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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 322462 matches for " Thomas J. Betjeman "
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mHealth in Sub-Saharan Africa
Thomas J. Betjeman,Samara E. Soghoian,Mark P. Foran
International Journal of Telemedicine and Applications , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/482324
Abstract: Mobile phone penetration rates have reached 63% in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and are projected to pass 70% by 2013. In SSA, millions of people who never used traditional landlines now use mobile phones on a regular basis. Mobile health, or mHealth, is the utilization of short messaging service (SMS), wireless data transmission, voice calling, and smartphone applications to transmit health-related information or direct care. This systematic review analyzes and summarizes key articles from the current body of peer-reviewed literature on PubMed on the topic of mHealth in SSA. Studies included in the review demonstrate that mHealth can improve and reduce the cost of patient monitoring, medication adherence, and healthcare worker communication, especially in rural areas. mHealth has also shown initial promise in emergency and disaster response, helping standardize, store, analyze, and share patient information. Challenges for mHealth implementation in SSA include operating costs, knowledge, infrastructure, and policy among many others. Further studies of the effectiveness of mHealth interventions are being hindered by similar factors as well as a lack of standardization in study design. Overall, the current evidence is not strong enough to warrant large-scale implementation of existing mHealth interventions in SSA, but rapid progress of both infrastructure and mHealth-related research in the region could justify scale-up of the most promising programs in the near future. 1. Introduction Mobile phones are increasingly accessible worldwide. There are an estimated 6.8 billion mobile phones being used in the world in 2013, compared to 1 billion in 2002, corresponding to penetration rates of approximately 96% globally: 128% in developed countries and 89% in developing countries [1]. In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), the penetration of cell phones is estimated to be 63% in 2013 and projected to pass 70% by 2015 [2]. Hundreds of millions of people in SSA who never gained access to traditional landlines for telecommunication now use mobile phones on a regular basis [3]. In many developing countries, wireless technology is less expensive and more readily available than wired technology [4]. This technology has unique potential to reach large numbers of people living in resource-limited or remote locations. Mobile health (mHealth) is the use of mobile phone technology for health-related purposes. This relatively new, dynamic, and rapidly evolving field includes the development and study of mobile phone applications such as short messaging service (SMS), voice calling, and
On the Temperature Dependent Excitation and Reflection Spectra of Ln3Al5O12:Ce3+ Ceramics (Ln = Y, Lu) for White LEDs  [PDF]
Thomas Jansen, Thomas Jüstel
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2014.514110
Abstract: Yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) and Lutetium aluminum garnet (LuAG) doped with Ce3+ are widely applied phosphor powders or ceramics for the conversion of blue into green to yellow light in the rapidly expanding market of white light emitting high power LEDs. Surprisingly, the temperature dependent reflection and excitation spectra of these well-established materials have not been investigated until today. In this work, we report the temperature dependence of the reflection and excitation spectra of Ce3+ doped YAG and LuAG in the temperature range from 300 to 800 K.
Historic Charcoal Production in the US and Forest Depletion: Development of Production Parameters  [PDF]
Thomas J. Straka
Advances in Historical Studies (AHS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ahs.2014.32010
Abstract: Charcoal was the fuel of choice for the early nineteenth century for iron making and smelting of other metals in the United States. The industry involved massive amount of woodcutting and entire woodlands were depleted. The problem is somewhat exaggerated in the literature. While forest destruction tended to be quite complete near smelters and furnaces, it was generally localized near the demand for the fuel. Many authors attempt to equate furnace production to forest area depletion as one measure of environmental destruction. This is not as easy as it appears. The mathematics seems simple and uses a few basic ratios: furnace yield or bushels of charcoal needed to produce a ton of output; charcoal yield or bushels of charcoal produced from a cord of wood, and forest yield or cubic meters per ha. Different furnaces, colliers, and forests have different yields. Production parameters are critical to estimate productivity and costs. These parameters are discussed in terms of estimation problems and average expected values. This valuable information will make estimation of forest area use in charcoal production more reliable.
Forest History Snapshot: Forest Industry Woodlands Operations Locations Prior to Mergers and Acquistions  [PDF]
Thomas J. Straka
Advances in Historical Studies (AHS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ahs.2013.24024
Abstract: Forestry industry was a major owner of timberland in the United States over most of the twentieth century. This timberland was seen as a cost-effective means to supply their lumber and pulp mills. They were an important owner, with some of the most productive and intensively-managed timberlands in the country. Beginning in the 1980s, other investors realized the value of timberland assets and actively pursued acquisition of the forest products companies and their timberland assets. Mergers and acquisitions were common within the industry as a means to discourage takeovers. These timberlands were traditionally managed by woodlands operations located near the mills. These operations defined classic timber towns, with names like Crossett, Georgetown, Bogalusa, and Millinocket becoming synonymous with the mill and the woodlands. Woodlands operations are nearly extinct as few mills still own timberlands; what might remain is a small wood procurement organization at the same location. These woodlands operations were an important part of forest history and their locations provide much insight into the historical patterns of industrial forest management. Major forest industry woodlands operations are identified by geography and size as a means to record a fading historical artifact of forest history.
Electrical Stimulation Greatly Increases Settlement, Growth, Survival, and Stress Resistance of Marine Organisms  [PDF]
Thomas J. Goreau
Natural Resources (NR) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2014.510048
Increasing stress from global warming, sea level rise, acidification, sedimentation, pollution, and unsustainable practices have degraded the most critical coastal ecosystems including coral reefs, oyster reefs, and salt marshes. Conventional restoration methods work only under perfect conditions, but fail nearly completely when the water becomes too hot or water quality deteriorates. New methods are needed to greatly increase settlement, growth, survival, and resistance to environmental stress of keystone marine organisms in order to maintain critical coastal ecosystem functions including shore protection, fisheries, and biodiversity. Electrolysis methods have been applied to marine ecosystem restoration since 1976, with spectacular results (Figures 1(a)-(c)). This paper provides the first overall review of the data. Low-voltage direct current trickle charges are found to increase the settlement of corals 25.86 times higher than uncharged control sites, to increase the mean growth rates of reef-building corals, soft corals, oysters, and salt marsh grass— an average of 3.17 times faster than controls (ranging from 2 to 10 times depending on species and conditions), and to increase the survival of electrically charged marine organisms—an average of 3.47 times greater than controls, with the biggest increases under the most severe environmental stresses. These results are caused by the fundamental biophysical stimulation of natural biochemical energy production pathways, used by all organisms, provided by electrical stimulation under the right conditions. This paper reviews for the first time all published results from properly designed, installed, and maintained projects, and contrasts them with those that do not meet these criteria.
Maintaining an Optimal Flow of Forest Products under a Carbon Market: Approximating a Pareto Set of Optimal Silvicultural Regimes for Eucalyptus fastigata  [PDF]
Oliver Chikumbo, Thomas J. Straka
Open Journal of Forestry (OJF) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojf.2012.23017
Abstract: A competitive co-evolutionary Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm (cc-MOGA) was used to approximate a Pareto front of efficient silvicultural regimes for Eucalyptus fastigata. The three objectives to be maximised included, sawlog, pulpwood and carbon sequestration payment. Three carbon price scenarios (3CPS), i.e. NZ $25, NZ $50 and NZ $100 for a tonne of CO2 sequestered, were used to assess the impact on silvicultural regimes, against a fourth non-carbon Pareto set of efficient regimes (nonCPS), determined from a cc-MOGA with two objectives, i.e. competing sawlog and pulpwood productions. Carbon prices included in stand valuation were found to influence the silvicultural regimes by increasing the rotation length and lowering the final crop number before clearfell. However, there were no significant changes in the frequency, timing, and intensity of thinning operations amongst all the four Pareto sets of solutions. However, the 3CPS were not significantly different from each other, which meant that these silvicultural regimes were insensitive to the price of carbon. This was because maximising carbon sequestration was directly related to the biological growth rate. As such an optimal mix of frequency, intensity, and timing of thinning maintained maximum growth rate for as long as possible for any one rotation.
Anaesthesia for the child with congenital heart disease: Pointers and pitfalls
J Thomas
Continuing Medical Education , 2011,
Abstract: No
Practical perioperative pain control in children and adults
J Thomas
Southern African Journal of Anaesthesia and Analgesia , 2008,
Abstract: Pain is soul-destroying. No patient should have to endure intense pain unnecessarily. The quality of mercy is essential to the practice of medicine. Here of all places it should not be strained. The Quality of Mercy
Quantum Dot Sensitized Photoelectrodes
Thomas J. Macdonald,Thomas Nann
Nanomaterials , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/nano1010079
Abstract: Quantum Dots (QDs) are promising alternatives to organic dyes as sensitisers for photocatalytic electrodes. This review article provides an overview of the current state of the art in this area. More specifically, different types of QDs with a special focus on heavy-metal free QDs and the methods for preparation and adsorption onto metal oxide electrodes (especially titania and zinc oxide) are discussed. Eventually, the key areas of necessary improvements are identified and assessed.
Run of River Bulk Hydroelectric Generation from the Congo River without a Conventional Dam  [PDF]
Thomas J. Hammons, Pathmanathan Naidoo, Lawrence Musaba
Natural Resources (NR) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2011.21003
Abstract: The paper discusses harvesting the Congo River for bulk hydroelectric generation based on run of river, low head generation technology, as employed at the existing Inga 2 power station in the Democratic Republic of Congo. The evolutionary approach builds on existing infrastructure.The results show that the footprint is much smaller than that which employs a conventional dam. The environmental impact is minimized. These collectively will contribute to lower capital costs. In summary, 10,000 cm³/sec of constant river flow will produce 5,000 MW of base power. On average, the constant recorded flow of the river is 30,000 cm³/sec and a total of 15,000 MW of base power generation is possible.
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