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Discrete Evolutionary Genetics: Multiplicative Fitnesses and the Mutation-Fitness Balance  [PDF]
Thierry Huillet, Servet Martinez
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/am.2011.21002
Abstract: We revisit the multi-allelic mutation-fitness balance problem especially when fitnesses are multiplicative. Using ideas arising from quasi-stationary distributions, we analyze the qualitative differences between the fitness-first and mutation-first models, under various schemes of the mutation pattern. We give some stochastic domination relations between the equilibrium states resulting from these models.
Energy and Emergy Analysis to Evaluate Sustainability of Small Wastewater Treatment Plants: Application to a Constructed Wetland and a Sequencing Batch Reactor  [PDF]
Gerard Merlin, Thierry Lissolo
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2010.212120
Abstract: The aim of this study is to assess the sustainability of two wastewater treatment systems by energy and emergy analyses. The first system is a Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) which is a concrete and electricity dependent intensive process. The second is a constructed wetland, usually considered as an extensive process. The two studied facilities have similar treatment capacity and removal efficiencies. This study sheds new light on the comparison of wastewater treatment plants. We defined a new unit, the “Functional Efficiency Index” (or FEI) to describe the energetic efficiency of the facilities, expressed in kJ per year and per kg of removed COD. The energy analysis showed that, after its construction, the constructed wetland system uses only renewable energy, in marked contrast to the SBR, totally dependent on electricity which is considered here as a non renewable. The emergy analysis showed no significant differences between the two processes, but energy and emergy indices are in favour of the constructed wetland process and thus confirm its sustainability.
A Gravity Model Analysis for Trade between Cameroon and Twenty-Eight European Union Countries  [PDF]
Eric Doumbe Doumbe, Thierry Belinga
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2015.38013
Abstract: The purpose of this empirical analysis is to investigate, based on gravity model, Cameroon’s bilateral trade flows with Twenty-Eight European Union countries signatories of the EU-Cameroon Free Trade Agreement (FTA) on the 15th of January 2009. Though the said Agreement entry into force day was scheduled for the 4th of August 2014, it is important to analyze the trade trends among these 29 countries. The research findings reveal that Cameroon’s bilateral trade with European Union countries is affected positively by economic size and per capita GDP, and influenced negatively by the distance between the trading partners. The result of basic the gravity model reveals that the Product of two countries’ GDPs has positive and significant impact on bilateral trade, indeed, a 1 percent point increase in product of the GDPs leads to increase in the bilateral trade volume of Cameroon with the concerned trade partners by 1.2808 percent and about the distance factor, 1 percent point increase in distance leads to decrease the bilateral trade volume of Cameroon by 2.0306 percent.
Systemic Bartonella henselae Infection in Immunocompetent Adult Presenting as Fever of Unknown Origin
Thierry Zenone
Case Reports in Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/183937
Abstract: Systemic clinical presentations of infection caused by Bartonella henselae are rare in immunocompetent adults. We report four cases with hepatic and/or splenic involvement, presenting as fever of unknown origin. We discuss diagnosis and treatment of this infection. Bartonella henselae serology allows an easy diagnosis of hepatosplenic involvement in cat scratch disease, a clinical picture that appears to be underrecognized.
Habitat Selection and Mating Success in a Mustelid
Thierry Lodé
International Journal of Zoology , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/159462
Abstract: Habitat selection remains a poorly understood ecological process, but relating mating behaviour to pattern of habitat selection constitutes a fundamental issue both in evolutionary ecology and in biological conservation. From radiotelemetry protocol, habitat-induced variations in mating success were investigated in a solitary mustelid carnivore, the European polecat Mustela putorius. Selection for marshy habitat was regarded as adaptive in that mating success was found greater using marches than other habitats. Males consorted with 1.3 females, revealing a low polygyny rate. Pregnant or lactating females selectively shifted to deciduous woods. That some habitat types may favour a good reproduction forms a key factor for species conservation and environmental management. Nevertheless, such as in various vertebrates, habitat requirements seem to be based on simple broad features of habitat, suggesting that habitat avoidance rather than habitat preference can explain polecat habitat predilection. 1. Introduction Adaptive significance of a behaviour is recognized when a behaviour provides a selective advantage in animal ability to adapt to its environment. Landscape structures are expected to influence especially mating behaviour and numerous species required heterogeneous habitat composition. Differences in habitat use among animals have been often ascribed to habitat selection although habitat selection remained a poorly known behavioural ecological process [1–3]. Patterns of habitat use may reveal specific choice for habitat, which should provide numerous benefits such as resource availability, shelter, avoidance of predation, and reduced interspecific competition [4, 5]. The basic conjecture in habitat selection theory is that animals select habitat features to maximize their fitness [6–9]. Thus, habitat selection is a behaviour related to fitness and differs from habitat use in which habitat preferences are mainly linked to resources. Habitat selection can lead to a strong fidelity to habitat features in which fitness was previously high [10]. Numerous species showed partitioning in microhabitat preferences, but patent demonstration for habitat selection was rare [11, 12]. Actually, natural selection can occur when distinct habitat types differ in successful breeding, and putative differences between unsuccessful and successful reproductive sites can be regarded as reflecting habitat selection [8, 12, 13]. It could be predicted that no selection occurs when unsuccessful and successful reproductive sites are not discernible from most of their main
New pulses in plant research
Thierry Huguet
Genome Biology , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/gb-2004-5-10-348
Abstract: The development of sustainable agriculture is a major challenge for humanity: we could eradicate hunger from the earth but still preserve our planet for coming generations, for example by using less pesticides and chemical fertilizers, reducing the greenhouse effect, maintaining small farming communities, preserving biodiversity. It is clear that legumes can provide a solution: in terms of protein content they are amongst the richest plants in the world, and they contribute to feeding the majority of the inhabitants of developing countries. Thanks to symbiotic nitrogen fixation, legumes do not need nitrogenous fertilizers, production of which consumes petroleum and which contribute significantly to groundwater pollution as well as to the greenhouse effect. Last but not least, legumes are very rich in molecules that have potential pharmaceutical uses. As stated by Rodomiro Ortiz (International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Kampala, Uganda) "food legumes are a gold-mine for the developing world", but their productivity remains limited by a lack of access to, and control of, water resources.As a joint meeting, the conference brought together for the first time researchers working on improving grain-legume breeding and processing with those using modern genomic strategies on model plants. Jean-Jacques Drevon (INRA, Montpelier, France) identified the central theme of the conference as "how to link genomics and agronomy". Over five days, 450 participants from 45 countries tried to provide answer(s) to this question. It should be noted, however, that the attendance came essentially from developed countries - fewer than 4% of participants came from Africa, for example. This report focuses on a few of the presentations that illustrate the multidisciplinary nature of current research into the genetics and genomics of legumes.The large diversity of legume species initially encouraged researchers to develop two model legumes: Medicago truncatula and Lotus japonicus. It now
Iron: a target for the management of Kaposi's sarcoma?
Thierry Simonart
BMC Cancer , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-4-1
Abstract: Epidemiological data suggest that iron may be one of the cofactors involved in the pathogenesis of KS. Iron is a well-known carcinogen and may favour KS growth through several pathways. Based on the apoptotic and antiproliferative effect of iron chelation on KS cells, it is suggested that iron withdrawal strategies could be developed for the management of KS. Studies using potent iron chelators in suitable KS animal models are critical to evaluate whether iron deprivation may be a useful anti-KS strategy.It is suggested that iron may be one of non-viral co-factors involved of KS pathogenesis and that iron withdrawal strategies might interfere with tumour growth in patients with KS.Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a mesenchymal tumour that has been identified in different clinical/epidemiological settings: classic KS, an indolent form usually found in elderly men of Mediterranean or Eastern European origin; African-endemic KS, which usually involves the lower extremities (figure 1) and which existed well before the HIV epidemic in some equatorial countries of Africa; immunosuppressive drug-related KS; AIDS-associated KS and HIV-negative gay-related KS. All these forms of KS share a similar histopathology characterised by the proliferation of spindle-shaped cells, by neoangiogenesis, by erythrocyte extravasation and by the presence of haemosiderin-laden macrophages and other inflammatory cells.A large body of evidence indicates that human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) has an important etiologic role in the pathogenesis of KS; 1) HHV-8 can be detected in all the epidemiological and histological forms of KS [1-3] and can directly infect the KS spindle cells [4,5]; 2) HHV-8 encodes several genes that can independently transform cells to a malignant phenotype [6]; 3) infection precedes development of the tumour and tracks tightly with KS risk [3]. However, HHV-8 infection appears as a very low risk factor for KS development. Most reports suggest a 2 to 10% global seroprevalence of HHV-8,
Penguins and their noisy world
Aubin, Thierry;
Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S0001-37652004000200015
Abstract: penguins identify their mate or chick by an acoustic signal, the display call. this identification is realized in a particularly constraining environment: the noisy world of a colony of thousands of birds. to fully understand how birds solve this problem of communication, we have done observations, acoustic analysis, propagation and playback experiments with 6 species of penguins studied in the field. according to our results, it appears that penguins use a particularly efficient ''anti-confusion'' and ''anti-noise'' coding system, allowing a quick identification and localization of individuals on the move in a noisy crowd.
Common before-after accident study on a road site: a low-informative Bayesian method
Thierry Brenac
European Transport Research Review , 2009, DOI: 10.1007/s12544-009-0015-4
Abstract: It is shown that a relatively simple method, based on the Jeffreys’s rule prior considered as a “reasonable standard”, can be implemented without major difficulties. Posterior distributions are proper. The numerical calculation of posterior probabilities can be done without using Monte-Carlo simulations nor specialised software tools.
Appréhender le territoire urbain en Méditerranée (XVIIe-XIXe siècles)
Thierry Allain
Liame : Histoire et Histoire de l’Art des époques Moderne et Contemporaine de l’Europe Méditerranéenne et de ses Périphéries , 2012,
Abstract: Qui fait la ville ? Pour qui ? La double interrogation lancée par Jean-Claude Perrot dans l’introduction de son ouvrage magistral paru en 1975 est toujours aussi pertinente. Elle indiquait de fa on éclatante que l’espace urbain ne devait plus être considéré comme un simple décor, un cadre neutre, un poste d’observation comme un autre, censé refléter les évolutions de toute nature affectant l’Europe des Temps modernes. Sensible au renouvellement de l’espace urbain caennais au XVIIIe siècle...
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