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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 352695 matches for " Thomas S. Shively "
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Nonparametric Bayesian testing for monotonicity
James G. Scott,Thomas S. Shively,Stephen G. Walker
Statistics , 2013,
Abstract: This paper studies the problem of testing whether a function is monotone from a nonparametric Bayesian perspective. Two new families of tests are constructed. The first uses constrained smoothing splines, together with a hierarchical stochastic-process prior that explicitly controls the prior probability of monotonicity. The second uses regression splines, together with two proposals for the prior over the regression coefficients. The finite-sample performance of the tests is shown via simulation to improve upon existing frequentist and Bayesian methods. The asymptotic properties of the Bayes factor for comparing monotone versus non-monotone regression functions in a Gaussian model are also studied. Our results significantly extend those currently available, which chiefly focus on determining the dimension of a parametric linear model.
On the Equivalence between Bayesian and Classical Hypothesis Testing
Tom Shively,Stephen Walker
Statistics , 2013,
Abstract: For hypotheses of the type H_0:theta=theta_0 vs H_1:theta ne theta_0 we demonstrate the equivalence of a Bayesian hypothesis test using a Bayes factor and the corresponding classical test, for a large class of models, which are detailed in the paper. In particular, we show that the role of the prior and critical region for the Bayes factor test is only to specify the type I error. This is their only role since, as we show, the power function of the Bayes factor test coincides exactly with that of the classical test, once the type I error has been fixed. For more complex tests involving nuisance parameters, we recover the classical test by using Jeffreys prior on the nuisance parameters, while the prior on the hypothesized parameters can be arbitrary up to a large class. On the other hand, we show that using proper priors on the nuisance parameters results in a test with uniformly lower power than the classical test.
Generation of Novel Bone Forming Cells (Monoosteophils) from the Cathelicidin-Derived Peptide LL-37 Treated Monocytes
Zhifang Zhang,John E. Shively
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0013985
Abstract: Bone generation and maintenance involve osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes which originate from unique precursors and rely on key growth factors for differentiation. However, an incomplete understanding of bone forming cells during wound healing has led to an unfilled clinical need such as nonunion of bone fractures. Since circulating monocytes are often recruited to sites of injury and may differentiate into various cell types including osteoclasts, we investigated the possibility that circulating monocytes in the context of tissue injury may also contribute to bone repair. In particular, we hypothesized that LL-37 (produced from hCAP-18, cathelicidin), which recruits circulating monocytes during injury, may play a role in bone repair.
Acceleration of Bone Repair in NOD/SCID Mice by Human Monoosteophils, Novel LL-37-Activated Monocytes
Zhifang Zhang, John E. Shively
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0067649
Abstract: Background An incomplete understanding of bone forming cells during wound healing and ectopic calcification has led to a search for circulating cells that may fulfill this function. Previously, we showed that monoosteophils, a novel lineage of calcifying/bone-forming cells generated by treatment of monocytes with the natural peptide LL-37, are candidates. In this study, we have analyzed their gene expression profile and bone repair function. Methods and Findings Human monoosteophils can be distinguished from monocytes, macrophages and osteoclasts by their unique up-regulation of integrin α3 and down-regulation of CD14 and CD16. Monoosteophils express high mRNA and protein levels of SPP1 (osteopontin), GPNMB (osteoactivin), CHI3L1 (cartilage glycoprotein-39), CHIT1 (Chitinase 1), MMP-7, CCL22 and MAPK13 (p38MAPKδ). Monocytes from wild type, but not MAPK13 KO mice are also capable of monoosteophil differentiation, suggesting that MAPK13 regulates this process. When human monoosteophils were implanted in a freshly drilled hole in mid-diaphyseal femurs of NOD/SCID mice, significant bone repair required only 14 days compared to at least 24 days in control treated injuries. Conclusion Human derived monoosteophils, characterized as CD45+α3+α3β+CD34?CD14?BAP (bone alkaline phosphatase)? cells, can function in an animal model of bone injury.
Role of CEACAM1, ECM, and Mesenchymal Stem Cells in an Orthotopic Model of Human Breast Cancer
Sridhar Samineni,Carlotta Glackin,John E. Shively
International Journal of Breast Cancer , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/381080
Abstract: Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule-1 (CEACAM1) is a morphogen in an in vitro model for lumen formation and plays a similar role in breast epithelial cells implanted in humanized mammary fat pads in NOD-SCID mice. Although extra cellular matrix alone is sufficient to stimulate lumen formation in CEACAM1 transfected MCF-7 cells grown in 3D culture, there is an additional requirement for stromal or mesenchymal cells (MSCs) for these cells to form xenografts with glandular structures in an orthotopic site. We demonstrate that optimal in vitro conditions include both Matrigel and MSCs and that the inclusion of collagen I inhibits xenograft differentiation. Additionally, there is no need to remove the nascent murine mammary gland. The previously observed difference in gland development between the long and short cytoplasmic domain isoforms of CEACAM1 is no longer observed in pregnant NOD/SCID mice suggesting that stimulation of the mammary fat pad by pregnancy critically affects xenograft differentiation. 1. Introduction Mammary gland development is critically dependent on mesenchymal tissue [1, 2]. In the correct context, mammary epithelial cells will develop branched glandular tissue capable of milk production. In order to study human breast cancer in an animal model, it is necessary to implant breast cancer cells in an orthotopic site along with human stromal cells and other components such as ECM. The identification of essential components for proper growth of breast cancer epithelial cells was pioneered by Bissell and coworkers in an in vitro model in which mammary epithelial cells are grown in a 3D culture of extracellular matrix supplied by Matrigel [3, 4]. However, this model lacks the contribution of mesenchymal cells (MSCs) that are implicated in both normal mammary gland development and breast cancer [1, 5]. Recently, Kuperwasser et al. [6] developed an in vivo model in NOD/SCID mice in which the nascent murine mammary gland was removed and immortalized human breast fibroblasts were introduced to humanize the gland prior to addition of human mammary epithelial cells. Other components of the model include the use of radiation-killed breast fibroblasts, Matrigel, and collagen I. In our own studies, we have found that the human mammary epithelial cell line MCF7 that lacks CEACAM1 fails to form glands with a lumen in the in vitro 3D model, while transfection of CEACAM1 into MCF7 cells restores gland-like formation [7]. Similarly, when wild type MCF7 cells are grown in humanized mammary fat pads of NOD/SCID mice, solid tumors are
Development of Spanish requests and apologies during study abroad
Shively,Rachel L.; Cohen,Andrew D.;
íkala, Revista de Lenguaje y Cultura , 2008,
Abstract: the present study analyzed the requests and apologies of 67 u.s. american study abroad students before and after spending one semester in a spanish-speaking country. ratings of students' pragmatic appropriateness by spanish native speakers indicated that, overall, students improved their request and apology performance over the course of the semester. an analysis of students' request and apology strategy use, both pre- and post-study abroad, found that in certain ways students shifted their behavior to more closely resemble that of spanish native-speaker baseline data, but that in some cases, they also remained or moved away from native-speaker norms. another objective of the study was to examine the possible associations between students' background characteristics, contact with spanish, and gains in intercultural sensitivity with gains over time in rated request and apology performance. of these variables, only two of the language contact variables yielded statistically signi?cant results. this study contributes to our understanding of second language pragmatic development and the in?uence of individual characteristics and environmental factors.
Erratum of “Role of CEACAM1, ECM, and Mesenchymal Stem Cells in an Orthotopic Model of Human Breast Cancer”
Sridhar Samineni,Carlotta Glackin,John E. Shively
International Journal of Breast Cancer , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/537380
Abstract:
Erratum of “Role of CEACAM1, ECM, and Mesenchymal Stem Cells in an Orthotopic Model of Human Breast Cancer”
Sridhar Samineni,Carlotta Glackin,John E. Shively
International Journal of Breast Cancer , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/537380
Abstract:
Excitonic pairing between nodal fermions
D. V. Khveshchenko,W. F. Shively
Physics , 2005, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.73.115104
Abstract: We study excitonic pairing in nodal fermion systems characterized by a vanishing quasiparticle density of states at the pointlike Fermi surface and a concomitant lack of screening for long-range interactions. By solving the gap equation for the excitonic order parameter, we obtain a critical value of the interaction strength for a variety of power-law interactions and densities of states. We compute the free energy and analyze possible phase transitions, thus shedding further light on the unusual pairing properties of this peculiar class of strongly correlated systems.
Conformal N=0 d=4 Gauge Theories from AdS/CFT Superstring Duality?
Paul H. Frampton,William F. Shively
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1016/S0370-2693(99)00359-7
Abstract: Non-supersymmetric d=4 gauge theories which arise from superstring duality on a manifold $AdS_5 \times S_5/Z_p$ are cataloged for a range $2 \leq p \leq 41$. A number have vanishing two-loop gauge \beta-function, a necessary but not sufficient condition to be a conformal field theory.
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