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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 31022 matches for " Thomas Carlstedt "
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Perspectives on the treatment of the longitudinal spinal cord injury
Thomas Carlstedt
Frontiers in Neurology , 2010, DOI: 10.3389/fneur.2010.00011
Abstract: The current technique for surgical treatment of the longitudinal spinal cord injury has proven to be successful for restoration of some motor function and alleviation of pain. This has been the first step in finding a cure for spinal cord injuries, but so far there are many obstacles still to be overcome. In this particular injury return of function from spinal cord surgery is only partial. Some of the main remaining problems are related to injury-induced neuronal death, direction and specificity of regeneration and muscle, and receptor disintegration from long time denervation. Currently this is a surgical procedure without any adjuvant treatments. In order to gain further functional improvement combinational therapies developed in basic science experiments are essential.
Karolinska Institutet 200-Year Anniversary. Symposium on Traumatic Injuries in the Nervous System: Injuries to the Spinal Cord and Peripheral Nervous System – Injuries and Repair, Pain Problems, Lesions to Brachial Plexus
Mattias K. Sk?ld,Mikael Svensson,Jack Tsao,Thomas Landegren,Thomas Carlstedt,Staffan Cullheim
Frontiers in Neurology , 2011, DOI: 10.3389/fneur.2011.00029
Abstract: The Karolinska Institutet 200-year anniversary symposium on injuries to the spinal cord and peripheral nervous system gathered expertise in the spinal cord, spinal nerve, and peripheral nerve injury field spanning from molecular prerequisites for nerve regeneration to clinical methods in nerve repair and rehabilitation. The topics presented at the meeting covered findings on adult neural stem cells that when transplanted to the hypoglossal nucleus in the rat could integrate with its host and promote neuron survival. Studies on vascularization after intraspinal replantation of ventral nerve roots and microarray studies in ventral root replantation as a tool for mapping of biological patterns typical for neuronal regeneration were discussed. Different immune molecules in neurons and glia and their very specific roles in synapse plasticity after injury were presented. Novel strategies in repair of injured peripheral nerves with ethyl-cyanoacrylate adhesive showed functional recovery comparable to that of conventional epineural sutures. Various aspects on surgical techniques which are available to improve function of the limb, once the nerve regeneration after brachial plexus lesions and repair has reached its limit were presented. Moreover, neurogenic pain after amputation and its treatment with mirror therapy were shown to be followed by dramatic decrease in phantom limb pain. Finally clinical experiences on surgical techniques to repair avulsed spinal nerve root and the motoric as well as sensoric regain of function were presented.
Observations at the CNS–PNS Border of Ventral Roots Connected to a Neuroma
Sten Remahl,Maria Angeria,Ingela Nilsson Remahl,Thomas Carlstedt,M?rten Risling
Frontiers in Neurology , 2010, DOI: 10.3389/fneur.2010.00136
Abstract: Previous studies have shown that numerous sprouts originating from a neuroma, after nerve injury in neonatal animals, can invade spinal nerve roots. However, no study with a focus on how such sprouts behave when they reach the border between the central and peripheral nervous system (CNS–PNS border) has been published. In this study we have in detail examined the CNS–PNS border of ventral roots in kittens with light and electron microscopy after early postnatal sciatic nerve resection. A transient ingrowth of substance P positive axons was observed into the CNS, but no spouts remained 6 weeks after the injury. Using serial sections and electron microscopy it was possible to identify small bundles of unmyelinated axons that penetrated from the root fascicles for a short distance into the CNS. These axons ended blindly, sometimes with a growth cone-like terminal swelling filled with vesicles. The axon bundles were accompanied by p75 positive cells in both the root fascicles and the pia mater, but not in the CNS. It may thus be suggested that neurotrophin presenting p75 positive cells could facilitate axonal growth into the pia mater and that the lack of such cells in the CNS compartment might contribute to the failure of growth into the CNS. A maldevelopment of myelin sheaths at the CNS–PNS border of motor axons was observed and it seems possible that this could have consequences for the propagation of action potential across this region after neonatal nerve injury. Thus, in this first detailed study on the behavior of recurrent sprouts at the CNS–PNS border.
The Affective Personality and Its Relation to Sexual Fantasies in Regard to the Wilson Sex Fantasy Questionnaire  [PDF]
Mathias Carlstedt, Sven A Bood, Torsten Norlander
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2011.28121
Abstract: The present study investigated associations between affective personality types, sex and sexual fantasies. Participants were 209 students, 75 men and 134 women who completed the Wilson Sex Fantasy Questionaire (Wilson 1978) and the Positive and Negative Affect Scales (Watson, Clark & Tellegen, 1988). Results showed that self-destructive and high affective personality types had more sexual fantasies compared to self-actualizing and low affective types. Men had significantly higher scores on exploratory and impersonal sexual fantasies compared to women. It was suggested that positive affectivity is associated with “external transparency” that is, a susceptibility to stimuli from the outside world, while negative affectivity is associated with “internal transparency” that is a tendency to look inward, reflect and fantasize.
On Acute Gene Expression Changes after Ventral Root Replantation
Marten Risling,Thomas Ochsmann,Thomas Carlstedt,Hans Lind?,Stefan Plantman,Elham Rostami,Maria Angeria,Mattias K. Sk?ld
Frontiers in Neurology , 2011, DOI: 10.3389/fneur.2010.00159
Abstract: Replantation of avulsed spinal ventral roots has been show to enable significant and useful regrowth of motor axons in both experimental animals and in human clinical cases, making up an interesting exception to the rule of unsuccessful neuronal regeneration in central nervous system. Compared to avulsion without repair, ventral root replantation seems to rescue lesioned motoneurons from death. In this study we have analyzed the acute response to ventral root avulsion and replantation in adult rats with gene arrays combined with cluster analysis of gene ontology search terms. The data show significant differences between rats subjected to ventral replantation compared to avulsion only. Even though number of genes related to cell death is similar in the two models after 24 h, we observed a significantly larger number of genes related to neurite growth and development in the rats treated with ventral root replantation, possibly reflecting the neuroregenerative capacity in the replantation model. In addition, an acute inflammatory response was observed after avulsion, while effects on genes related to synaptic transmission were much more pronounced after replantation than after avulsion alone. These data indicate that the axonal regenerative response from replantation is initiated at an earlier stage than the possible differences in terms of neuron survival. We conclude that this type of analysis may facilitate the comparison of the acute response in two types of injury.
Role of ABO Secretor Status in Mucosal Innate Immunity and H. pylori Infection
Sara Lindén,Jafar Mahdavi,Cristina Semino-Mora,Cara Olsen,Ingemar Carlstedt,Thomas Borén ,Andre Dubois
PLOS Pathogens , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.0040002
Abstract: The fucosylated ABH antigens, which constitute the molecular basis for the ABO blood group system, are also expressed in salivary secretions and gastrointestinal epithelia in individuals of positive secretor status; however, the biological function of the ABO blood group system is unknown. Gastric mucosa biopsies of 41 Rhesus monkeys originating from Southern Asia were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. A majority of these animals were found to be of blood group B and weak-secretor phenotype (i.e., expressing both Lewis a and Lewis b antigens), which are also common in South Asian human populations. A selected group of ten monkeys was inoculated with Helicobacter pylori and studied for changes in gastric mucosal glycosylation during a 10-month period. We observed a loss in mucosal fucosylation and concurrent induction and time-dependent dynamics in gastric mucosal sialylation (carbohydrate marker of inflammation), which affect H. pylori adhesion targets and thus modulate host–bacterial interactions. Of particular relevance, gastric mucosal density of H. pylori, gastritis, and sialylation were all higher in secretor individuals compared to weak-secretors, the latter being apparently “protected.” These results demonstrate that the secretor status plays an intrinsic role in resistance to H. pylori infection and suggest that the fucosylated secretor ABH antigens constitute interactive members of the human and primate mucosal innate immune system.
Qualitative study on maternal referrals in rural Tanzania: Decision making and acceptance of referral advice
A B Pembe, DP Urassa, E Darj, A Carlstedt
African Journal of Reproductive Health , 2008,
Abstract: The aim of this study was to describe perceptions of maternal referrals in a rural district in Tanzania. Focus group discussions (FGDs) with health workers and community members, stratified by age and gender, were conducted. The FGDs revealed that husbands and relatives are the decision makers in maternal referrals, whereas the women had limited influence, especially on emergency referrals. The process in deciding to seek referral care is envisaged within community perception of seriousness of the condition, difficulty to access and cost involved in transport, living expenses at the hospital, and perceived quality of care at facility level. The hospitals were seen as providing acceptable quality of care, whereas, the health centres had lower quality than expected. To improve maternal referral compliance and reduce perinatal and maternal morbidity and mortality, community views of existing referral guidelines, poverty reduction, women's empowerment and male involvement in maternal care are necessary
Exhaled nitric oxide and urinary EPX levels in infants: a pilot study
Fredrik Carlstedt, Dagmara Lazowska, Carl-Gustaf Bornehag, Anna-Carin Olin, Mikael Hasselgren
Clinical and Molecular Allergy , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1476-7961-9-8
Abstract: To investigate the feasibility of measuring FeNO and uEPX in infants and their mothers and to determine if any relations between these two variables and environmental factors can be seen in a small sample size. This was conducted as a pilot study for the ongoing Swedish Environmental Longitudinal Mother and child Asthma and allergy study (SELMA).Consecutive infants between two and six months old and their mothers at children's health care centres were invited, and 110 mother-infant pairs participated. FeNO and uEPX were analysed in both mothers and infants. FeNO was analyzed in the mothers online by the use of the handheld Niox Mino device and in the infants offline from exhaled air sampled during tidal breathing. A 33-question multiple-choice questionnaire that dealt with symptoms of allergic disease, heredity, and housing characteristics was used.FeNO levels were reduced in infants with a history of upper respiratory symptoms during the previous two weeks (p < 0.002). There was a trend towards higher FeNO levels in infants with windowpane condensation in the home (p < 0.05). There was no association between uEPX in the infants and the other studied variables.The use of uEPX as a marker of early inflammation was not supported. FeNO levels in infants were associated to windowpane condensation. Measuring FeNO by the present method may be an interesting way of evaluating early airway inflammation. In a major population study, however, the method is difficult to use, for practical reasons.Asthma and allergic diseases in children are important public health problems, but they are not fully understood from an aetiological point of view. Allergic diseases usually start in early childhood with food allergies and atopic dermatitis, followed by asthma and rhinitis. These conditions are usually diagnosed in a clinical setting when they are manifest. However, there is a strong need for early and objective markers of preclinical disease, as eosinophilic inflammation, both in cl
Rural Tanzanian women's awareness of danger signs of obstetric complications
Andrea B Pembe, David P Urassa, Anders Carlstedt, Gunilla Lindmark, Lennarth Nystr?m, Elisabeth Darj
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2393-9-12
Abstract: A total of 1118 women who had been pregnant in the past two years were interviewed. A list of medically recognized potentially life threatening obstetric signs was obtained from the responses given. Chi- square test was used to determine associations between categorical variables and multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with awareness of obstetric danger signs.More than 98% of the women attended antenatal care at least once. Half of the women knew at least one obstetric danger sign. The percentage of women who knew at least one danger sign during pregnancy was 26%, during delivery 23% and after delivery 40%. Few women knew three or more danger signs. According to multivariate logistic regression analysis having secondary education or more increased the likelihood of awareness of obstetric danger signs six-fold (OR = 5.8; 95% CI: 1.8–19) in comparison with no education at all. The likelihood to have more awareness increased significantly by increasing age of the mother, number of deliveries, number of antenatal visits, whether the delivery took place at a health institution and whether the mother was informed of having a risks/complications during antenatal care.Women had low awareness of danger signs of obstetric complications. We recommend the following in order to increase awareness of danger signs of obstetrical complications: to improve quality of counseling and involving other family members in antenatal and postnatal care, to use radio messages and educational sessions targeting the whole community and to intensify provision of formal education as emphasized in the second millennium development goal.Worldwide, in 2005, 535,900 women died from causes related to pregnancy and childbirth; half of these deaths occurred in sub-Saharan Africa [1]. Tanzania, located in sub-Saharan Africa has an estimated maternal mortality ratio ranging from 578 to 950 per 100,000 live-births [1,2]. The common causes of maternal deaths are
Quality of antenatal care in rural Tanzania: counselling on pregnancy danger signs
Andrea B Pembe, Anders Carlstedt, David P Urassa, Gunilla Lindmark, Lennarth Nystr?m, Elisabeth Darj
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2393-10-35
Abstract: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 18 primary health facilities. Thirty two providers were observed providing antenatal care to 438 pregnant women. Information on counselling on pregnancy danger signs was collected by an observer. Exit interviews were conducted to 435 women.One hundred and eighty five (42%) clients were not informed of any pregnancy danger signs. The most common pregnancy danger sign informed on was vaginal bleeding 50% followed by severe headache/blurred vision 45%. Nurse auxiliaries were three times more likely to inform a client of a danger sign than registered/enrolled nurses (OR = 3.7; 95% CI: 2.1-6.5) and Maternal Child Health Aides (OR = 2.3: 95% CI: 1.3-4.3) and public health nurses (OR = 2.5; CI: 1.4-4.2) were two times more likely to provide information on danger signs than registered/enrolled nurses. The clients recalled less than half of the pregnancy danger signs they had been informed during the interaction.Two out of five clients were not counselled on pregnancy danger signs. The higher trained cadre, registered/enrolled nurses were not informing majority of clients pregnancy danger signs compared to the lower cadres. Supportive supervision should be made to enhance counselling of pregnancy danger signs. Nurse auxiliaries should be encouraged and given chance for further training and upgrading to improve their performance and increase human resource for health.It was estimated in 2005 that of more than 500 000 maternal deaths worldwide, more than half occurred in sub-Saharan Africa [1]. The same source estimates lifetime risk of maternal death to be 1 in 16 in sub-Saharan Africa, as compared to 1 in 2800 in developed regions. A majority of these maternal deaths are considered preventable, as are newborn deaths, if there is timely access to appropriate interventions when obstetric complications occur. Of note, three-quarters of the 4 million global neonatal deaths occur in the first week of life [2], and the stillbirth rate is 32
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