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Prevalence and predictors of urinary tract infections among children with cerebral palsy in Makurdi, Nigeria  [PDF]
Emmanuel Adémólá Anígilájé, Terkaa Terrumun Bitto
Open Journal of Pediatrics (OJPed) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojped.2013.34063
Abstract:

Background: Children with cerebral palsy (CP) are prone to urinary tract infection (UTI), a common cause of childhood morbidity and mortality. However, there has been no report regarding the prevalence of UTI among this group of children inNigeria. Objectives: The study aims at determining the prevalence and the possible predictors of UTI in children with CP compared to age and sex matched children without CP. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was carried out among consecutive children with CP at the Neurologic Clinic in the Paediatric Department of the Federal Medical Centre, Makurdi, Nigeria, from December 2011 to May 2013. Results: The age range of the studied population was between 2 and 15 years with a mean age of 8.63 ± 3.83 years including 30 males and 22 females. UTI was confirmed in 20 (38.5%) children with cerebral palsy compared to 2 children (3.8%) without CP (p value 0.000). Among children with CP, Escherichia coli was the commonest organism isolated in 9 (9/20, 45.0%), Streptococcus faecalis in 4 (20.0%), Staphylococcus aureus in 3 (15%), while both Proteus spp., and Klebsiella spp., were isolated in 2 children (10.0%) each. Escherichia coli was also found in the 2 children without CP. All the organisms were resistant to co-trimoxazole, nalidixic acid, nitrofuratoin and amoxiclav, while they were 100% sensitive to ceftriazone and the quinolones. In a univariate regression, analysis only moderate to severe gross motor dysfunction predicted the risk of UTI (OR = 54.81, 95%CI, 2.27 - 1324.00, p value 0.014). Conclusion: Efforts should be put in place to aid mobility among children with CP in order to reduce risk of UT.

Prevalence and Predictors of Urinary Tract Infections among Children with Cerebral Palsy in Makurdi, Nigeria
Emmanuel Adémólá Anígilájé,Terkaa Terrumun Bitto
International Journal of Nephrology , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/937268
Abstract: Background. Children with cerebral palsy (CP) are prone to urinary tract infection (UTI). Methods/Objectives. The prevalence and the predictors of UTI among children with CP were compared to age- and sex-matched children without CP at Federal Medical Centre, Makurdi, Nigeria, from December 2011 to May 2013. Results. The age range was between 2 and 15 years with a mean age of years including 30 males and 22 females. UTI was confirmed in 20 (38.5%) CP children compared to 2 children (3.8%) without CP ( value 0.000). Among CP children, Escherichia coli was the commonest organism isolated in 9 (9/20, 45.0%), Streptococcus faecalis in 4 (20.0%), and Staphylococcus aureus in 3 (15%), while both Proteus spp. and Klebsiella spp. were isolated in 2 children (10.0%) each. Escherichia coli was also found in the 2 children without CP. All the organisms were resistant to cotrimoxazole, nalidixic acid, nitrofurantoin, and amoxiclav, while they were 100% sensitive to ceftriaxone and the quinolones. In a univariate regression analysis, only moderate to severe gross motor dysfunction predicted the risk of UTI ( , 95% CI, 2.27–1324.00, value 0.014). Conclusion. Efforts should be put in place to aid mobility among CP children in order to reduce the risk of UTI. 1. Introduction A child with cerebral palsy is having a difficulty in neuromotor control, a nonprogressive brain lesion, and an injury to the brain that occurred before it was fully matured [1]. Cerebral palsy is a common cause of childhood morbidity [1]. This morbidity comprised seizure disorders, mental retardation, abnormalities of vision, problems with respiratory muscle, and lower urinary tract dysfunctions. [1] The lower urinary tract dysfunctions are manifested symptomatically as urinary incontinence, urgency, frequency, hesitancy, and urinary tract infection [2]. Possible reasons for the propensity to urinary tract infections include vesicoureteral reflux and incomplete bladder emptying resulting from detrusor hyperreflexia and detrusor sphincter dyssynergia [2–7]. In addition, the impaired cognition and the inability to communicate bladder fullness and the need to void, together with an impaired mobility, may also explain the tendency to urinary retention and the attendant risk of urinary tract infections [2, 8]. A prevalence of 2.2–32.5% of urinary tract infections among cerebral palsy patients has been reported by authors from developed countries [2, 9, 10]. Unfortunately, there has been no report of UTI among patients with cerebral palsy in Nigeria. This study therefore aims at determining the
Total protein and cholesterol concentrations in brain regions of male rabbits fed pawpaw peel meal based diets
I Bitto
African Journal of Biomedical Research , 2008,
Abstract: rabbits in the tropics. Due to the deleterious effects of papain (in pawpaw parts) on some aspects of the physiology of livestock, an investigation was made of the effect of pawpaw peel meal on the total protein and cholesterol levels of the brain regions of male rabbits using 16 bucks of mixed breeds. The animals were randomly allotted in groups of 4 to 4 dietary treatments containing 0% (control), 10%, 20% and 30% pawpaw peel meal. After 7 weeks of feeding, all the animals were sacrificed and the total protein and cholesterol concentrations in the brain regions evaluated. The results showed similarities (P>0.05) between the treatments in total protein concentrations in the cerebral cortex, medulla, hypothalamus, amygdala, mesencephalon and hippocampus. Total protein concentrations however differed significantly between diets (P<0.05) in the cerebellum and pons varoli with the lowest values in the diet with the highest level of pawpaw peel meal in both cases. Cholesterol levels on the other hand were significantly increased (P<0.05) with increasing levels of pawpaw peel meal inclusion in the cerebral cortex and mid brain but were similar between diets (P>0.05) in all other brain regions. The preliminary conclusion from this study is that feeding pawpaw peel meal up to a level of 30% may suppress protein synthesis and affect the protein-lipid complexes in the brains of these animals. (Afr. J. Biomed. Res. 11: 73 -78)
Public Health Ethics Related Training for Public Health Workforce: An Emerging Need in the United States
A Kanekar,A Bitto
Iranian Journal of Public Health , 2012,
Abstract: Background: Ethics is a discipline, which primarily deals with what is moral and immoral behavior. Public Health Ethics is translation of ethical theories and concepts into practice to address complex multidimensional public health problems. The primary purpose of this paper was to conduct a narrative literature review-addressing role of ethics in developing curriculum in programs and schools of public health, ethics-related instruction in schools and programs of public health and the role of ethics in developing a competent public health workforce. Methods: An open search of various health databases including Google scholar and Ebscohost yielded 15 articles related to use of ethics in public health practice or public health training and the salient features were reported. Results: Results indicated a variable amount of ethics' related training in schools and programs of public health along with public health practitioner training across the nation. Bioethics, medical ethics and public health ethics were found to be subspecialties' needing separate ethical frameworks to guide decision making.Conclusions: Ethics based curricular and non-curricular training for emerging public health professionals from schools and programs of public health in the United States is extremely essential. In the current age of public health challenges faced in the United States and globally, to have an ethically untrained public health force is arguably, immoral and unethical and jeopardizes population health. There is an urgent need to develop innovative ethic based curriculums in academia as well as finding effective means to translate these curricular competencies into public health practice.
Maternal mortality in jos nigeria: a facility based prospective review
Stephen D. Ngwan,Terrumun Z. Swende
International Journal of Biological and Medical Research , 2011,
Abstract: ABSTRACT Objectives The study was designed to determine the maternal mortality ratio at the Jos University teaching Hospital and ascertain the causes of maternal death. Methods This was a prospective descriptive analysis of all maternal deaths at the Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH), Jos north central Nigeria between 1st June, 2006 and 31st May, 2008. Results: During the study period, there were 56 maternal deaths and 4443 live births at the Jos University Teaching Hospital giving a maternal mortality ratio of 1260/100,000 live births. Of these, there were 15 deaths among 81 unbooked patients giving a maternal mortality ratio of 18518/ 100,000 live births. Twenty-five deaths occurred among those who booked elsewhere (2969/100,000 live births) and 9 deaths among women who booked in JUTH with a maternal mortality ratio of 256/100,000 live births. Thirty nine (69.6%) of the deaths were direct maternal deaths while 17 (30.4%) were indirect maternal deaths. The leading causes of direct maternal deaths were eclampsia (28.6%), haemorrhage (23.1%), unsafe abortion (8.9%) and pulmonary embolism (5.4%). Of the indirect causes of maternal mortality, HIV/AIDS accounted for 14.3% while anaemia, anaesthetic complications and thyrotoxicosis accounted for 8.9%, 3.6% and 1.8% respectively. Conclusion Maternal mortality ratio is still high in JUTH. It was found to be lower in those that had tertiary education and in booked patients. HIV/AIDS appears to be emerging as one of the leading causes of maternal mortality in this study.
Kinetics of Sorption of Pendimethalin on Soil Samples Obtained from the Banks of Rivers Katsina-Ala and Benue, Central Nigeria  [PDF]
Justin Kpagh, Rufus Sha’Ato, Raymond A. Wuana, Terrumun A. Tor-Anyiin
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2016.41004
Abstract: Kinetics of the sorption of the herbicide, pendimethalin (3,4-Dimethyl-2,6-dinitro-N-pentan-3-yl-aniline) on four soil samples obtained from the banks of Rivers Benue and Katsina-Ala, in Central Nigeria was studied by contacting 5.0 g soil samples with 100 mL 7 × 10-6 M herbicide solution. The sorption was monitored by following the herbicide concentration in the aqueous phase spectrophotometrically at one hour intervals for 5 hours (at 25°C, 35°C, 45°C, 55°C and 65°C, respectively). Pseudo-first order kinetics treatment of the data showed that sorption rates as well as the accompanying activation energies were low, indicating that physical adsorption is the operative mechanism for its retention in the soils and that the herbicide tended to reside more in the aqueous phase, which raised its potential to contaminate natural water systems, when applied on the field.
Seasonal Variations in the Morphometric Characteristics of the Pubertal West African Dwarf Buck in its Native Tropical Environment
Bitto,Immanuel I; Egbunike,Gabriel N;
International Journal of Morphology , 2006, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-95022006000500020
Abstract: the effects of season on the morphometric characteristics of the reproductive organs of the pubertal west african dwarf buck in its native humid tropical environment were investigated. all morphometric characteristics as well as the derivations from both testicular and epididymal morphometry were unaffected by season (p<0.05). there were however, highly significant correlations (p<0.05, p<0.01, p<0.001) between body weight and testicular as well as epididymal morphometry. the results also showed that both testicular and epididymal morphometric characteristics in the pubertal buck are highly predictable from body weight and as such lend ground for the early selection of good sires from records of their growth rate. the non effect of season on both testicular and epididymal morphometry in this work generally demonstrates that there might be no restricted breeding season for the west african dwarf buck in its native humid tropical environment
Seasonal Variations in the Morphometric Characteristics of the Pubertal West African Dwarf Buck in its Native Tropical Environment Variaciones Estacionales en las Características Morfométricas de la Cabra Enana Púber Macho del Oeste Africano en su Medio Ambiente Nativo Tropical
Immanuel I Bitto,Gabriel N Egbunike
International Journal of Morphology , 2006,
Abstract: The effects of season on the morphometric characteristics of the reproductive organs of the pubertal West African Dwarf buck in its native humid tropical environment were investigated. All morphometric characteristics as well as the derivations from both testicular and epididymal morphometry were unaffected by season (p<0.05). There were however, highly significant correlations (p<0.05, p<0.01, p<0.001) between body weight and testicular as well as epididymal morphometry. The results also showed that both testicular and epididymal morphometric characteristics in the pubertal buck are highly predictable from body weight and as such lend ground for the early selection of good sires from records of their growth rate. The non effect of season on both testicular and epididymal morphometry in this work generally demonstrates that there might be no restricted breeding season for the West African dwarf buck in its native humid tropical environment Se estudiaron los efectos que tiene la estación sobre las características morfométricas de los órganos reproductivos de la cabra enana macho del Oeste africano en su medio ambiente tropical húmedo. Todas las características morfométricas, como también las derivaciones de la morfología de ambos testículos y espidídimos, no fueron afectadas por la estación (p<0.05). Sin embargo, hubo, correlaciones altamente significativas (p<0.05, p<0.01 y p<0.01) entre el peso del cuerpo y del testículo así como la morfometría epididimaria. Los resultados también mostraron que las características morfométricas del testículo y epidídimo en la cabra enana macho púber son altamente predecibles, conociendo el peso del cuerpo, lo que permitiría una temprana selección de buenos padres sementales a partir del registro de sus rasgos de crecimiento. La ausencia de efectos estacionales sobre la morfometría del testículo y epidídimo que se observó en este trabajo, demostró que allí no debería restringirse la época de cría de la cabra enana del Oeste africano en su ambiente nativo tropical
Effects of Vitamin E and Selenium on Fertility and Lamb Performance of Yankasa Sheep  [PDF]
Suleman Ibrahim Musa, Immanuel Iordoo Bitto, John Adisa Ayoade, Olugbenga Emmanuel Oyedipe
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine (OJVM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojvm.2018.89015
Abstract: Effects of vitamin E and Selenium administration on fertility and lamb performance of Yankasa sheep were evaluated. Thirty post pubertal ewes (1-1 1/2 years of age) and nine rams (2-2 1/2 years of age) were used for the study. The ewes were randomly assigned into 3 groups (n = 10). Animals in group 1 served as control and were administered 1 ml normal saline. Animals in group 2 were administered 90 mg Tocopherol acetate (Vitamin E), while group 3 received injection containing a combination of 100 mg tocopherol acetate and 1.97 mg sodium selenite. Two doses of the injections were administered 14 days apart (subcutaneously). Estrus was synchronized in the ewes using controlled internal drug release device (CIDR). Rams were used for estrus detection and mating starting 24 hours following withdrawal of CIDR. Ewes were allowed to carry the pregnancy to term. The results indicate higher (p < 0.05) estrus response (80.00, 100.00, 100.00), pregnancy rate (75.00, 100.00, 100.00) and lambing rate (66.6, 100.00, 100.00) in ewes following administration of vitamin E and a combination of vitamin E and selenium. Average daily weight gain of lambs was also significantly enhanced (p < 0.05) by treatment. It can be concluded that administration of Vitamin E alone and in combination with selenium resulted in improved reproductive performance on Yankasa sheep.
Knowledge, Attitudes and Barriers towards Prevention of Mother-To-Child Transmission of HIV among Women Attending Antenatal clinics in Uyam District of Zaki-Biam in Benue State, Nigeria
Samuel K Hembah-Hilekaan, Terlumun Z Swende, Terkaa T Bito
African Journal of Reproductive Health , 2012,
Abstract: Benue State in North Central Nigeria has one of the highest HIV/AIDS prevalence rates of 9.3%, among children and adults aged 13-45years. To improve the survival of mothers and children and to identify the major challenges in scaling-up PMTCT services, a descriptive, study was conducted to assess knowledge, attitudes and barriers to the uptake of PMTCT by 384 women attending antenatal clinics (ANC) in Uyam, Zaki-Biam, a semi-urban area of Benue State. A standard questionnaire was used for data collection. A high number of subjects knew that unprotected sexual intercourse is a risk factor for transmission, with most 281 (73.2%) of them aware that an HIV infected woman could get pregnant; while 275 (71.6%) knew that infection can be transmitted from the mother to her unborn child. Only 214 (55.7%) of the study participants had done the HIV test in pregnancy because of, inadequate VCT centers, issues of stigma and absence of family support including attitudes of staff. Age, parity and socio- economic status, as well as location influenced the responses of respondents. In spite of the increasing public awareness in Nigeria about HIV/AIDS, there still exist gaps as a result of different levels of education and access to information, coupled with lack of trained personnel and adequately equipped health care facilities. To improve survival and probably eliminate HIV/AIDS, the integration of PMTCT into primary health care services in Nigerian communities should be considered. (Afr J Reprod Health 2012; 16[3]: 27-34).
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