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WHAT DOES IT MEAN TO UNDERSTAND ARISTOTLE'S NICOMACHEAN ETHICS? O QUE SIGNIFICA COMPREENDER A éTICA NICOMAQUEIA DE ARISTóTELES?
Priscilla Tesch Spinelli
Philósophos : Revista de Filosofia , 2011, DOI: 10.5216/phi.v15i1.12359
Abstract: Early in the Nicomachean Ethics Aristotle claims that the goal pursued by that work is not knowledge but action; a bit later he says that reading / studying the lessons therein contained would be useless if it did not serve to somehow make us better. The aim of this paper is to present what I take as being the practical understanding that Aristotle requires from the reader / student of the NE, as opposed to a purely theoretical understanding of the issues addressed by that work. One can read the NE as a purely theoretical treatise, considering irrelevant the question of whether or not we are motivated to pursue a virtuous life. But one should not read it that way, according to Aristotle. To understand that the virtuous life is the best means to pursue that life. As I intend to show, the Aristotelian requirement that students of the NE have been educated in good habits in order to follow its lessons properly is a strong indication supporting the idea above. Aristotle had in mind the fact that it is only in a mature character that moral arguments, even if very general ones such as those in the NE, can motivate action. Já no início da ética Nicomaqueia Aristóteles afirma que o objetivo visado pela obra n o é o conhecimento, mas a a o; um pouco mais adiante, afirma que a leitura/estudo das li es nela contidas terá sido inútil se isso n o serviu para, de algum modo, tornarmo-nos melhores. O objetivo desse artigo é apresentar o que entendo como a compreens o prática que Aristóteles requer que o seu leitor/estudante tenha da EN, opondo-a a uma compreens o puramente teórica dos assuntos por ela tratados. Podemos ler a EN como um tratado apenas teórico, considerando irrelevante o fato de sermos ou n o motivados a buscar uma vida virtuosa. Mas n o devemos lê-la assim, segundo Aristóteles. Compreender que a vida virtuosa é a melhor implica buscar essa vida. Conforme pretendo mostrar, a exigência aristotélica que os estudantes da EN tenham sido educados nos bons hábitos para seguir adequadamente as suas li es é um forte indício para a comprova o da ideia
Detection of the first X-ray selected large AGN group
F. Tesch,D. Engels
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-8711.2000.03264.x
Abstract: We have examined the spatial distribution of 856 AGN detected by the ROSAT All-Sky Survey (RASS) using a direct search for structures with the minimal spanning tree. The AGNs were compiled from an area of 7000 deg^2, in which optical identifications of RASS sources were made with the help of the digitized objective prism plates of the Hamburg Quasar Survey (HQS). Redshifts were taken from the literature or from own follow-up observations. The sample probes the spatial distribution at low redshifts, since the redshift distribution peaks at z=0.1. The application of the minimal spanning tree led to a 1.8 sigma discovery of an AGN group with 7 members in a volume V=140*75*75 h^-3Mpc^3 in the Pisces constellation. With a mean redshift z=0.27 this group is only the third discovered group at redshifts z<0.5. The RASS offers excellent possibilities to study large scale structure with AGNs at low redshifts, once these redshifts are determined.
Inflammation in Diabetic Nephropathy
Andy K. H. Lim,Gregory H. Tesch
Mediators of Inflammation , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/146154
Abstract: Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of end-stage kidney disease worldwide but current treatments remain suboptimal. This review examines the evidence for inflammation in the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy in both experimental and human diabetes, and provides an update on recent novel experimental approaches targeting inflammation and the lessons we have learned from these approaches. We highlight the important role of inflammatory cells in the kidney, particularly infiltrating macrophages, T-lymphocytes and the subpopulation of regulatory T cells. The possible link between immune deposition and diabetic nephropathy is explored, along with the recently described immune complexes of anti-oxidized low-density lipoproteins. We also briefly discuss some of the major inflammatory cytokines involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy, including the role of adipokines. Lastly, we present the latest data on the pathogenic role of the stress-activated protein kinases in diabetic nephropathy, from studies on the p38 mitogen activated protein kinase and the c-Jun amino terminal kinase cell signalling pathways. The genetic and pharmacological approaches which reduce inflammation in diabetic nephropathy have not only enhanced our understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease but shown promise as potential therapeutic strategies. 1. Introduction Diabetic nephropathy (DN) has not been traditionally considered an inflammatory disease. However, recent studies have shown that kidney inflammation is crucial in promoting the development and progression of DN. Inflammation may be a key factor which is activated by the metabolic, biochemical, and haemodynamic derangements known to exist in the diabetic kidney. In this paper, we discuss the evidence for inflammation in DN and the lessons we have learned from novel experimental anti-inflammatory therapies. The main areas covered include the role of immune and inflammatory cells, inflammatory cytokines, and stress-activated protein kinases. We also briefly review the controversy around the role of immune complexes and immune deposition in DN. 2. Inflammatory Cells In human DN, macrophages and T cells accumulate in the glomeruli and interstitium, even in the early stages of the disease. Recruitment of leukocytes involves three steps: (a) selectin-dependent leukocyte rolling on the endothelium, (b) chemokine-dependent integrin activation and leukocyte adhesion, and (c) transmigration of leukocytes across the endothelium [1]. Proinflammatory cytokines produced by leukocytes such as
Quantum Computation with Vibrationally Excited Molecules
Carmen M. Tesch,Regina de Vivie-Riedle
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.89.157901
Abstract: A new physical implementation for quantum computation is proposed. The vibrational modes of molecules are used to encode qubit systems. Global quantum logic gates are realized using shaped femtosecond laser pulses which are calculated applying optimal control theory. The scaling of the system is favourable, sources for decoherence can be eliminated. A complete set of one and two quantum gates is presented for a specific molecule. Detailed analysis regarding experimental realization shows that the structural resolution of today's pulse shapers is easiliy sufficient for pulse formation.
Summary and Outlook of the International Workshop on Aging Phenomena in Gaseous Detectors (DESY, Hamburg, October, 2001)
M. Titov,M. Hohlmann,C. Padilla,N. Tesch
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1109/TNS.2002.801666
Abstract: High Energy Physics experiments are currently entering a new era which requires the operation of gaseous particle detectors at unprecedented high rates and integrated particle fluxes. Full functionality of such detectors over the lifetime of an experiment in a harsh radiation environment is of prime concern to the involved experimenters. New classes of gaseous detectors such as large-scale straw-type detectors, Micro-pattern Gas Detectors and related detector types with their own specific aging effects have evolved since the first workshop on wire chamber aging was held at LBL, Berkeley in 1986. In light of these developments and as detector aging is a notoriously complex field, the goal of the workshop was to provide a forum for interested experimentalists to review the progress in understanding of aging effects and to exchange recent experiences. A brief summary of the main results and experiences reported at the 2001 workshop is presented, with the goal of providing a systematic review of aging effects in state-of-the-art and future gaseous detectors.
Second-line Treatment of Stage III/IV Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) with pemetrexed in routine clinical practice: Evaluation of performance status and health-related quality of life
Wolfgang Schuette, Hans Tesch, Hartwig Büttner, Thomas Krause, Victoria Soldatenkova, Clemens Stoffregen
BMC Cancer , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-12-14
Abstract: Stage III/IV NSCLC patients who initiated second-line pemetrexed (standard vitamin and dexamethasone supplementation) were observed for a maximum of 9 treatment cycles. The primary objective was to evaluate the proportion of patients achieving improvement of Karnofsky Index (KI) of ≥ 10% (absolute) or maintaining KI ≥ 80% after the second treatment cycle ("KI benefit response"). HR-QoL was self-rated using the EuroQoL-5D questionnaire (EQ-5D). Factors potentially associated with KI benefit response were evaluated using logistic regression models.Of 521 eligible patients (73.5% Stage IV, median age 66.3 yrs, 36.1% ≥ 70 yrs, 62.0% with KI ≥ 80%), 471 (90.4%) completed at least 2 treatment cycles. 58.0% (95%CI 53.6%;62.2%) achieved KI benefit response after the second cycle. Patients with baseline KI ≥ 80%, no Grade 3/4 toxicities during the first 2 cycles, or combination regimen as prior first-line therapy were more likely to achieve a KI benefit response. EQ-5D scores improved over time. Grade 3/4 toxicities were reported in 23.8% of patients (mainly fatigue/asthenia 15.9%, neutropenia 8.7%).In this large prospective, non-interventional study of second-line pemetrexed treatment in patients with advanced NSCLC, including 36% elderly patients ( ≥ 70 years), physician-rated PS and self-rated HR-QoL were maintained or improved in the majority of patients.Registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00540241) on October 4, 2007Second-line treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) improves overall survival (OS), although the survival benefit is still limited (6-8 months) [1-4]. Because the most important purpose of second-line treatment is palliation, maintenance or improvement of a patient's overall health condition is a highly relevant treatment benefit. However, there is a lack of prospective data regarding the impact of second-line treatment on a patient's overall health condition [5]. Patients' overall health condition can be evaluated by looking at their perfo
Equivalência semantica da vers?o em português do instrumento Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale
Tesch, Flávia Cariús;Oliveira, Branca Heloísa de;Le?o, Anna;
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-311X2008000800018
Abstract: the north american instrument early childhood oral health impact scale (ecohis) was created to assess the oral health-related quality of life of preschool children and their families. its use in brazil requires prior cultural adaptation, and semantic equivalence is one step in this process. the objective of this study was to evaluate the semantic equivalence between the ecohis and its brazilian version. the methodology included six steps: translation of the ecohis into portuguese, done by two translators; a pre-test, in which the two translations were tested in a group of 20 parents/guardians of children 2-5 years of age; unification of the two versions; two back-translations done independently by two translators; review of the translations and back-translations; and production of a final version of the questionnaire. the two translated versions were very similar, and after completion of all steps a final version of the ecohis was obtained. the use of translations and back-translations carefully evaluated by experts and incorporating suggestions from the target population allowed the development of a brazilian version of the ecohis that is semantically equivalent to the original instrument.
Mensura??o do impacto dos problemas bucais sobre a qualidade de vida de crian?as: aspectos conceituais e metodológicos
Tesch, Flávia Cariús;Oliveira, Branca Heloísa de;Le?o, Anna;
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-311X2007001100003
Abstract: children are subject to oral health problems that can impact their own quality of life and that of their families. the need for measurements to assess the impact of oral health on children's quality of life has been emphasized, and questionnaires have been developed or adapted to this specific group. the aim of this study was to describe such instruments (identified in the literature) and discuss their inherent difficulties. among such instruments, we highlight the child oral health quality of life questionnaire, for children aged 6-7, 8-10, and 11-14, the child-oral impacts on daily performances, for children aged 11-12, and the early childhood oral health impact scale for children aged 2-5. although progress was observed in this area, more research is needed to develop measurements that apply to children in their dynamic health/disease process, encompassing their psychosocial, family, and social context. the use of such instruments should be encouraged in clinical practice and research.
Cephalometric deviations present in children and adolescents with temporomandibular joint disorders
Bastos, Leticia Vila?a Willeman;Tesch, Ricardo de Souza;Denardin, Odilon Victor Porto;
Dental Press Journal of Orthodontics , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S2176-94512012000100011
Abstract: introduction: temporomandibular disorders (tmd) have proved to be a risk factor for developing hyperdivergent facial growth patterns. objective: the aims of this study were: (1) assess differences between the cephalometric measurements in children with articular tmd and a control group, before and after mandibular growth peak according to cervical vertebral maturation; and (2) identify a predictive model capable of differentiating patients with tmd and control group patients based on early cephalometric characteristics. method: the study included children and adolescents with maximum age of 17 years, divided into experimental group (n=30) diagnosed with articular tmd-according to the research diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders (rdc/tmd) for children and adolescents-subdivided according to growth stage, called pre-peak (n=17) and post-peak (n=13) and control group (n = 30), matched by gender, skeletal maturity stage of the cervical vertebrae and classification of malocclusion. lateral cephalometric and craniofacial structures were traced and their relations divided into: cranial base, maxilla, mandible, intermaxillary relations, vertical skeletal relations and dental relations. differences between the means for each variable were evaluated by applying the statistical student t test for independent samples. results: the means of the variables analyzed in the pre-peak showed no statistically significant differences. however, analysis of post-peak showed that the experimental group displayed decreased sna and snb and increased sn.gn and 1.nb (p<0.05). conclusion: it was possible to identify a predictive model able to differentiate patients with tmd and asymptomatic controls from early cephalometric characteristics.
Early cephalometric characteristics in Class III malocclusion
Farias, Vanessa Costa;Tesch, Ricardo de Souza;Denardin, Odilon Victor Porto;Ursi, Weber;
Dental Press Journal of Orthodontics , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S2176-94512012000200011
Abstract: objective: early identification of craniofacial morphological characteristics allows orthopedic segmented interventions to attenuate dentoskeletal discrepancies, which may be partially disguised by natural dental compensation. to investigate the morphological characteristics of brazilian children with class iii malocclusion, in stages i and ii of cervical vertebrae maturation and compare them with the characteristics of class i control patients. methods: pre-orthodontic treatment records of 20 patients with class iii malocclusion and 20 control class i patients, matched by the same skeletal maturity index and sex, were selected. the craniofacial structures and their relationships were divided into different categories for analysis. angular and linear measures were adopted from the analyses previously described by downs, jarabak, jacobson and mcnamara. the differences found between the groups of class iii patients and class i control group, both subdivided according to the stage of cervical vertebrae maturation (i or ii), were assessed by analysis of variance (anova), complemented by bonferroni's multiple mean comparisons test. results: the analysis of variance showed statistically significant differences in the different studied groups, between the mean values found for some angular (sna, snb, anb) and linear variables (co - gn, n - perp pog, go - me, wits, s - go, ar - go). conclusion: assessed children displaying class iii malocclusion show normal anterior base of skull and maxilla, and anterior positioning of the mandible partially related to increased posterior facial height with consequent mandibular counterclockwise rotation.
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