Abstract:
Open quantum systems, when driven by a periodic field, can relax to effective statistical ensembles that resemble their equilibrium counterparts. We consider a class of problems in which a periodically- driven quantum system is allowed to exchange both energy and particles with a thermal reservoir. We demonstrate that, even for noninteracting systems, effective equilibration to the grand canonical ensemble requires both fine tuning the system-bath coupling and selecting a sufficiently simple driving protocol. We study a tractable subclass of these problems in which the long-time steady state of the system can be determined analytically, and demonstrate that the system effectively thermalizes with fine tuning, but does not thermalize for general values of the system-bath couplings. When the driven system does not thermalize, it supports a tunable persistent current in the steady state without external bias. We compute this current analytically for two examples of interest: 1) a driven double quantum dot, where the current is interpreted as a DC electrical current, and 2) driven Dirac fermions in graphene, where it is interpreted as a valley current.

Abstract:
The possibility that anyons - quantum particles other than fermions or bosons - can emerge in condensed matter systems has motivated generations of physicists. In addition to being of fundamental scientific importance, so-called non-Abelian anyons are particularly sought-after for potential applications to quantum computing. However, experimental evidence of anyons in electronic systems remains inconclusive. In this paper, we propose to demonstrate non-Abelian braiding statistics by injecting coherent states of light into "topological guided modes" in specially-fabricated photonic waveguide arrays. These modes are photonic analogues of topological zero modes in electronic systems. Light traveling inside spatially well-separated topological guided modes can be braided, leading to the accumulation of non-Abelian phases. We propose an optical interference experiment to probe this non-Abelian braiding statistics directly.

Abstract:
Symmetry-protected topological (SPT) phases of matter have been the focus of many recent theoretical investigations, but controlled mechanisms for engineering them have so far been elusive. In this work, we demonstrate that by driving interacting spin systems periodically in time and tuning the available parameters, one can realize lattice models for bosonic SPT phases in the limit where the driving frequency is large. We provide concrete examples of this construction in one and two dimensions, and discuss signatures of these phases in stroboscopic measurements of local observables.

Abstract:
Floquet topological insulators are noninteracting quantum systems that, when driven by a time-periodic field, are described by effective Hamiltonians whose bands carry nontrivial topological invariants. A longstanding question concerns the possibility of selectively populating one of these effective bands, thereby maximizing the system's resemblance to a static topological insulator. We study such Floquet systems coupled to a zero-temperature thermal reservoir that provides dissipation. We find that the resulting electronic steady states are generically characterized by a finite density of excitations above the effective ground state, even when the driving has a small amplitude and/or large frequency. We discuss the role of reservoir engineering in mitigating this problem.

Abstract:
We illustrate the possibility of realizing band gaps in graphene-like systems that fall outside the existing classification of gapped Dirac Hamiltonians in terms of masses. As our primary example we consider a band gap arising due to time-dependent distortions of the honeycomb lattice. By means of an exact, invertible, and transport-preserving mapping to a time-independent Hamiltonian, we show that the system exhibits Chern-insulating phases with quantized Hall conductivities $\pm e^2/h$. The chirality of the corresponding gapless edge modes is controllable by both the frequency of the driving and the manner in which sublattice symmetry is broken by the dynamical lattice modulations. Finally, we discuss a promising possible realization of this physics in photonic lattices.

Abstract:
We consider manifestations of topological order in time-reversal-symmetric fractional topological liquids (TRS-FTLs), defined on planar surfaces with holes. We derive a formula for the topological ground state degeneracy of such a TRS-FTL, which applies to cases where the edge modes on each boundary are fully gapped by appropriate backscattering terms. The degeneracy is exact in the limit of infinite system size, and is given by $q^{N^{\,}_{\mathrm{h}}}$, where $N^{\,}_{\mathrm{h}}$ is the number of holes and $q$ is an integer that is determined by the topological field theory. When the degeneracy is lifted by finite-size effects, the holes realize a system of $N^{\,}_{\mathrm{h}}$ coupled spin-like $q$-state degrees of freedom. In particular, we provide examples where $\mathbb Z^{\,}_{q}$ quantum clock models are realized on the low-energy manifold of states. We also investigate the possibility of measuring the topological ground state degeneracy with calorimetry, and briefly revisit the notion of topological order in $s$-wave BCS superconductors.

Abstract:
Driven condensed matter systems consistently pose substantial challenges to theoretical understanding. Progress in the study of such systems has been achieved using the Floquet formalism, but certain aspects of this approach are not well understood. In this paper, we consider the exceptionally simple case of the rotating Kekul\'e mass in graphene through the lens of Floquet theory. We show that the fact that this problem is gauge-equivalent to a time-independent problem implies that the "quasi-energies" of Floquet theory correspond to a continuous symmetry of the full time-dependent Lagrangian. We use the conserved Noether charge associated with this symmetry to recover notions of equilibrium statistical mechanics.

Abstract:
We review various features of interacting Abelian topological phases of matter in two spatial dimensions, placing particular emphasis on fractional Chern insulators (FCIs) and fractional topological insulators (FTIs). We highlight aspects of these systems that challenge the intuition developed from quantum Hall physics - for instance, FCIs are stable in the limit where the interaction energy scale is much larger than the band gap, and FTIs can possess fractionalized excitations in the bulk despite the absence of gapless edge modes.

Abstract:
Controlling the properties of materials by driving them out of equilibrium is an exciting prospect that has only recently begun to be explored. In this paper we give a striking theoretical example of such materials design: a tunable gap in monolayer graphene is generated by exciting a particular optical phonon. We show that the system reaches a steady state whose transport properties are the same as if the system had a static electronic gap, controllable by the driving amplitude. Moreover, the steady state displays topological phenomena: there are chiral edge currents, which circulate a fractional charge e/2 per rotation cycle, with frequency set by the optical phonon frequency.

Abstract:
Local structure of NdFeAsO$_{1-x}$F$_{x}$ ($x$=0.0, 0.05, 0.15 and 0.18) high temperature iron pnictide superconductor system is studied using arsenic $K$-edge extended x-ray absorption fine structure measurements as a function of temperature. Fe-As bondlength shows only a weak temperature and F-substitution dependence, consistent with the strong covalent nature of this bond. The temperature dependence of the mean-square relative-displacements of the Fe-As bondlength are well described by the correlated-Einstein model for all the samples, but with different Einstein-temperatures for the superconducting and non-superconducting samples. The results indicate distinct local Fe-As lattice dynamics in the superconducting and non-superconducting iron-pnictide systems.