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Fungal exposure in homes of patients with sarcoidosis - an environmental exposure study
Marjeta Terelj, Barbara Salobir, Matevz Harlander, Ragnar Rylander
Environmental Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1476-069x-10-8
Abstract: Subjects were patients with clinically established sarcoidosis recruited during the period September 2007 till June 2010. Of these 55 were newly diagnosed and currently under treatment for less than one year, 25 had been treated and had no recurrence and 27 had been treated but had recurrence of the disease. Controls were healthy subjects without any respiratory symptoms (n = 30). Samples of air (about 2.5 m3) were taken in the bedroom of the subjects using a portable pump and cellulose ester filters. The filters were analysed for the content of the enzyme N-acetylhexosaminidase (NAHA) as a marker of fungal cell biomass, using a specific substrate and a fluorescent technique and expressed as NAHA units (U)/m3.Compared to controls, subjects undergoing treatment of the disease (newly diagnosed or with recurrence) had significantly higher activities of NAHA in their homes than controls (33.6 and 39.9 vs 10.0 U/m3, p < 0.001 and <0.001). Among controls only 5 out of 30 subjects had levels of NAHA above the second quartile value (14 U/m3). In homes of subjects with newly diagnosed disease with treatment less than one year, values above 14 NAHA U/m3 were found among 35 out of 55 and among those with recurrent disease among 18 out of 27.The higher activities of NAHA enzyme found in homes of subjects with active and recurrent sarcoidosis suggest that exposure to fungi is related to the risk of sarcoidosis. Further environmental studies to assess the importance of this exposure for subjects with sarcoidosis are warranted. The results suggest that remedial actions in homes with high levels of fungi may be justified.It has been suggested that environmental agents, particularly microbes, influence the risk to develop sarcoidosis [1], Epidemiological studies have shown relationships between sarcoidosis and environments where mould (fungi) would be present. Occupational risk factors were evaluated among 273 cases of sarcoidosis and 618 siblings without the disease [2]. Specific r
Increasing of hot workability of 1.3302HIGH speed steel
D. Bomba?,M. Terelj,M. Fazarinc,P. Fajfar
Metalurgija , 2012,
Abstract: Laboratory investigation of hot workability of 1.3302 high speed steel was carried out and its improving was achieved. Hot compression tests for the determination of optimal soaking temperature as well as for the study of hot workability in temperature range 1150-850 oC, strain rates range 0,001-6 s–1/sup> and applied strain up to 0,9 were performed. Microstructure of deformed specimen was analyzed. Apparent activation energies for hot working for upper and for lower temperature range were calculated. Onsets of dynamical recrystallization for applied deformation conditions on the basis of calculated strain hardening ratewere determined. Extending of hot working temperature range at its lower limit, i.e. down to 850 oC, by applying optimal soaking temperature was obtained.
Implementation of newly developed tests with heated and internally cooled tool steel samples for different applications
P. Fajfar,M. Fazarinc,B. ?u?ek,M. Terelj
Metalurgija , 2012,
Abstract: In this study two new tests were developed, i.e., with continuous internal water cooling as well as discontinuous internal water and air cooling. It was proved that the first type of testing is appropriate for simulating the time course of the temperature at a selected depth of a thermally loaded, hot-working die surface layer, i.e., the temperature field on the die surface layer. The second type of testing is appropriate for a study of the thermal fatigue resistance of a tool material.
Sarcoidosis Treatment with Antifungal Medication: A Follow-Up
Marjeta Terelj,Barbara Salobir,Mirjana Zupancic,Ragnar Rylander
Pulmonary Medicine , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/739673
Abstract: Introduction. The aim of the study was to compare treatment of sarcoidosis with antifungal or corticosteroid medication. Methods. In patients with sarcoidosis antifungal medication (), corticosteroids () or a combination () was given. Nine patients allotted to antifungal medication were later given corticosteroids because of the lack of regression of the disease. X-ray scores for the severity of granuloma infiltration were determined. Chitotriosidase and angiotensin converting enzyme were determined. The time in months till remission was observed as well as the number of recurrences. 1. Introduction Sarcoidosis is an inflammatory, granulomatous disease present in populations worldwide and with a higher incidence in some ethnic groups [1, 2]. The conventional treatment is with corticosteroids. During recent years there have been an increasing number of studies reporting a connection between sarcoidosis and environmental exposure to fungi [3–5]. Fungal exposure at home was higher among patients with sarcoidosis as compared to controls and highest among those with recurrence of the disease. β-Glucan, a major constituent of the fungal cell wall, has been determined in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid in patients with sarcoidosis and controls [6]. The amounts were significantly higher among patients with sarcoidosis and were related to the fungal exposure at home as well as to serum levels of IL-2R and IL-12. These studies showing a relation between exposure to fungi and different experimental and clinical effects have prompted studies where antifungal medication has been given, together with or without simultaneous corticosteroid treatment. In a first study, 18 patients with chronic sarcoidosis were given antifungal medication in addition to the usual corticosteroid treatment. 15 of these patients improved after 6 months [7]. In a subsequent study 39 newly diagnosed patients received corticosteroids for 6 months and 18 received antifungal medication [8]. Pulmonary granuloma infiltration was significantly less severe in the antifungal group as were the values of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and chitotriosidase (CTO). In a case study on osseous sarcoidosis, treatment with antifungal medication improved the condition [9]. These treatment studies covered a relatively short time period and the time till remission or the risk of recurrence was not studied. Before a final conclusion regarding the efficiency of antifungal treatment can be drawn, further studies are required with a larger number of subjects, followed over a longer time period. The present
Wear Beahaviour of Nitrided Microstructures of AlSl H13 Dies for Hot Extrusion of Aluminium
Kugler, G.,Turk, R.,Ve?ko-Pirtov?ek, T.,Terelj, M.
Metalurgija , 2006,
Abstract: Nitriding of bearing surfaces on dies (tools, AISI H13) for hot extrusion of aluminium is technologically a very sensitive process with regard to achieving a constant quality of the nitrided layers. This study was based on the analysis of microstructure on dies with intentionally prepared deep and narrow gaps which were nitrided by various manufacturers of equipment for gas and ionic nitriding. The manufacturers chose their own nitriding parameters in order to achieve an optimal wear resistant microstructure. The microstructures obtained showed differences with regard to the presence or absence of a compound layer (white layer), its thickness and its e/g' phase ratio (XRD), nitriding depth and microhardness profile. The measured nitriding depths and the maximum microhardness values on nitrided surface layers were quite similar on dies of the same manufacturer, while for different manufacturers these values differed. Differences with regards to compound layer characteristics were also found on the same die. The die samples with these various nitrided microstructures were then laboratory tested for wear resistance using equipment that provides simulation of the tribological conditions during hot extrusion of aluminium. The wear testing results show differences in behaviour of the nitrided samples. The differences in the actual structures, microstructures, hardness, etc. explain the high level of scattering in die life in actual industrial applications.
Fungal Exposure and Low Levels of IL-10 in Patients with Sarcoidosis
Marjeta Terelj,Sanja Stopin?ek,Alojz Ihan,Barbara Salobir,Sa?a Sim?i?,Ragnar Rylander
Pulmonary Medicine , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/164565
Abstract: Background and Objectives. Sarcoidosis is an inflammatory disease with increased levels of inflammatory cytokines. Previous studies have shown a relation between the degree of granuloma infiltration and serum cytokine levels, except for interleukin- (IL-) 10. The aim of the study was to further investigate the serum levels of IL-10 in patients with sarcoidosis and relate them to fungal exposure in terms of the amount of fungi in the air of their homes and β-glucan in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. Methods. Patients with sarcoidosis ( ) and healthy controls ( ) were enrolled. IL-10 was determined in serum. BAL was performed and the amount of β-glucan was measured. Domestic exposure to fungi was determined by measuring airborne β-N-acetylhexosaminidase (NAHA) in the bedrooms. Results. At high levels of fungal exposure (domestic fungal exposure and β-glucan in BAL), serum IL-10 values were lower than at low and intermediate exposure levels. Conclusion. The low serum IL-10 values at high fungal exposure suggest that fungal cell wall agents play a role in granuloma formation in sarcoidosis by inhibiting the secretion of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. 1. Introduction Sarcoidosis is an inflammatory disease, often leading to granuloma formation [1, 2]. Several studies demonstrate that the amounts of inflammatory cytokines, particularly interleukin- (IL-) 10 and IL-12, are elevated in serum and in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid [3–6]. Previous studies have demonstrated that exposure to fungi is a risk factor for sarcoidosis [7–9]. One fungal cell wall agent (FCWA)—β-glucan—can induce different changes in the immune system and granulomas, depending on dose and means of administration (review in [10]). The formation of granuloma can be suppressed by IL-10 [11]. Chitin is another FCWA that can induce immune changes, depending on the size of the particles [12]. In in vitro studies on the reactivity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), particulate β-glucan was found to induce the secretion of TNFα, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-12 from PBMC [13] with a higher secretion from PBMC taken from patients with sarcoidosis [14]. A clinical study evaluated the relation between the extent of granuloma infiltration using an x-ray score and the amount of serum TNFα, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), and chitotriosidase (CTO) [15]. There was a linear relationship for all inflammatory mediators and markers except for IL-10. For this cytokine, there was an initial increase with an increased X-ray score but the values were lower at the highest X-ray
Uro? Baj?elj
Rudarsko-Geolo?ko-Naftni Zbornik , 2001,
Abstract: A short review of university courses in Slovenia, with long tradition, is given. Permanent organized research, development, rational ization and modernisat ion in the courses in geo-technology and mining, and cooper-ation are accentuated.
Simulation of flood flow in a river system using artificial neural networks
M. Kobold ,K. Su elj
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS) & Discussions (HESSD) , 2005,
Abstract: Torrential streams and fast runoff are characteristic of most Slovenian rivers and extensive damage is caused almost every year by rainstorms affecting different regions of Slovenia. Rainfall-runoff models which are tools for runoff calculation can be used for flood forecasting. In Slovenia, the lag time between rainfall and runoff is only a few hours and on-line data are used only for now-casting. Predicted precipitation is necessary in flood forecasting some days ahead. The ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) model gives general forecasts several days ahead while more detailed precipitation data with the ALADIN/SI model are available for two days ahead. Combining the weather forecasts with the information on catchment conditions and a hydrological forecasting model can give advance warning of potential flooding notwithstanding a certain degree of uncertainty in using precipitation forecasts based on meteorological models. Analysis of the sensitivity of the hydrological model to the rainfall error has shown that the deviation in runoff is much larger than the rainfall deviation. Therefore, verification of predicted precipitation for large precipitation events was performed with the ECMWF model. Measured precipitation data were interpolated on a regular grid and compared with the results from the ECMWF model. The deviation in predicted precipitation from interpolated measurements is shown with the model bias resulting from the inability of the model to predict the precipitation correctly and a bias for horizontal resolution of the model and natural variability of precipitation.
Urbanisti no na rtovanje in te ave tranzicijskega razvoja v Skopju
Jasna Stefanovska,Janez Ko?elj
Urbani Izziv , 2012,
Abstract: Makedonsko glavno mesto je tako kot tevilna druga mesta v sosednjih dr avah do ivelo radikalne spremembe, ki so v zadnjih dvajsetih letih in e prej vplivale na urbanisti ne procese. V zadnjem stoletju se je prebivalstvo Skopja pove alo za ve kot desetkrat, dru bene spremembe v tem obdobju pa niso vplivale samo na na rtovalske procese, temve tudi na grajeno tkivo mesta. Posledi no so mesto preoblikovale najrazli nej e dinamike. V zadnjih dvajsetih letih je razvoj Skopja zaznamoval dolg in bole prehod – proces, med katerim se je mesto moralo prilagoditi novim kompleksnim razmeram. Kriza, ki je zajela Skopje, je povzro ila slab o kakovost grajenega okolja in ustvarila plodna tla za pekulativno gradnjo. Postalo je jasno, da urbanisti no na rtovanje ne more ve delovati kot orodje nadzora in razvoja, katerega glavni cilj je varovati in spodbujati javne interese. V lanku so analizirane na rtovalske pobude, sprejete pred 90. leti 20. stoletja in pozneje, pri emer so opredeljene glavne faze preobrazbe od 90. let naprej, in sicer v skladu s klju no zakonodajo, politi nimi dejavniki in z upravnimi odlo itvami, ki so prispevali k urbani preobrazbi mesta.
Urban planning and transitional development issues: The case of Skopje, Macedonia
Jasna Stefanovska,Janez Ko?elj
Urbani Izziv , 2012,
Abstract: Like many cities in neighbouring countries, the Macedonian capital Skopje has undergone radical changes that have affected urban planning processes for over twenty years. Over the past century, during which Skopje’s population has grown more than tenfold, social changes have not only affected planning processes but also impacted the built fabric of the city. As a result, the city has been transformed by a diverse set of dynamics. The last twenty years of Skopje’s development have been marked by a long and painful transition, a process through which the city has had to adjust to new complexities. The current crisis engulfing the city has led to deterioration in the quality of the built environment and has created fertile ground for speculative developments. It has become clear that urban planning is no longer able to operate as an instrument of control and development with the primary aim of protecting and promoting public interests. This article analyses the planning initiatives both before and after the 1990s, defining the main phases of transformation since the 1990s according to the key legislation, political factors and administrative decisions that have contributed to the urban transformations of the city.
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