and phosphoinositide phosphorylation pathways have been shown to be of crucial
importance on producing lipid mediators. The earlier findings reported on
lipid molecules playing roles in different metabolic pathways used to assign
them the exclusive role of second messenger generators. Several researchers
have recently described how direct interaction of phospholipids and
phosphoinositides with molecules or organelles, without the need for producing
second messenger molecules, is responsible for their mechanism of action.
Organophosphate and organochlorine
pesticide toxicity mechanisms have been extensively studied in relation
to their well known effects on
cholinesterase activities and on the alterations of electric activity in
the nervous system of different organisms respectively. There is little but consistent
evidence that some compounds, including in both groups of pesticides, are also able to interact with phospholipid
and phosphoinositide phosphorylation pathways in several organisms and
tissues. The present review consists of an actualization of basic research on
phospholipid and phosphoinositide phosphorylation and hydrolysis pathways, as
well as a description of some reported evidences for the effects of the above
mentioned pesticides on them.
This article, Charting the Course for Sustainable Small Island Tourist Development, addresses sustainability criteria for small island tourist development drawing on the history of development in the last decade in the Bocas del Toro archipelago of the Republic of Panama in the Caribbean Sea near the border of Costa Rica. Tax deferments for the development of vacation and resort properties spurred a boom in this island locale since the late 1980’s. Tourist Law 8 of the Panamanian constitution is referenced. Sustainability criteria of water supply and availability are suggested and outer island projects are discussed. Lessons are outlined and recommendations are made for permit qualifications that promote sustainable small island tourist development.