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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 323142 matches for " Thomas J. Urban "
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From heterogeneity to harmonization? Recent trends in European health policy
Gerlinger, Thomas;Urban, Hans-Jürgen;
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-311X2007001400003
Abstract: in the european union (eu), health policy and the institutional reform of health systems have been treated primarily as national affairs, and health care systems within the eu thus differ considerably. however, the health policy field is undergoing a dynamic process of europeanization. this process is stimulated by the orientation towards a more competitive economy, recently inaugurated and known as the lisbon strategy, while the regulatory requirements of the european economic and monetary union are stimulating the europeanization of health policy. in addition, the so-called open method of coordination, representing a new mode of regulation within the european multi-level system, is applied increasingly to the health policy area. diverse trends are thus emerging. while the lisbon strategy goes along with a strategic upgrading of health policy more generally, health policy is increasingly used to strengthen economic competitiveness. pressure on member states is expected to increase to contain costs and promote market-based health care provision.
Understanding Human Variation in Infectious Disease Susceptibility through Clinical and Cellular GWAS
Dennis C. Ko ,Thomas J. Urban
PLOS Pathogens , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1003424
Abstract:
An in vitro study of osteoblast vitality influenced by the vitamins C and E
Kent Urban, Hans J H?hling, Beate Lüttenberg, Thomas Szuwart, Ulrich Plate, Biomineralisation Research Unit
Head & Face Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1746-160x-8-25
Abstract: In the present study we evaluate the effect of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and α-tocopherol (vitamin E) on the proliferation and differentiation of primary bovine osteoblasts in vitro. Starting from standard growth medium we minimized the foetal calf serum to reduce their stimulatory effect on proliferation.An improved growth and an increased synthesis of the extracellular matrix proteins collagen type I, osteonectin and osteocalcin was observed while increasing the ascorbic acid concentration up to 200 μg/ml. Furthermore the effects of α-tocopherol on cell growth and cell differentiation were examined, whereby neither improved growth nor increased synthesis of the extracellular matrix proteins collagen type I, osteonectin and osteocalcin were detected.Further investigations are necessary to target at better supportive effect of vitamins on bone regeneration, and healing.Diseases like osteoporosis will become more and more a major public health threat in the near future, e.g. in the demographic aging trend. The prevention and an effective treatment against osteoporosis and other bone-associated diseases is therefore one of the aims in the field of medical research. Another challenge is the in vitro formation of bone in the field of tissue engineering.Proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts enable the production of extracellular matrix (ECM) and is therefore the initial step to generate calcified tissue, especially bone. During the stages of differentiation, several proteins are synthesized by the osteoblasts, like collagen I, the main component of the ECM, and non-collagenous proteins like alkaline phosphatase, osteonectin and later in the differentiation progress osteocalcin. Up to now the scientific world focuses on the elucidation of the metabolic pathways during biomineralization to get an idea of how to promote the process of mineralization in vivo and in vitro. This could in the end lead to new applications in the coating of implants and prostheses or t
Levels of CMV Specific CD4 T Cells Are Dynamic and Correlate with CMV Viremia after Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation
Thomas Widmann, Urban Sester, Barbara C. G?rtner, J?rg Schubert, Michael Pfreundschuh, Hans K?hler, Martina Sester
PLOS ONE , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0003634
Abstract: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is the most frequent viral complication in patients after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. As CMV replication is tightly controlled by the cellular arm of specific immunity, the kinetics of CMV-specific T cells in association with individual reactivation episodes were prospectively analyzed in 40 allogeneic transplant recipients in a routine clinical setting and evaluated as determinant of impaired CMV control. Antigen-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells were quantified directly from whole blood using intracellular cytokine staining after specific stimulation and MHC class I multimers, respectively. Highly dynamic intraindividual changes of CMV-specific CD4 T cells were observed in patients experiencing CMV viremia. Episodes of CMV reactivation were associated with a drop of CMV-specific CD4 T cells that re-increased after viral clearance (p<0.0001). Furthermore, levels of CMV-specific CD4 T cells at the onset of viremia inversely correlated with peak viral load thereafter (p = 0.02). In contrast, CMV-peptide specific CD8 T cells did not show any association with viremia (p = 0.82). Interestingly, therapeutic dosages of cyclosporine A and corticosteroids led to a dose-dependent reduction of CMV-specific T-cell functions, indicating a causal link between intensified immunosuppressive treatment and CMV reactivation. In conclusion, levels of CMV-specific CD4 T cells inversely correlate with reactivation episodes and may represent a valuable measure to individually guide antiviral therapy after stem cell transplantation.
OmniMapFree: A unified tool to visualise and explore sequenced genomes
John Antoniw, Andrew M Beacham, Thomas K Baldwin, Martin Urban, Jason J Rudd, Kim E Hammond-Kosack
BMC Bioinformatics , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2105-12-447
Abstract: We have developed a generic software which permits users to view a single genome in entirety either within its chromosome or supercontig context within a single window. This software permits the genome to be displayed at any scales and with any features. Different data types and data sets are displayed onto the genome, which have been acquired from other types of studies including classical genetics, forward and reverse genetics, transcriptomics, proteomics and improved annotation from alternative sources. In each display, different types of information can be overlapped, then retrieved in the desired combinations and scales and used in follow up analyses. The displays generated are of publication quality.OmniMapFree provides a unified, versatile and easy-to-use software tool for studying a single genome in association with all the other datasets and data types available for the organism.In the late 1990s, the first fully sequenced genome of a eukaryotic organism emerged as a result of a huge community effort. The annotated genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was subsequently published [1] and a comprehensive genome browser has gradually evolved [2,3]. The success of this whole genome sequencing (WGS) project using the Sanger method, paved the way for other model species as well as industrially, agriculturally and medically important species to be nominated for WGS [4]. Within a few years and following the development of several next generation sequencing technologies, the number of eukaryotic species for which complete or near completely sequenced genomes became available steadily rose [5]. Also for the species initially sequenced other strains with different biological properties and closely related species have now been sequenced or nominated for sequencing to provide important clusters of genomic information. In agricultural, environmental and medical research, many species of interest have small to medium sized genomes. For example, free living and pathogenic fu
Identification of serum biomarkers for aging and anabolic response
Camellia Banerjee, Jagadish Ulloor, Edgar L Dillon, Qusai Dahodwala, Brittani Franklin, Thomas Storer, Paola Sebastiani, Melinda Sheffield-Moore, Randall J Urban, Shalender Bhasin, Monty Montano
Immunity & Ageing , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1742-4933-8-5
Abstract: We measured the protein levels of a number of serum biomarkers using a combination of banked serum samples from older men (60 to 75 years) and younger men (ages 18 to 35), as well as new serum specimens obtained through collaboration. We compared baseline levels of all biomarkers between young and older men. In addition, we evaluated potential changes in these biomarker levels in association with testosterone dose (low dose defined as 125 mg per week or below compared to high dose defined as 300 mg per week or above) in our banked specimens.We identified nine serum biomarkers that differed between the young and older subjects. These age-associated biomarkers included: insulin-like growth factor (IGF1), N-terminal propeptide of type III collagen (PIIINP), monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG), epithelial-derived neutrophil-activating peptide 78 (ENA78), interleukin 7 (IL-7), p40 subunit of interleukin 12 (IL-12p40), macrophage inflammatory protein 1β (MIP-1β), platelet derived growth factor β (PDGFβ) and interferon-inducible protein 10 (IP-10). We further observed testosterone dose-associated changes in some but not all age related markers: IGF1, PIIINP, leptin, MIG and ENA78. Gains in lean mass were confirmed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA).Results from this study suggest that there are potential phenotypic biomarkers in serum that can be associated with healthy aging and that some but not all of these biomarkers reflect gains in muscle mass upon testosterone administration.As the general population ages, there is an increased prevalence of loss in muscle mass, raising the risk for frailty, declines in functional mobility, and early mortality [1-4]. Loss of lean muscle can also be a comorbid condition in multiple chronic and acute disorders including cancer cachexia, HIV-associated weight loss, inflammatory sepsis, and age-associated sarcopenia [5-8]. Biomarkers for healthy aging identifiable in the serum would be of substantial use in detecting age
The incidence of malaria in travellers to South-East Asia: is local malaria transmission a useful risk indicator?
Ron H Behrens, Bernadette Carroll, Urban Hellgren, Leo G Visser, Heli Siikam?ki, Lasse S Vestergaard, Guido Calleri, Thomas J?nisch, Bj?rn Myrvang, Joaquim Gascon, Christoph Hatz
Malaria Journal , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-9-266
Abstract: Malaria endemicity was described from distribution and intensity in the local populations of ten S-E Asian destination countries over the period 2003-2008 from regionally reported cases to WHO offices. Travel acquired malaria was collated from malaria surveillance reports from the USA and 12 European countries over the same period. The numbers of travellers visiting the destination countries was based on immigration and tourism statistics collected on entry of tourists to the destination countries.In the destination countries, mean malaria rates in endemic countries ranged between 0.01 in Korea to 4:1000 population per year in Lao PDR, with higher regional rates in a number of countries. Malaria cases imported into the 13 countries declined by 47% from 140 cases in 2003 to 66 in 2008. A total of 608 cases (27.3% Plasmodium falciparum (Pf)) were reported over the six years, the largest number acquired in Indonesia, Thailand and Korea. Four countries had an incidence > 1 case per 100,000 traveller visits; Burma (Myanmar), Indonesia, Cambodia and Laos (range 1 to 11.8-case per 100,000 visits). The remaining six countries rates were < 1 case per 100,000 visits. The number of visitors arriving from source countries increased by 60% from 8.5 Million to 13.6 million over the 6 years.The intensity of malaria transmission particularly sub-national activity did not correlate with the risk of travellers acquiring malaria in the large numbers of arriving visitors. It is proposed to use a threshold incidence of > 1 case per 100,000 visits to consider targeted malaria prophylaxis recommendations to minimize use of chemoprophylaxis for low risk exposure during visits to S-E Asia. Policy needs to be adjusted regularly to reflect the changing risk.There is some evidence of declining malaria imported from Central and South America, the Indian sub continent and from West Africa [1-3]. Policy recommendations for the use of prophylaxis need to be adjusted to reflect the changing risk. P
Pionic susceptibility for charged pions in asymmetric nuclei
M. Urban,J. Wambach
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevC.65.067302
Abstract: At low energies the particle-hole (ph) part of the pionic susceptibility in isospin-symmetric nuclear matter is known to behave very differently from the susceptibility in finite nuclei due to the presence of an energy gap in the ph excitation spectrum. In this note we show that for charged pions in N > Z nuclei the changes due to the gap are very similar to those in the symmetric case, except at very low momenta, where a qualitatively different behavior is found.
Indirect El Ni o Effects on Reproductive Strategies of the Carribbean Bivalves Pteria colymbus, Pinctada imbricata and Pinna carnea
H.-J?rg Urban
Investigaciones Marinas , 2002,
Abstract:
Role of NADPH Oxidase versus Neutrophil Proteases in Antimicrobial Host Defense
R. Robert Vethanayagam, Nikolaos G. Almyroudis, Melissa J. Grimm, David C. Lewandowski, Christine T. N. Pham, Timothy S. Blackwell, Ruta Petraitiene, Vidmantas Petraitis, Thomas J. Walsh, Constantin F. Urban, Brahm H. Segal
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0028149
Abstract: NADPH oxidase is a crucial enzyme in mediating antimicrobial host defense and in regulating inflammation. Patients with chronic granulomatous disease, an inherited disorder of NADPH oxidase in which phagocytes are defective in generation of reactive oxidant intermediates (ROIs), suffer from life-threatening bacterial and fungal infections. The mechanisms by which NADPH oxidase mediate host defense are unclear. In addition to ROI generation, neutrophil NADPH oxidase activation is linked to the release of sequestered proteases that are posited to be critical effectors of host defense. To definitively determine the contribution of NADPH oxidase versus neutrophil serine proteases, we evaluated susceptibility to fungal and bacterial infection in mice with engineered disruptions of these pathways. NADPH oxidase-deficient mice (p47phox?/?) were highly susceptible to pulmonary infection with Aspergillus fumigatus. In contrast, double knockout neutrophil elastase (NE)?/?×cathepsin G (CG)?/? mice and lysosomal cysteine protease cathepsin C/dipeptidyl peptidase I (DPPI)-deficient mice that are defective in neutrophil serine protease activation demonstrated no impairment in antifungal host defense. In separate studies of systemic Burkholderia cepacia infection, uniform fatality occurred in p47phox?/? mice, whereas NE?/?×CG?/? mice cleared infection. Together, these results show a critical role for NADPH oxidase in antimicrobial host defense against A. fumigatus and B. cepacia, whereas the proteases we evaluated were dispensable. Our results indicate that NADPH oxidase dependent pathways separate from neutrophil serine protease activation are required for host defense against specific pathogens.
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