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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 617 matches for " Thein Hlaing Oo "
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Prevention and Treatment of Venous Thromboembolism with New Oral Anticoagulants: A Practical Update for Clinicians
Nay Min Tun,Thein Hlaing Oo
Thrombosis , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/183616
Abstract:
Prevention and Treatment of Venous Thromboembolism with New Oral Anticoagulants: A Practical Update for Clinicians
Nay Min Tun,Thein Hlaing Oo
Thrombosis , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/183616
Abstract: Traditional anticoagulants, such as warfarin and enoxaparin, have several limitations, including parenteral administration, need for laboratory monitoring, and ongoing dose adjustment, which may limit optimal patient care. Newer oral anticoagulants, such as direct thrombin inhibitors (e.g., dabigatran etexilate) and direct factor Xa inhibitors (e.g., rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban), have been developed to overcome these drawbacks, and thereby improve patient care. Several of these agents have been approved for use in the prevention and treatment of venous and/or systemic thromboembolism. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the available clinical trial data for these new oral anticoagulants in the prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism and a practical update for clinicians. 1. Introduction Venous thromboembolism (VTE) comprises deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). Although the exact incidence of VTE is not known, it is estimated to affect 900,000 patients each year in the United States [1]. Approximately one-third of these cases are fatal pulmonary emboli, and the remaining two-thirds are nonfatal episodes of symptomatic DVT or PE [1]. VTE is the second most common cause of extended hospital stay and the third most common cause of in-hospital mortality [2]. Because it causes considerable morbidity and mortality, VTE places a substantial burden on healthcare resources [3, 4]. Without thromboprophylaxis, the incidence of hospital-acquired DVT based on objective diagnostic screening is 10–40% among medical or general surgical patients and 40–60% among patients who have undergone major orthopedic surgery such as total knee replacement (TKR), total hip replacement (THR), and hip fracture surgery [5]. Patients with cancer are at a greater risk of new or recurrent VTE than patients without cancer. VTE risk is 3- to 5-fold higher in cancer patients who are undergoing surgery and 6.5-fold higher in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy than in patients who do not have cancer [6, 7]. The efficacy of traditional anticoagulants in preventing VTE in patients undergoing major orthopedic surgery and in hospitalized acutely ill medical patients is well established [5, 8–11]. However, these agents have several limitations that may limit optimal patient care, such as their parenteral administration, need for laboratory monitoring, and ongoing dose adjustment (Table 1) [12–16]. Newer oral anticoagulants, such as direct thrombin inhibitors (e.g., dabigatran etexilate) and direct factor Xa inhibitors (e.g.,
Preventable head and facial injuries by providing free bicycle helmets and education to preschool children in a head start program  [PDF]
Thein Hlaing Zhu, Mary O. Aaland, Connie Kerrigan, Renee Schiebel, Heather Henry, Lisa Hollister
Health (Health) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/health.2011.311116
Abstract: The objectives of the study were to determine helmet use rates, incidence rates (IRs) of head and facial injuries for population attributable fraction (PAF) estimation, and to elucidate the magnitude of and changes in PAFs as the result of helmet use changes among preschool children. A study consisting of cross-sectional (survey) and longitudinal (follow-up) component was designed by including a randomly selected group of participants (n = 322) from 10 Head Start sites provided with free bicycle helmets along with a subgroup of prior helmet owners (n = 68) from the other random group (n = 285). All participants received bicycle helmet education. Helmet use surveys were conducted in May (1st Survey) and November 2008 (2nd Survey). The helmet owners were followed up to determine IRs, and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for head and facial injuries. PAFs were computed using IRs as well as helmet use rates and IRRs. Helmet use rates increased significantly from the 1st to the 2nd Survey. The mean follow-up person-time was 5 months. The IRs for head, face (all portions), and face (upper/mid portions) injuries were higher in non-helmeted than helmeted riders. By using IRs, PAFs for the 3 injuries among the riders in both groups of helmet owners were 77%, 22%, and 32% respectively. The PAFs for each of the above injuries decreased by about 10% as helmet use rates increased. The magnitude of and changes in preventable head and facial injuries following free bicycle helmet distribution and education among helmeted riders was elucidated in this Head Start preschool children population.
EFFECTIVE MYANMAR KEY LAYOUT DESIGN ANALYZING FOR ANDROID SOFT KEYBOARD
NANDAR PWINT OO,NI LAR THEIN
International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology , 2012,
Abstract: In mobile phone soft keyboard layout, some Myanmar characters are behind the keyboard layout scene and it is needed to switch with some control key. For mobile phone text entry system, optimizing the fit between technology and the user is critical for realizing the potential benefits of assistive technology. It is a necessarytask to try out the effective key layout design that can enhance the text entry speed. Moreover, there is also weak in analyzing of key layout design for Myanmar Language. The aim of this paper is to develop effective Myanmar soft keyboard layout on mobile touch phone to enhance text entry performance by analyzing the entire possible candidate layout according to their probability statistics. The text entry speeds of currently used Myanmar soft keyboards are also analyzed. The experiment shows that the proposed analytic soft keyboard improves typing performance than conventional soft keyboard on touch screen handheld devices.
Design and Evaluation of Android Slide Kyeboard for Myanmar Language
Nandar Pwint Oo,Ni Lar Thein
International Journal of Informatics and Communication Technology , 2012, DOI: 10.11591/ij-ict.v1i2.1378
Abstract: Because of the large character set nature of Myanmar character, currently used Myanmar language soft keyboard look like QWERTY layout on Android devices’s performance is degraded when using on small screens. The users are needed to switch keyboard layout frequently to get their desired characters. To reduce the user keyboard layout switching time, this paper proposed the slide keyboard to set the entire Myanmar character on one screen layout. User study was made by comparing slide keyboard with currently used Myanmar language soft keyboard that look like QWERTY layout (iTextMM). The user preferences and empirical evaluation is also analyzed. According to the evaluation, the parpicipants can take minimum learning time with slide keyboard and can type at a rate of 17 Character per Minutes (CPM) and have got average 0.65 error rates.
Active surveillance for congenital rubella syndrome in Yangon, Myanmar
Thant Kyaw-Zin,Oo Win-Mar,Myint Thein-Thein,Shwe Than-Nu
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2006,
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Rubella vaccine is not included in the immunization schedule in Myanmar. Although surveillance for outbreaks of measles and rubella is conducted nationwide, there is no routine surveillance for congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). Therefore, we organized a study to assess the burden of CRS. METHODS: From 1 December 2000 to 31 December 2002 active surveillance for CRS was conducted among children aged 0-17 months at 13 hospitals and 2 private clinics in Yangon, the capital city. Children with suspected CRS had a standard examination and a blood sample was obtained. All serum samples were tested for rubella-specific IgM; selected samples were tested for rubella-specific IgG and for rubella RNA by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). FINDINGS: A total of 81 children aged 0-17 months were suspected of having CRS. Of these, 18 children had laboratory-confirmed CRS (7 were IgM positive; 7 were RT-PCR positive; and 10 were IgG positive at > 6 months of age). One additional child who tested positive by RT-PCR and whose mother had had rubella during pregnancy but who had a normal clinical examination was classified as having congenital rubella infection. During 2001-02 no rubella outbreaks were detected in Yangon Division. In the 31 urban townships of Yangon Division, the annual incidence was 0.1 laboratory-confirmed cases of CRS per 1000 live births. CONCLUSION: This is the first population-based study of CRS incidence from a developing country during a rubella-endemic period; the incidence of CRS is similar to endemic rates found in industrialized countries during the pre-vaccine era. Rubella-specific IgG tests proved practical for diagnosing CRS in children aged > 6 months. This is one of the first studies to report on the use of rubella-specific RT-PCR directly on serum samples; further studies are warranted to confirm the utility of this method as an additional means of diagnosing CRS.
Ferromagnetism in Ga1-xMnxP: evidence for inter-Mn exchange mediated by localized holes within a detached impurity band
M. A. Scarpulla,B. L. Cardozo,W. M. Hlaing Oo,M. D. McCluskey,O. D. Dubon
Physics , 2005, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.95.207204
Abstract: We demonstrate that in ferromagnetic Ga1-xMnxP exchange is mediated by holes localized in a Mn-derived band. For x<0.06, infrared absorption and photoconductivity spectra indicate the presence of a Mn impurity band which is not merged with the valence band. At temperatures above TC (<65 K) electrical transport is dominated by excitation across this energy gap while nearest neighbor hopping dominates below TC. Magnetization measurements reveal a moment of 3.5 Bohr magnetons per substitutional Mn, while the large anomalous Hall signal unambiguously demonstrates that the ferromagnetism is carrier-mediated.
Grain Size and Texture of Cu2ZnSnS4 Thin Films Synthesized by Cosputtering Binary Sulfides and Annealing: Effects of Processing Conditions and Sodium
W. M. Hlaing OO,J. L. Johnson,A. Bhatia,E. A. Lund,M. M. Nowell,M. A. Scarpulla
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1007/s11664-011-1729-3
Abstract: We investigate the synthesis of kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) polycrystalline thin films using cosputtering from binary sulfide targets followed by annealing in sulfur vapor at 500 {\deg}C to 650 {\deg}C. The films are the kesterite CZTS phase as indicated by x-ray diffraction, Raman scattering, and optical absorption measurements. The films exhibit (112) fiber texture and preferred low-angle and Sigma3 grain boundary populations which have been demonstrated to reduce recombination in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 and CdTe films. The grain growth kinetics are investigated as functions of temperature and the addition of Na. Significantly, lateral grain sizes above 1 um are demonstrated for samples grown on Na-free glass,demonstrating the feasibility for CZTS growth on substrates other than soda lime glass.
Active surveillance for congenital rubella syndrome in Yangon, Myanmar
Thant,Kyaw-Zin; Oo,Win-Mar; Myint,Thein-Thein; Shwe,Than-Nu; Han,Aye-Maung; Aye,Khin-Mar; Aye,Kay-Thi; Moe,Kyaw; Thein,Soe; Robertson,Susan E;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862006000100009
Abstract: objective: rubella vaccine is not included in the immunization schedule in myanmar. although surveillance for outbreaks of measles and rubella is conducted nationwide, there is no routine surveillance for congenital rubella syndrome (crs). therefore, we organized a study to assess the burden of crs. methods: from 1 december 2000 to 31 december 2002 active surveillance for crs was conducted among children aged 0-17 months at 13 hospitals and 2 private clinics in yangon, the capital city. children with suspected crs had a standard examination and a blood sample was obtained. all serum samples were tested for rubella-specific igm; selected samples were tested for rubella-specific igg and for rubella rna by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr). findings: a total of 81 children aged 0-17 months were suspected of having crs. of these, 18 children had laboratory-confirmed crs (7 were igm positive; 7 were rt-pcr positive; and 10 were igg positive at > 6 months of age). one additional child who tested positive by rt-pcr and whose mother had had rubella during pregnancy but who had a normal clinical examination was classified as having congenital rubella infection. during 2001-02 no rubella outbreaks were detected in yangon division. in the 31 urban townships of yangon division, the annual incidence was 0.1 laboratory-confirmed cases of crs per 1000 live births. conclusion: this is the first population-based study of crs incidence from a developing country during a rubella-endemic period; the incidence of crs is similar to endemic rates found in industrialized countries during the pre-vaccine era. rubella-specific igg tests proved practical for diagnosing crs in children aged > 6 months. this is one of the first studies to report on the use of rubella-specific rt-pcr directly on serum samples; further studies are warranted to confirm the utility of this method as an additional means of diagnosing crs.
Feature Selection and Fuzzy Decision Tree for Network Intrusion Detection
Thuzar Hlaing
International Journal of Informatics and Communication Technology , 2012, DOI: 10.11591/ij-ict.v1i2.591
Abstract: Extra features can increase computation time, and can impact the accuracy of the Intrusion Detection System. Feature selection improves classi cation by searching for the subset of features, which best classify the training data. This paper proposed approach uses Mutual Correlation for feature selection which reduces from 34 continuous attributes to 10 continuous attributes and Fuzzy Decision Tree for detection and diagnosis of attacks. Experimental results on the 10% KDD Cup 99 benchmark network intrusion detection dataset demonstrate that the proposed learning algorithm achieved high true positive rate (TPR) and significant reduce false positive rate (FP ).
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