OALib Journal期刊

ISSN: 2333-9721



匹配条件: “Tesfai” ,找到相关结果约4条。
Social impact and impoverishment risks of the Koga irrigation scheme, Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia
Eguavoen, Irit,Tesfai, Weyni
Afrika Focus , 2012,
Abstract: The Koga project is the first new large-scale irrigation scheme in the Blue Nile river basin since the 1970s and may thus serve as an example of the tremendous changes of landscape and livelihood that are accompanying current water development projects in Ethiopia. This article analyzes the impoverishment risks arising out of the development-induced relocation of households in Koga. Following the Impoverishment Risk and Reconstruction model, seven of eight impoverishment risks could be identified, namely temporal landlessness, homelessness, joblessness, social marginalization, loss of household assets, social disarticulation and food insecurity, though the majority of relocated households succeeded in moving to other rural areas and did not face the challenges caused by urbanization. The Koga project and the local municipality undertook activities to reverse the impoverishment risk for the relocated households, but focused on the reconstruction of material livelihood assets (land, houses and compensation). The extent of rural-urban migration as a result of the project was underestimated. Proactive activities by the affected households succeeded in reducing their risk of impoverishment if they were informed early enough about the irrigation project.
Irrigation and Nitrogen Requirements of Wheat under Shallow Water Table Conditions of Asmara, Eritrea  [PDF]
Fekadu Tesfamichael, Ramesh Prasad Tripathi, Mehreteab Tesfai
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2016.44011
Abstract: Wheat (Triticum astivum L.) is traditionally rainfed in Eritrea. Yields are low because of poor soil management and low water and nutrient inputs. A field experiment was conducted in Akria farm, located in the outskirts of Asmara. The soil was clay loam associated with non-saline shallow water tables fluctuating from 0.4 to 1.2 m depths during the crop season. Wheat variety Wedel Nile was planted in split plot design with four levels of supplementary irrigations (SI) viz. I1 (rainfed, 0 SI), I2 (1/3 of full SI), I3 (2/3 of full SI), and I4 (full SI) in main plots and three levels of nitrogen viz. N1 (18 kg N ha-1), N2 (50 kg N ha-1), and N3 (100 kg N ha-1) as sub-plots in three replications. Full SI refers to amount of water necessary to replenish soil moisture deficit in the root zone from field capacity to 50% depletion of the available soil moisture. Groundwater table was constant around 0.4 m depth for 32 days from planting and declined slowly thereafter. Wetness around 0.3 m depth was thus near field capacity until second week of December and reduced thereafter with declining water table. Average soil moisture depletion was 94 mm under rainfed and 64 mm under full irrigation. No symptoms of wilting were observed in any of the treatments due to shallow water tables. Upward flux from the water table was 4.6 mm·d-1 until 30 days from planting, which declined to 0.2 mm·d-1 when the water table declined below 0.9 m depth. Optimum yield of wheat (5603 kg·ha
Determination of inorganic pollutants and assessment of the current South African guidelines on permissible utilisation of sewage sludges
D Jaganyi, FK Tesfai, C Southway, M Mamabolo
Water SA , 2005,
Abstract: A total of 71 sludge samples originating from 61 sewage treatment works in South Africa were used in this investigation. Moisture, pH and total mineral ion content were determined. Moisture values were found to vary between 2.7% and 88.5% with the pH of the majority of the samples falling between 5.1 and 6.5. Mineral ion determinations showed that P was the most abundant in most of the sludges whereas, of the heavy metals, Zn had the highest concentrations and Cd the lowest. The current results (for 10 elements) were compared with the current South African maximum limits as stipulated in the permissible utilisation and disposal of sewage sludge for unrestricted use. The amounts of Cu, Se, Pb and Zn were found to be above the limit in more than 90% of the samples. No sewage works met the required limits for all the elements of interest. The results were also compared with the USA and EU limits, according to which all the elements were within the acceptable range and over 50% of the sludge samples met the required limits. These results suggest that the current South African limit is too conservative. Water SA Vol.31 (3) 2005: pp.359-368
Effect of Potassium Levels on Growth and Productivity of Potato Varieties  [PDF]
Daniel Zeru Zelelew, Sewa Lal, Tesfai Tsegai Kidane, Biniam Mesfin Ghebreslassie
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2016.712154
Abstract: Potato is one of the priority vegetable crops in the highlands of Eritrea growing as a key component in the livelihood systems of farmers. Potato requires a variety of balanced plant mineral nutrients for growth and development without which yield and qualities of tubers are reduced. Potato growers in Eritrea commonly use Di-ammonium Phosphate, Urea and Farmyard manure while potassium fertilizers are overlooked assuming that the soil is developed from K rich parent material and contains sufficient amount of K to support crop growth. However this assumption is based on the result obtained forty-seven years ago. As a result the yield and quality of potato produced is very low as compared with international standards. Therefore the present experiment was conducted to assess the effect of potassium levels on growth and productivity of potato varieties at Hamelmalo Agricultural College, Eritrea. The experiment was conducted in factorial Randomized Complete Block Design with fifteen treatment combinations of three varieties (Ajiba, Zafira and Picasso) and five potassium levels (0, 75, 150, 225 and 300 kg K2O/ha) replicated thrice. The results of the study showed that both variety and potassium had significant effect on growth and yield parameters. Aerial stem number, leaf number per plant and plant height were increased with increasing K levels from 0 to 150 kg while number of days to maturity was increased in the range of 0 - 300 kg K2O/ha. The result also indicated that variety Ajiba treated with 300 kg K2O/ha produced significantly highest tuber weight (1.14 kg) per plant and tuber yield of 49.38 t/ha. The economic analysis result revealed that maximum gross margin 13,665.816 USD/ha was obtained from the application of 300 kg K2O/ha. On the whole, it gives an impression that using potassium fertilizer according to soil requirements will have good influence on growth and tuber yield.

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