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Quantitative estimation of silybin in Silybum marianum mother tincture using high performance liquid chromatography
Hamrapurkar Purnima,Thakurdesai Leena,Phale Mitesh
International Journal of Green Pharmacy , 2010,
Abstract: Silybin is a characterising compound present in the plant Silybum marianum, used as an hepatoprotective. A simple, accurate and sensitive HPLC method was developed for estimation of silybin. The chromatographic separation was carried out on RP C18 (Waters) column (250 × 4.6 mm, 10 μm) using mobile phase, phosphate buffer: water (65:35 % v/v) pumped at a flow rate of 1 ml/min. The eluent was monitored at 288 nm. The method is specific and linear over the range of 10-200 ng/ml. The method was statistically validated for precision, accuracy, robustness and recovery. The HPLC method can be applied for identification and on of silybin in herbal extracts of Silybum marianum.
Collaborative Meeting as an Integrative Mechanism in a Multinational Investment Project  [PDF]
Leena Pekkinen, Jaakko Kujala
Technology and Investment (TI) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ti.2014.51006
Abstract:

In multinational and complex projects that are often implemented by multiple organizations, the entire projects need to be divided into manageable subprojects. At the same time, all subprojects are needed to be kept aligned with the project goals and targets by integration and coordination. The purpose of this article is to study the role of a particular, work-shop type, collaborative meeting by utilizing the characteristics of an integrative information processing framework. A single case study method was used to observe the practices of collaborative meetings. This study contributes to the project management research by analysing how collaborative meeting practice can be used as a mechanism to reduce uncertainty and equivocality in a large investment project. The results of this study are two folds: Firstly, the case project’s collaborative meetings are described in detail; secondly, the perceived features and procedures of the collaborative meetings in the case project are illustrated showing the role of the collaborative meetings as an integrative tool. Moreover, the perceived integrative characteristics of the collaborative meetings reducing uncertainty and equivocality are presented. This study indicates that collaborative meeting is an integrative mechanism reducing uncertainty and equivocality in a large investment project context.

Risk Management in Project Networks: An Information Processing View  [PDF]
Leena Pekkinen, Kirsi Aaltonen
Technology and Investment (TI) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ti.2015.61005
Abstract: Increasingly, projects are executed by networks of organizations. The networked form of organization has many important implications for project risk management. Information processing theories introduce mechanisms for processing information inside organizations as well as among organizations to reduce the uncertainty and equivocality inherently present in international projects. This study aims to examine the risk management practices involved at a project network level through an empirical analysis of one complex large project network executed in a challenging institutional environment. With regard to network level risk management, the paper identifies eight formal information processing mechanisms for implementing risk management: (1) established rules and criteria for the selection of subcontractors at a global level, (2) specification of responsibilities in the contract, (3) formal risk sheet, (4) progress follow-up tool, (5) database for project information, (6) customer reporting system, (7) updated project plan after the project is delayed, and (8) country study team. Personal relationships between parties, personal commitment, experienced individuals, and face-to-face meetings are identified as informal information processing mechanisms used as measures of project risk management to reduce equivocality. We also elaborate the fitness of the mechanisms used for the contextual situations of the project network settings.
Renoprotective Effects of Reconstructed Composition of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. Seeds in Animal Model of Diabetic Nephropathy with and without Renal Ischemia Reperfusion in Rats
Sachin Arora,Subhash L. Bodhankar,V. Mohan,Prasad A. Thakurdesai
International Journal of Pharmacology , 2012,
Abstract: Diabetic nephropathy is the kidney complication of diabetes mellitus and leading to end stage renal disease. In the past, reconstructed antidiabetic combination from Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) seeds (IND01) containing 4-hydroxyisoleucine (40%), trigonelline (30%) and galactomannan (30%) showed excellent antihyperglycemic activity. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the renoprotective efficacy of IND01 in animal model of diabetes with and without ischemia reperfusion injury. The diabetes was induced by alloxan in dose of 160 mg kg-1, intraperitoneally (early nephropathy model, without ischemia reperfusion) or 70 mg kg-1, i.v. (model with ischemia reperfusion). In both models, effects of oral treatment of IND01 (50, 100 and 200 mg kg-1, daily once for 30 days) were observed on biochemical parameters (creatinine clearance) and urine (blood urea nitrogen). On day 30, rats were sacrificed and histology was performed on isolated kidneys. Alloxan administration with or without ischemia reperfusion showed symptoms of severe nephropathy (decreased creatinine clearance, increased BUN, presence of glomerular matrix formation, tubular necrosis, interstitial inflammation and fibrosis). The daily oral administration of IND01 (50-200 mg kg-1) showed potent and mild renoprotective effects on biochemical parameters against diabetic rats without ischemia (early nephropathy) and with ischemia model respectively. IND01 showed moderate protection from histological abnormalities in kidney of alloxan-induced rats without ischemia reperfusion injury (early nephropathy model). However, such protection was not offered by IND01 in alloxan induced rats with ischemia reperfusion injury. In conclusion, IND01 showed renoprotection in animal model of early nephropathy probably by effective glycemic control.
Teoria do bem-estar das crian?as
Alanen, Leena;
Cadernos de Pesquisa , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-15742010000300005
Abstract: the text discusses the contributions of new studies on childhood, given the importance that children and childhood have assumed in the process of reconfiguring social welfare in advanced western societies.
Genetic engineering for improvement of Musa production in Africa
Leena Tripathi
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2003,
Abstract: Bananas and plantains (Musa sp.) are the most important staple food and source of carbohydrates in many countries of Africa. The production is often constrained by many pests and diseases. In order to augment conventional breeding and to avoid constraints imposed by some pests and pathogens, transgenic approaches are being considered. The development of transgenic Musa plants has been achieved recently using the microprojectile bombardment procedure or Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The transgenic approach shows potential for the genetic improvement of the crop using a wide set of transgenes currently available which may confer resistance to nematode pests, fungal, bacterial and viral diseases. This article discusses the applications of genetic engineering for the enhancement of Musa production.
GLOBALISATION AND INDIAN CIVIL-MILITARY RELATIONS A NEW HOPE - AT INDIA PAKISTAN BORDER A Culture of Peace Process in Kashmir
Leena PARMAR
Bezbednosni Dijalozi , 2011,
Abstract: The conventional notion of security has been and remains State-centric with military as its major instrument, entrusted with the duty to defend the territorial integrity of the nation-state. No doubt, safeguarding territorial integrity from external aggression is mostvital for the honorable existence of any nation-state. However there are equally, if not more vital concerns and facets of security, that are often, ignored in the specialized security discourse of military strategists-, where the concerned area is ravaged by militancy, hatredand innocent killings. Military security through armed and ammunitions with latest equipment’s often neglects the social structures, people’s movements, and non-state actors, thus making the entire process elitist, parochial and often insensitive. The changing nature of Civil-Military Relations in Asia has been focus for any seriousscholar of peace and security. This current research is on the Civil Military Relations, an Army – Corporate world initiative. This is aimed at bringing peace to the people of the Kashmir Valley.
From a spatial adposition to a grammatical relations' marker: contact- and context-induced grammaticalization
Leena Kolehmainen
L?hiv?rdlusi. L?hivertailuja , 2010,
Abstract: This paper is an investigation of grammatical relations' marking that combines the advances of monolingual analysis with cross-linguistic comparison. It examines adpositions as grammatical relations' markers and the linguistic change which leads to the rise of adpositional objects from freely insertable spatial adverbials. Th is study concentrates on the Finnish adposition per n 'after'. An empirical monolingual corpus analysis shows that per n as a grammatical relations' marker is a productive device for argument linking in contemporary Finnish. In a cross-linguistic comparison, the properties of Swedish, German and Finnish adpositional objects with efter, nach and per n 'after, are studied with regard to the continuum between prototypical freely insertable adverbials and prototypical adpositional objects. A diachronic comparison, in turn, focuses on the development of adpositional objects from spatial adverbials and examines three alternative possibilities for per n: native grammaticalization, contact-induced grammaticalization and the interaction of both language-internal and -external factors.
Kielenoppiminen ja kielenk ytt - tapaustutkimus kolmen suomenoppilaan suomen kielest
Leena Niiranen
L?hiv?rdlusi. L?hivertailuja , 2010,
Abstract: The aim of the study is to present how three learners of Finnish in Northern Norway use complex constructions of verbs. Tiina and Anna are Norwegian-Finnish bilinguals; Berit has learned Finnish only at school. I discuss their knowledge of complex constructions of verbs as it relates to their use of the Finnish language outside the classroom. I also discuss this knowledge within their formal learning context. Complex constructions are verbs that take infi nitives or clauses as complements. Verbs are classifi ed as concrete, mental and abstract (for example modal verbs). Mental and abstract verbs are used as main verbs in constructions with infi nitives as complements. Mental verbs (speech act, cognition or perception verbs) take complement clauses.
Saatuse tahtel
Leena Huima
M?etagused. Hüperajakiri , 2002,
Abstract: The article analyses language usage in biographies of Estonian women published in Eesti Elulood. Naised k nelevad ("Estonian Biographies. Women Speaking"; Tartu 1997); Eesti rahva elulood I-II ("Biographies of the Estonian Nation I-II"; Tallinn 2000) and Kured l inud, kurjad ilmad ("The Cranes Are Gone, Rough Weather"; Tartu 1997). For comparison, biographies of Finnish women are used. The article is based on the assumption that language is a part of a society's semiotic system. Analysis is applied to texts where the whole life or certain events are explained with the actions of some external force. In a wider sense, this is a mythical metaphor, the characteristic feature of which is the existence of the main metaphors in two forms: verbal as well as symbolic. Personified forces shaping the course of their life are war, life, events and time periods, fate, god. The forces acting on their life course are verbally expressed in passive voice and metaphors of the independent mover are used. The biographies concern little what the women could have done to change the course of their life. Although these stories are more tragic than the Finnish biographies, the word `happiness' and its derivatives are fairly much used. Estonian women born in the 1920s and 1930s speak of their life course as determined by some force. Most important are the dramatic events related to World War 2 that they had no way of avoiding. Under Soviet rule there was little they could do to influence their life. In their biographies, fate is personified, resembling the Christian concept of god. Finnish women contemplate more about why life turned out this way or that and believe more in the possibility of changing the course of one's life. Biographies of Estonians living abroad and younger Estonians differ little from those of Finnish women.
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