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Impact of different breathing conditions on the dose to surrounding normal structures in tangential field breast radiotherapy
Prabhakar Ramachandran,Tharmar Ganesh,Julka Pramod,Rath Goura
Journal of Medical Physics , 2007,
Abstract: Cardiac toxicity is an important concern in tangential field breast radiotherapy. In this study, the impact of three different breathing conditions on the dose to surrounding normal structures such as heart, ipsilateral lung, liver and contralateral breast has been assessed. Thirteen patients with early breast cancer who underwent conservative surgery (nine left-sided and four right-sided breast cancer patients) were selected in this study. Spiral CT scans were performed for all the three breathing conditions, viz., deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH), normal breathing phase (NB) and deep expiration breath-hold (DEBH). Conventional tangential fields were placed on the 3D-CT dataset, and the parameters such as V30 (volume covered by dose> 30 Gy) for heart, V20 (volume covered by dose> 20 Gy) for ipsilateral lung and V50 (volume receiving> 50% of the prescription dose) for heart and liver were studied. The average reduction in cardiac dose due to DIBH was 64% (range: 26.5-100%) and 74% (range: 37-100%) as compared to NB and DEBH respectively. For right breast cancer, DIBH resulted in excellent liver sparing. Our results indicate that in patients with breast cancer, delivering radiation in deep inspiration breath-hold condition can considerably reduce the dose to the surrounding normal structures, particularly heart and liver.
Conversion of Carbon Dioxide to Methanol Using Solar Energy - A Brief Review  [PDF]
Ibram Ganesh
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2011.210190
Abstract: This article presents a meticulous and comprehensive review of literature reported on conversion of carbon dioxide, a green house gas into methanol or to any other value added chemical following various routes including catalytic, thermal, biological, electrochemical and photoelectrochemical (PEC). More emphasis is given on conversion of carbon dioxide to methanol using solar energy (i.e., artificial photosynthesis) as this process can tackle the human generated two pressing problems, i.e., “global warming” and “energy crisis” today world is facing. It also covers information on various materials required for designing and development of reliable PEC cells for conversion of carbon dioxide to more value added chemicals including methanol. Finally, it also provides the scope for the future research on this topic with adequate literature support.
8 MeV Electron Induced Changes in Structural and Thermal Properties of Lexan Polycarbonate  [PDF]
K. Hareesh, Ganesh Sanjeev
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2011.211224
Abstract: Lexan polycarbonate films were irradiated by 8MeV electron beam at different fluences and characterized using X-ray Diffractogram (XRD), UV-Visible spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). The structural parameters such as degree of crystallinity and crystallite size were found to decrease after irradiation due to chain-scission. he UV-Visible spectroscopic study show the formation of chromophore groups upon irradiation and was reduced at larger wavelength. FTIR Study shows the carbonate linkage was found to be the radiation-sensitive linkage and benzene ring does not undergo any changes after irradiation. The DSC studies showed a decrease in glass transition temperature and heat of fusion after irradiation due to chain-scission which indicates polymer was moving towards more disordered state. Thermal decomposition temperature of Lexan polycarbonate increases upon irradiation.
A Modified Combined Approach Framework of Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment for Water Resource Systems Based on Experience Derived from Different Adaptation Studies in the Context of Climate Change  [PDF]
Ganesh D. Kale
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2013.512129

Warming of climate system is undisputed as evident from observations of increasing average temperatures of air and ocean, large scale melting of ice and increasing global average sea levels. The effect of climate change directly impacts society through the chain of climate-hydrology-water-water resources systems-society. Adaptation and mitigation are the two ways of society to respond the changes in climate. Adaptations may be reactive, anticipatory, autonomous, planned, compliment and substitute type. The adaptations are carried out with the help of guidelines for climate impact and adaptation assessment. The guidelines are subjective or objective. Objective guidelines are step by step procedures to arrive at proper adaptation measures while subjective guidelines are step by step adaptation measures given on the basis of study of area, problem at hand and prerequisites for the adaptation. Many objective guidelines of climate impact and adaptation assessment are given. These objective guidelines can be classified into two approaches: hazard based approach and vulnerability based approach. Both approaches have their own pros and cons, so combined approach with more focus on vulnerability was suggested as the best. In this study based on the lessons learned from the adaptation case studies across the world, the combined approach framework is modified to get modified combined approach framework of guidelines for climate impact and adaptation assessment by adding the components related: 1) explicit mentioning of stakeholders 2) revision, modification and communication of adaptation actions.

Finite element modelling of the pull-apart formation: implication for tectonics of Bengo Co pull-apart basin, southern Tibet  [PDF]
Ganesh Raj Joshi, Daigoro Hayashi
Natural Science (NS) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2010.26082
Abstract: The tectonic deformation and state of stress are significant parameters to understand the active structure, seismic phenomenon and overall ongoing geodynamic condition of any region. In this paper, we have examined the state of stress and crustal deformation during the formation of the Beng Co pull-apart basins produced by an enéchelon strike-slip fault systems using 2D Finite Element Modelling (FEM) under plane stress condition. The numerical modelling technique used for the experiments is based on FEM which enables us to analyze the static behavior of a real and continues structures. We have used three sets of models to explore how the geometry of model (fault overlap and pre-existing weak shear zone) and applied boundary conditions (pure strike-slip, transpressional and transtensional) influence the development of state of stress and deformation during the formation of pull-apart basins. Modelling results presented here are based on five parameters: 1) distribution, orienttation, and magnitude of maximum (σH max) and minimum (σH max) horizontal compressive stress 2) magnitude and orientation of displacement vectors 3) distribution and concentration of strain 4) distribution of fault type and 5) distribution and concentration of maximum shear stress (σH max) contours. The modelling results demonstrate that the deformation pattern of the en-échelon strike-slip pull-apart formation is mainly dependent on the applied boundary conditions and amount of overlap between two master strike-slip faults. When the amount of overlap of the two master strike-slip faults increases, the surface deformation gets wider and longer but when the overlap between two master strike-slip faults is zero, block rotation observed significantly, and only narrow and small surface deform ation obtained. These results imply that overlap between two master strike-slip faults is a significant factor in controlling the shape, size and morphology of the pull-apart basin formation. Results of numerical modelling further show that the pattern of the distribution of maximum shear stress (τmax) contours are prominently depend on the amount of overlap between two master strike-slip faults and applied boundary conditions. In case of more overlap between two masters strike-slip faults, τ max mainly concentrated at two corners of the master faults and that reduces and finally reaches zero at the centre of the pull-apart basin, whereas in case of no overlap, τmax largely concentrated at two corners and tips of the master strike-slip faults. These results imply that the distribution and
Development of extensional stresses in the compressional setting of the Himalayan thrust wedge: inference from numerical modelling  [PDF]
Ganesh Raj Joshi, Daigoro Hayashi
Natural Science (NS) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2010.27083
Abstract: The estimation of contemporary tectonic stress field and deformation in active fold-and-thrust belts are imperative in identifying active geodynamics and resulting faulting phenomenon. In this paper, we focus on contemporary extensional tectonics in the overall compressive setting of the Himalayan orogen. Here we examine the regional tectonic stress field and upper crustal deformation in the Himalayan thrust wedge using a 2D finite element technique, incorporating elastic rheology under plain strain condition. The elastic models demonstrate that the extensional tectonic stress and related nor- mal faulting is extensively developed in the southern front of the Himalaya at shallow crustal level (< 10 km in depth). Our modelling shows a good consistency with the geological field evidences of active faulting, focal mechanism solutions of medium size earthquakes in the several sectors of the Himalaya. Results based on numerical simulation, tectonic analysis and taking geological and geophysical data into account, we interpret that the present-day extensional tectonic activity is not restricted in the southern Tibet but distributed in the different sectors of the Himalayan fold-and-thrust belt co-exist with compressional structures. Modelling results also indicate that the nature, distribution and orientation of the maximum compressive stress (?1) of the Himalaya are mainly controlled by the intra crustal Main Himalayan décollement (MHT). The significant amount of shear stress/strain concentration along the MHT in the western Nepal predict that the region is prone to moderate and great future earthquakes.
Do ICMP Security Attacks Have Same Impact on Servers?  [PDF]
Ganesh Reddy Gunnam, Sanjeev Kumar
Journal of Information Security (JIS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jis.2017.83018
Abstract: There are different types of Cyber Security Attacks that are based on ICMP protocols. Many ICMP protocols are very similar, which may lead security managers to think they may have same impact on victim computer systems or servers. In this paper, we investigate impact of different ICMP based security attacks on two popular server systems namely Microsoft’s Windows Server and Apple’s Mac Server OS running on same hardware platform, and compare their performance under different types of ICMP based security attacks.
Med estimation for narrow band UV-B on type IV and type V skin in India
Pai Ganesh
Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology , 2001,
Abstract: With an aim to determine minimum erythema dose of narrow band UV-B, 30 subjects, 20 with type I V skin and 10 with type V skin were subjected to graded incremental doses of 311-narrow band UV-B phototherapy cabinet by Daavlin. Barely perceptible erythema 24 hrs after exposure was taken as MED. 33.3% developed erythema at 745mj, 26.6% at 620mj, 23.3% at 1075mj, and 10% at 1290mj. The average MED for narrow band UV-B exposure for type I V skin was 600mj, [range 515-755mj] and for type V skin 1100 mj [range 895-1290mj] Better therapeutic response can be obtained by approximately 360 -450mj as initial irradiation dose for type IV skin and 600-825mj for type V skin.
Development of β-SiAlON based ceramics for radome applications
Ibram Ganesh
Processing and Application of Ceramics , 2011,
Abstract: This paper is a review article covering various methods reported on synthesis of β-SiAlON based ceramic materials and on their net-shape consolidation into radome structures. It also identifies a composition out of a wide-range β-Si6-zAlzOzN8-z (where z = 0–4.1) solid solution suitable for radome applications and discusses about various efficient methods reported on fabrication of radome structures out of these compositions. This article also covers the literature pertaining to β-SiAlON-SiO2 ceramic composites, which are considered to be materials of choice for certain high speed radome applications. Further, successful techniques employed for passivation of AlN powder against hydrolysis are also covered as this powder is one of the starting materials for both β-SiAlON and β-SiAlON-SiO2 ceramic composites. Surface passivation of AlN is necessary as it decomposes into alumina and ammonia, when it comes into contact with water during aqueous processing of SiAlON based ceramics, thereby not permitting formation of desired SiAlON phase. Finally, the important properties of various commercial radome materials together with those of β-SiAlON and β-SiAlON-SiO2 ceramic composites are also reviewed and presented in this article.
Environmental concerns and climate change: Need for proactive participation
Kulkarni Ganesh
Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine , 2010,
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