of the pharmacist with respect to natural health products: a study of focus groups
Della Kwan, Heather S Boon, Kristine Hirschkorn, Sandy Welsh, Tannis Jurgens, Lynda Eccott, Shirley Heschuk, Glenn G Griener, Jillian C Cohen-Kohler
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-8-40
Abstract: A total of 16 focus groups were conducted with consumers (n = 50) and pharmacists (n = 47) from four different cities across Canada (Vancouver, Edmonton, Toronto, and Halifax).In this paper, we illustrate the ways in which pharmacists' professional responsibilities are impacted by changing consumer needs. Many consumers in the study utilized a wide range of information resources that may or may not have included pharmacists. Nevertheless, the majority of consumers and pharmacists agreed that pharmacists should be knowledgeable about NHPs and felt that pharmacists should be able to manage drug-NHPs interactions as well as identify and evaluate the variety of information available to help consumers make informed decisions.This paper demonstrates that consumers' expectations and behaviour significantly impact pharmacists' perceptions of their professional responsibilities with respect to NHPs.Natural health products such as herbs, vitamins and homeopathic products are a growing Canadian product category worth over $400 million annually [1] and are widely available in Canadian pharmacies. Since pharmacists are readily accessible to consumers at the point where they are making decisions about purchasing NHPs, pharmacists are potentially in a good position to provide consumers with evidence-based information about NHPs, especially regarding potential interactions with conventional medications[2]. Pharmacists have the knowledge and experience to help consumers determine when self-medication is appropriate and when the expertise of another health care provider is needed[2]. However, it is not clear that consumers want this kind of advice. With greater access to health-related information, consumers have become more literate, better educated, and increasingly capable of making their own decisions regarding their health care [3-5]. The current situation is the focus of our paper: with NHPs widely available and with engaged and informed consumers demanding access to them, what
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