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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 31295 matches for " Thomas Aiello "
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Russell’s Bismarck: Acquaintance Theory and Historical Distance  [PDF]
Thomas Aiello
Advances in Historical Studies (AHS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ahs.2013.21003
Abstract: The role of acquaintance in Bertrand Russell’s theory of descriptions is antithetical and, indeed, antagonistic toward the practice and assumptions of history. In his 1910 paper “Knowledge by Acquaintance and Knowledge by Description,” Russell attempts to reconcile direct acquaintance (or its inability to determine the personal self of others) with a descriptive knowledge that is both logical and personal. Russell tries to reconcile the internal and external worlds, attempting to explain access to impersonal knowledge inside a framework that doesn’t allow acquaintance with physical objects—he distorts the historical space between researcher and subject. In so doing, he argues for the superiority of acquaintance as an arbiter of knowledge, narrowly avoiding solipsism and wrongly devaluing the most basic of historiograhpical assumptions. His conception creates false historical goals and distorts the space of historical distance, illustrated in this paper through the American slavery studies of Herbert Aptheker, Stanley Elkins, and Kenneth Stampp.
Thomas Aiello.
Nebula , 2006,
Abstract: Short Story
Measuring the Transverse Spin Density of Light
Martin Neugebauer,Thomas Bauer,Andrea Aiello,Peter Banzer
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.114.063901
Abstract: We generate tightly focused optical vector beams whose electric fields spin around an axis transverse to the beams' propagation direction. We experimentally investigate these fields by exploiting the directional near-field interference of a dipole-like plasmonic field probe, placed adjacent to a dielectric interface, which depends on the transverse electric spin density of the excitation field. Near- to far-field conversion mediated by the dielectric interface enables us to detect the directionality of the emitted light in the far-field and, therefore, to measure the transverse electric spin density with nanoscopic resolution. Finally, we determine the longitudinal electric component of Belinfante's elusive spin momentum density, a solenoidal field quantity often referred to as 'virtual'.
Being Efficient to Stay Strong in a Weak Economy. The Case of Calabrian Manufacturing Firms  [PDF]
Francesco Aiello, Concetta Castiglione
Technology and Investment (TI) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ti.2014.52010

The aim of this work is to study the efficiency of firms operating in Calabria, a small and economically-lagging Italian region. The analysis is carried out by estimating a stochastic production frontier for an unbalanced panel of manufacturing firms which are observed over the 1998-2006 period. Results show that the efficiency score is, on average, about 60%. A declining trend is observed over the last three-year period, 2004-2006. Moreover, efficiency increases with firm age and when firms export. Inconclusive evidence is found for the role of investments in ICT and R&D. This is not very surprising given that private effort in technological activities is extremely low in Calabria (private R&D intensity was less than 0.075% of regional GDP in 2010).

Magnetic Theory and Applications in the Naples Bay (Southern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy): Magnetic Anomaly Fields and Relationships with Morpho-Structural Lineaments  [PDF]
Gemma Aiello, Ennio Marsella
World Journal of Condensed Matter Physics (WJCMP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/wjcmp.2016.63020
Abstract: Magnetic theory and application to a complex volcanic area located in Southern Italy are here discussed showing the example of the Gulf of Naples, located at Southern Italy Tyrrhenian margin. A magnetic anomaly map of the Gulf of Naples has been constructed aimed at highlighting new knowledge on geophysics and volcanology of this area of the Eastern Tyrrhenian margin, characterized by a complex geophysical setting, strongly depending on sea bottom topography. The theoretical aspects of marine magnetometry and multibeam bathymetry have been discussed. Magnetic data processing included the correction of the data for the diurnal variation, the correction of the data for the offset and the leveling of the data as a function of the correction at the cross-points of the navigation lines. Multibeam and single-beam bathymetric data processing has been considered. Magnetic anomaly fields in the Naples Bay have been discussed through a detailed geological interpretation and correlated with main morpho-structural features recognized through morpho- bathymetric interpretation. Details of magnetic anomalies have been selected, represented and correlated with significant seismic profiles, recorded on the same navigation lines of magnetometry. They include the continental shelf offshore the Somma-Vesuvius volcanic complex, the outer shelf of the Gulf of Pozzuoli offshore the Phlegrean Fields volcanic complex, the relict volcanic banks of Pentapalummo, Nisida and Miseno, the Gaia volcanic bank on the Naples slope, the western slope of the Dohrn canyon, the Magnaghi canyon’s head and the magnetic anomalies among the Ischia and Procida islands.
Cytomegalovirus antibodies in dried blood spots: a minimally invasive method for assessing stress, immune function, and aging
Jennifer B Dowd, Allison E Aiello, Laura Chyu, Yuan-yen Huang, Thomas W McDade
Immunity & Ageing , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1742-4933-8-3
Abstract: Analysis of CMV in dried blood spot samples (DBS) was based on modifications of a commercially available protocol for quantifying CMV antibodies in serum or plasma. The method was evaluated through analysis of precision, reliability, linearity, and correlation between matched serum and DBS samples collected from 75 volunteers. Correlation between DBS and plasma values was linear and high (Pearson correlation R = .96), and precision, reliability, and linearity of the DBS assay were within acceptable ranges.The validity of a DBS assay for CMV antibodies will enable its inclusion in population-based surveys and other studies collecting DBS samples in non-clinical settings, increasing scientific understanding of the interaction of social and biological stress and immune function.Immune system decline is one of the hallmarks of aging. Age-associated alterations in systemic immunity, referred to as 'immunosenescence', are thought to contribute to the increased incidence and severity of infectious disease in older persons, as well as decreased response to vaccination [1,2]. Increasing evidence suggests that the persistent herpesvirus cytomegalovirus (CMV) plays an important role in human immunosenescence, meriting special attention in studies designed to understand stress, immune function, and health[3]. This paper describes and validates a minimally invasive method for assessing antibodies against CMV in dried whole blood spot samples. The collection of dried blood spots (DBS)-drops of whole blood on filter paper from a single finger prick-has recently become a popular minimally invasive technique for collecting biomarkers in population surveys [4]. Since most standard laboratory protocols require serum or plasma, assay protocols must be developed specifically for DBS and validated for accuracy, precision, reliability, and limits of detection. This validation of a dried-blood spot assay for CMV antibodies will facilitate its broad inclusion in population-based surveys and
Seroprevalence of Epstein-Barr Virus Infection in U.S. Children Ages 6-19, 2003-2010
Jennifer Beam Dowd, Tia Palermo, Jennifer Brite, Thomas W. McDade, Allison Aiello
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0064921
Abstract: Background Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a common herpesvirus linked to infectious mononucleosis and multiple cancers. There are no national estimates of EBV seroprevalence in the United States. Our objective was to estimate the overall prevalence and sociodemographic predictors of EBV among U.S. children and adolescents aged 6–19. Methods We calculated prevalence estimates and prevalence ratios for EBV seroprevalence using data from the 2003–2010 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for children aged 6–19 (n = 8417). Poisson regression was used to calculate multivariable-adjusted prevalence ratios across subgroup categories (sex, race/ethnicity, parental education, household income, household size, foreign-born, BMI, and household smoking). Findings Overall EBV seroprevalence was 66.5% (95% CI 64.3%–68.7%.). Seroprevalence increased with age, ranging from 54.1% (95% CI 50.2%–57.9%) for 6–8 year olds to 82.9% (95% CI 80.0%–85.9%) for 18–19 year olds. Females had slightly higher seroprevalence (68.9%, 95% CI 66.3%–71.6%) compared to males (64.2%, 95% CI 61.7%–66.8%). Seroprevalence was substantially higher for Mexican-Americans (85.4%, 95% CI 83.1%–87.8%) and Non-Hispanic Blacks (83.1%, 95% CI 81.1%–85.1%) than Non-Hispanic Whites (56.9%, 95% CI 54.1%–59.8%). Large differences were also seen by family income, with children in the lowest income quartile having 81.0% (95% CI 77.6%–84.5%) seroprevalence compared to 53.9% (95% CI 50.5%–57.3%) in the highest income quartile, with similar results for parental education level. These results were not explained by household size, BMI, or parental smoking. Among those who were seropositive, EBV antibody titers were significantly higher for females, Non-Hispanic Blacks and Mexican-Americans, with no association found for socioeconomic factors. Conclusions In the first nationally representative U.S. estimates, we found substantial socioeconomic and race/ethnic differences in the seroprevalence of EBV across all ages for U.S. children and adolescents. These estimates can help researchers and clinicians identify groups most at risk, inform research on EBV-cancer etiology, and motivate potential vaccine development.
The photonic wheel: demonstration of a state of light with purely transverse angular momentum
Peter Banzer,Martin Neugebauer,Andrea Aiello,Christoph Marquardt,Norbert Lindlein,Thomas Bauer,Gerd Leuchs
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.2971/jeos.2013.13032
Abstract: The concept of angular momentum is ubiquitous to many areas of physics. In classical mechanics, a system may possess an angular momentum which can be either transverse (e.g., in a spinning wheel) or longitudinal (e.g., for a fluidic vortex) to the direction of motion. Photons, however, are well-known to exhibit intrinsic angular momentum which is longitudinal only: the spin angular momentum defining the beam polarization and the orbital angular momentum associated with a spiraling phase front. Here we show that it is possible to generate a novel state of light that contains purely transverse angular momentum, the analogue of a spinning mechanical wheel. We use an optical nano-probing technique to experimentally demonstrate its occurrence in our setup. Such a state of light can provide additional rotational degree of freedom in optical tweezers and optical manipulation.
Geometric spin Hall effect of light in tightly focused polarization tailored light beams
Martin Neugebauer,Peter Banzer,Thomas Bauer,Sergej Orlov,Norbert Lindlein,Andrea Aiello,Gerd Leuchs
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.89.013840
Abstract: Recently, it was shown that a non-zero transverse angular momentum manifests itself in a polarization dependent intensity shift of the barycenter of a paraxial light beam [A. Aiello et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 100401 (2009)]. The underlying effect is phenomenologically similar to the spin Hall effect of light, but does not depend on the specific light-matter interaction and can be interpreted as a purely geometric effect. Thus, it was named the geometric spin Hall effect of light. Here, we experimentally investigate the appearance of this effect in tightly focused vector-beams. We use an experimental nano-probing technique in combination with a reconstruction algorithm to verify the relative shifts of the components of the electric energy density in the focal plane, which are linked to the intensity shift. By that, we experimentally demonstrate the geometric spin Hall effect of light in a focused light beam.
Life History and Behavior of the Case-BearerPhereoeca Allutella(Lepidoptera: Tineidae)
Annette Aiello
Psyche , 1979, DOI: 10.1155/1979/84541
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