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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 77 matches for " Thaneas Prabakaran "
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Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis of α-Galactosidase A in Human Podocytes in Fabry Disease
Thaneas Prabakaran, Rikke Nielsen, Jakob V. Larsen, S?ren S. S?rensen, Ulla Feldt- Rasmussen, Moin A. Saleem, Claus M. Petersen, Pierre J. Verroust, Erik I. Christensen
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0025065
Abstract: Injury to the glomerular podocyte is a key mechanism in human glomerular disease and podocyte repair is an important therapeutic target. In Fabry disease, podocyte injury is caused by the intracellular accumulation of globotriaosylceramide. This study identifies in the human podocyte three endocytic receptors, mannose 6-phosphate/insulin-like growth II receptor, megalin, and sortilin and demonstrates their drug delivery capabilities for enzyme replacement therapy. Sortilin, a novel α-galactosidase A binding protein, reveals a predominant intracellular expression but also surface expression in the podocyte. The present study provides the rationale for the renal effect of treatment with α-galactosidase A and identifies potential pathways for future non-carbohydrate based drug delivery to the kidney podocyte and other potential affected organs.
Mannose 6-Phosphate Receptor and Sortilin Mediated Endocytosis of α-Galactosidase A in Kidney Endothelial Cells
Thaneas Prabakaran, Rikke Nielsen, Simon C. Satchell, Peter W. Mathieson, Ulla Feldt-Rasmussen, S?ren S. S?rensen, Erik I. Christensen
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0039975
Abstract: Prominent vasculopathy in Fabry disease patients is caused by excessive intracellular accumulation of globotriaosylceramide (GL-3) throughout the vascular endothelial cells causing progressive cerebrovascular, cardiac and renal impairments. The vascular lesions lead to myocardial ischemia, atherogenesis, stroke, aneurysm, thrombosis, and nephropathy. Hence, injury to the endothelial cells in the kidney is a key mechanism in human glomerular disease and endothelial cell repair is an important therapeutic target. We investigated the mechanism of uptake of α-galactosidase A (α-Gal A) in renal endothelial cells, in order to clarify if the recombinant enzyme is targeted to the lysosomes via the universal mannose 6-phosphate receptor (M6PR) and possibly other receptors. Immunohistochemical localization of infused recombinant α-Gal A in a renal biopsy from a classic Fabry disease patient showed that recombinant protein localize in the endothelial cells of the kidney. Affinity purification studies using α-Gal A resins identified M6PR and sortilin as α-Gal A receptors in cultured glomerular endothelial cells. Immunohistochemical analyses of normal human kidney with anti-sortilin and anti-M6PR showed that sortilin and M6PR were expressed in the endothelium of smaller and larger vessels. Uptake studies in cultured glomerular endothelial cells of α-Gal A labeled with fluorescence and 125I showed by inhibition with RAP and M6P that sortilin and M6PR mediated uptake of α-Gal A. Biacore studies revealed that α-Gal A binds to human M6PR with very high affinity, but M6PR also binds to sortilin in a way that prevents α-Gal A binding to sortilin. Taken together, our data provide evidence that sortilin is a new α-Gal A receptor expressed in renal endothelial cells and that this receptor together with the M6PR is able to internalize circulating α-Gal A during enzyme replacement therapy in patients with Fabry disease.
Urban and Rural HIV Estimates among Adult Population (15 - 49 Years) in Selected States of India Using Spectrum Data  [PDF]
Lincoln Priyadarshi Choudhury, Jayaraman Prabakaran
World Journal of AIDS (WJA) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/wja.2015.53026
Abstract: HIV estimation has become a standard tool for understanding the epidemic. Although the majority of India’s population lives in rural areas, to date, an exploration of the urban and rural HIV epidemic has not been undertaken. The objective of this study is to develop HIV estimation based on urban and rural adult populations in selected states of India to understand the difference in HIV related indices geographically. Ten states were selected based on HIV prevalence levels-Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Manipur, and Nagaland, Mizoram, Punjab, Odisha and Jharkhand. Spectrum, version 4.53 beta 19, was used. Data files of Indian national estimation, 2010-11 which included population, HIV Sentinel Surveillance, Integrated Bio Behavioral Assessment and program coverage data, were used and alterations made wherever necessary. The urban and rural sub epidemic structures and their subpopulations were separately configured in the Estimation projection package and curve fitting done. Outputs for each state were separately analyzed. Findings show that HIV prevalence is lower in urban than rural areas in Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra; in Karnataka there is no difference in HIV prevalence in the urban and rural populations; and in the remaining seven states urban HIV prevalence is higher as compared to rural HIV prevalence. In the states of Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Odisha and Punjab, the number of people living with HIV, new HIV infections and deaths among people living with HIV is higher in the rural than in the urban population. An early and lower peak in HIV prevalence and incidence in the urban population was seen in Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Naga-land, while in Maharashtra the rural peak was earlier and higher. Mizoram shows an earlier and lower peak in the rural population while Manipur shows an earlier and higher urban peak. In Odisha, the epidemic peaked earlier and was lower in the rural than the urban population. HIV prevalence in the urban population in Punjab was still peaking while HIV incidence was earlier and lower in the rural population. In Jharkhand, both urban and rural HIV prevalence and incidence are still increasing. Our findings indicate lower levels of HIV prevalence and incidence in the urban population as compared to the rural populations in Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. In the remaining eight states, urban prevalence and incidence are higher than their rural counterparts. Future estimations of the HIV epidemic in the country need to adopt a similar approach to inform the design of appropriate
Rare Presentation of Unilateral Weakness, Involuntary Movements and Ataxia with Subcortical T2 Hypointensity in a Diabetic Patient: A Case Report
Venkatraman Indiran,Prabakaran Maduraimuthu
Case Reports in Radiology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/768189
Abstract: Subcortical T2 hypointensity on MRI is not a common finding. We present a case of subcortical T2 hypointensity in a diabetic patient, who was referred with weakness of left lower limb and involuntary movements and ataxia of the left upper limb. Lab reports confirmed the diagnosis of nonketotic hyperglycemia. It is rather important to identify subcortical T2 hypointensity which has only been recently found to be associated with nonketotic hyperglycemia. Early identification and prompt correction of blood sugar would help in alleviating the neurological symptoms.
Thermodynamic and Isotherm Analysis on the Removal of Malachite Green Dye Using Thespesia Populnea Bark
R. Prabakaran,S. Arivoli
Journal of Chemistry , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/629089
Abstract: Activated carbon was synthesized from Thespesia Populnea Bark, a low cost material, by sulphuric acid activation; it was tested for its ability to eliminate malachite green in aqueous solution. The parameters studied included contact time, initial dye concentration, carbon dose, pH and temperature. The adsorption followed first order rate equation. In addition, it was found that the adsorption process was described by Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models. Those models were applied to the equilibrium data. The absorption capacities (Qm) obtained from the Langmuir isotherm plots were 349.20, 365.43, 476.44, and 389.96 mg/g at 30°, 40°, 50°, and 60°C, respectively, at an initial pH 6.0. The temperature variation study showed that the malachite green dye absorption was endothermic and spontaneous with increased randomness at the solid solution interface. The thermodynamic parameters like ∆H°, ∆S°, and ∆G° were calculated from the slope and intercept of the linear plots.
Effect of Non-Genetic Factors on Absolute Growth Rate in Short Term Selection for Different Ages in Japanese Quail
A. Ashok,R. Prabakaran
Research Journal of Poultry Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/rjpscience.2012.36.38
Abstract: Meat type Japanese quail were subjected to three different methods of individual phenotypic selection viz., high 2 weeks body weight (SWL), 4 weeks body weight (FWL) and high 4 weeks body weight coupled with low relative body weight gain between 4-6 weeks of age (LWL) and a Control (COL) without adopting any selection for three generations. The effects of lines, generations, sexes and hatches were significant (p<0.01) on Absolute Growth rate (AGW) of birds at all the ages studied barring the influence of sex on body weight at hatch. The least square means of AGW during 1st-6th weeks of age were 26.38±0.37, 43.66±0.64, 37.42±0.69, 27.70±0.70, 23.76±0.61 and18.02±0.56 g, respectively in base (S0) generation and the corresponding means in first S1 generation were 22.99±0.37, 32.93±0.65, 26.96±0.70, 27.82±0.71, 21.27±0.61 and 17.83±0.57 g. In second (S2) generation the AGW were 28.44±0.36, 36.59±0.62, 49.08±0.66, 36.24±0.67, 17.91±0.58 and 18.57±0.54 g and the corresponding means in (S3) generation were 27.42±033 37.97±0.57, 41.06±0.60, 34.16±0.61, 25.10±0.53 and 23.63±0.49g, respectively. The least squares means of AGW during 1st-6th weeks of age were 26.00±0.33, 37.15±0.57, 38.46±0.62, 29.71±0.62, 17.46±0.54 and 13.11±0.50 g in males and 26.61±0.0.32, 38.43±0.56, 41.06±0.60, 34.16±0.61, 25.10±0.53 and 23.63±0.49 g in females, respectively. The AGW of females was found to be significantly (p<0.05) higher than that of males at all the ages studied.
On disconnected domination number of a graph
S. Balamurugan,G. Prabakaran
International Journal of Mathematics and Soft Computing , 2013,
Abstract: A dominating set D of graph G = (V, E) is a disconnected dominating set, if the induced subgraph < D > is disconnected. The disconnected dominating number (G) of G is the minimum cardinality of a disconnected dominating set of G. In this paper, we relate this parameter to other parameters of graph G and obtain some bounds also.
Multidrug Resistant Salmonella typhi in Asymptomatic Typhoid Carriers among Food Handlers in Namakkal District, Tamil Nadu
Senthilkumar B,Prabakaran G
Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology , 2005,
Abstract: Purpose: to screen Salmonella typhi in asymptomatic typhoid carriers and to find out drug resistance and ability of the strains to transmit drug resistance to other bacteria. Methods: Cultural characters, biochemical tests, antibiotic sensitivity test (disc diffusion), agarose gel electrophoresis, and conjugation protocols were done. Thirty five stool samples were collected from the suspected food handlers for the study. Results: Among 35 samples, (17.14%) yielded a positive result. Out of these 4 (20.0%) were women and 2 (13.33%) were men. The isolates were tested with a number of conventional antibiotics viz, amikacin, amoxicillin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, co-trimaxazole, rifampicin, gentamicin, nalidixic acid, ofloxacin and tetracycline. Five isolates were having the multidrug resistant character. Four (66.66%) multidrug resistant isolates were found to have plasmids, while one (16.66%) multidrug resistant isolate had no plasmid and the chromosome encoded the resistance. Only one strain (16.66%) showed single antibiotic resistance in the study and had no plasmid DNA. The molecular weights of the plasmids were determined and found to be 120 kb.The mechanism of spreading of drug resistance through conjugation process was analyzed. In the conjugation studies, the isolates having R+ factor showed the transfer of drug resistance through conjugation, which was determined by the development of antibiotic resistance in the recipients. Conclusion: This study shows that drug resistant strains are able to transfer genes encoding drug resistance.
New spectrophotometric methods for the determination of racecadotril in bulk drug and capsules
Vetrichelvan T,Prabakaran S
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: Two simple and sensitive spectrophotometric methods (A and B) for the determination of racecadotril in bulk drugs and pharmaceutical formulations are described. In method A, methanol was used as solvent and shows absorption maximum at 231 nm. In method B, the solvent used was acetonitrile:water in the ratio of 1:3 and shows absorption maximum at 232 nm. The Beer′s law range for method A is 25-100 mg/ml and 20-80 mg/ml for method B. When capsules dosage forms were analyzed, the results obtained by the proposed methods are in good agreement with the labeled amounts and the results were validated statistically.
Wayamba Journal of Animal Science , 2012,
Abstract: Meat type Japanese quail were subjected to three different methods of individual phenotypic selection viz., high two week body weight (SWL), four week body weight (FWL) and high four week body weight coupled with low relative body weight gain between 4-6 weeks of age(LWL) and a control (COL) without adopting any selection for threegenerations. The effects of lines,generations, sexes and hatches weresignificant (P< 0.01) on the relative body weight gain (RGW) of birds at all the ages studied. The least square means of RGW during first, second, third, fourth, fifth and sixth week of age in base S0 generation were 370.37±3.85, 124.25 ± 2.20,44.51±1.68, 24.15±0.0.69, 16.94±0.45 and 10.48±0.35 per cent. The corresponding means were 383.81±3.91, 115.03±2.23,42.62±1.70, 31.90±0.70, 18.23±0.46 and11.99±0.35 per cent in first S1 generation,374.04 ±3.76, 92.63 ±2.15, 75.08±1.64,30.18±0.67, 12.25±0.44 and 12.22 ±0.34 per cent in second S2 generation and 381.89±3.42, 103.61±1.96, 62.90±1.49,30.68±0.61, 14.14±0.31 and 10.28±0.31 per cent in third S3 generation. The least squares means of RGW during the above periods were 375.41±3.46, 107.62±1.98,55.20±1.51, 27.93±0.62, 13.04±0.41and8.70±0.31 per cent in males and 379.95±3.39, 110.14± 1.94, 57.35±1.48,30.52±0.61, 17.24±0.40 and 13.77±0.31 per cent in females respectively. The RGW of females was found to be higher thanthat of males at all the ages studied and however the differences were significant after three weeks of age.
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