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Thin films flowing down inverted substrates: two dimensional flow
Te-sheng Lin,Lou Kondic
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1063/1.3428753
Abstract: We consider free surface instabilities of films flowing on inverted substrates within the framework of lubrication approximation. We allow for the presence of fronts and related contact lines, and explore the role which they play in instability development. It is found that a contact line, modeled by a commonly used precursor film model, leads to free surface instabilities without any additional natural or excited perturbations. A single parameter D=(3Ca)^{1/3}\cot\alpha$, where $Ca$ is the capillary number and $\alpha$ is the inclination angle, is identified as a governing parameter in the problem. This parameter may be interpreted to reflect the combined effect of inclination angle, film thickness, Reynolds number and the fluid flux. Variation of $D$ leads to change of the wave-like properties of the instabilities, allowing us to observe traveling wave behavior, mixed waves, and the waves resembling solitary ones.
Melanogenesis Inhibitory Activity of Two Generic Drugs: Cinnarizine and Trazodone in Mouse B16 Melanoma Cells
Te-Sheng Chang,Victor Chia-Hsiang Lin
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/ijms12128787
Abstract: More than 200 generic drugs were screened to identify the inhibitory activity on melanogenesis in mouse B16 melanoma cells. Cinnarizine and trazodone were identified as melanogenesis inhibitors. The inhibitory effects of the two drugs on cell survival, melanogenesis, and tyrosinase activity were investigated. The results showed that both cinnarizine and trazodone inhibited melanogenesis in B16 cells by a dose-dependent manner at the non-cytotoxic concentrations. Based on the results of the present study, seeking new melanogenesis inhibitors from generic drugs is an alternative approach to developing new depigmenting agents in cosmeceuticals. Moreover, cinnarizine and trazodone were proven to be good candidates as skin-whitening agents for treatment of skin hyperpigmentation.
Bifurcation analysis of the behavior of partially wetting liquids on a rotating cylinder
Te-Sheng Lin,Steven Rogers,Dmitri Tseluiko,Uwe Thiele
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: We discuss the behavior of partially wetting liquids on a rotating cylinder using the model of Thiele [J. Fluid Mech. 671, 121-136 (2011)] that takes into account the effects of gravity, viscosity, rotation, surface tension and wettability. Such a system can be considered as a prototype for many other systems where the interplay of spatial heterogeneity and a lateral driving force in the proximity of a first- or second-order phase transition results in intricate behaviour. So does a partially wetting drop on a rotating cylinder undergo a depinning transition as the rotation speed is increased, whereas for ideally wetting liquids the behavior changes monotonically. We analyze in detail the transition in the bifurcation behavior for partially wetting liquids as the wettability of the liquid decreases, and, in particular, how the global bifurcation related to the depinning of drops is created when increasing the contact angle. We employ various numerical continuation techniques that allow us to track stable/unstable steady and time-periodic states. We support our findings by time-dependent numerical simulations and asymptotic analysis of steady-state and time-periodic solutions for large rotation numbers.
Comparative Analysis of Production Costs and Revenue on the Banana Planting Season in Taiwan  [PDF]
Te-Sheng Lin, Chun-Nan Lin, Ke-Chung Peng
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105180
Abstract:
The planting season of crops has always been an important research topic to the revenue. This research aims to use bananas as a case study and use the principle of break-even analysis to explore the issues of profit and loss and market potential of the spring-summer’s bananas and the autumn-winter’s bananas in Taiwan. The secondary data were collected from Council of Ag-riculture, Executive Yuan Taiwan during 2011-2015. The concept of break-even analysis was applied in this research as the research methodol-ogy. The empirical results found that the break-even points of spring-summer’s bananas and autumn-winter’s bananas during 2010-2015 were decreasing due to the increase of an average market selling price. However, the spring-summer’s bananas have a higher revenue ratio than the other season. Therefore, the bananas’ growers in Taiwan should plant ba-nanas during the spring-summer season in order to gain a higher profit.
Instabilities of layers of deposited molecules on chemically stripe patterned substrates: Ridges vs. drops
Christoph Honisch,Te-Sheng Lin,Andreas Heuer,Uwe Thiele,Svetlana Gurevich
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: A mesoscopic continuum model is employed to analyse the transport mechanisms and structure formation during the redistribution stage of deposition experiments where organic molecules are deposited on a solid substrate with periodic stripe-like wettability patterns. Transversally invariant ridges located on the more wettable stripes are identified as very important transient states and their linear stability is analysed. It is found that there exist two different instability modes that result (i) at large ridge volume in the formation of bulges that spill from the more wettable stripes onto the less wettable bare substrate and (ii) at small ridge volume in the formation of small droplets located on the more wettable stripes. These predictions are confirmed by direct numerical simulations of the fully nonlinear evolution equation for two-dimensional substrates. In addition, the influence of different transport mechanisms during redistribution is investigated focusing on the cases of convective transport with no-slip at the substrate, transport via diffusion in the film bulk and via diffusion at the film surface. In particular, it is shown that the transport process does neither influence the linear stability thresholds nor the sequence of morphologies observed in the time simulation, but only the ratio of the time scales of the different process phases.
Modelling spreading dynamics of liquid crystals in three spatial dimensions
Te-Sheng Lin,Lou Kondic,Uwe Thiele,Linda J. Cummings
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1017/jfm.2013.297
Abstract: We study spreading dynamics of nematic liquid crystal droplets within the framework of the long-wave approximation. A fourth order nonlinear parabolic partial differential equation governing the free surface evolution is derived. The influence of elastic distortion energy and of imposed anchoring variations at the substrate are explored through linear stability analysis and scaling arguments, which yield useful insight and predictions for the behaviour of spreading droplets. This behaviour is captured by fully nonlinear time-dependent simulations of three dimensional droplets spreading in the presence of anchoring variations that model simple defects in the nematic orientation at the substrate.
Note on the hydrodynamic description of thin nematic films: strong anchoring model
Te-Sheng Lin,Linda J. Cummings,Andrew J. Archer,Lou Kondic,Uwe Thiele
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1063/1.4816508
Abstract: We discuss the long-wave hydrodynamic model for a thin film of nematic liquid crystal in the limit of strong anchoring at the free surface and at the substrate. We rigorously clarify how the elastic energy enters the evolution equation for the film thickness in order to provide a solid basis for further investigation: several conflicting models exist in the literature that predict qualitatively different behaviour. We consolidate the various approaches and show that the long-wave model derived through an asymptotic expansion of the full nemato-hydrodynamic equations with consistent boundary conditions agrees with the model one obtains by employing a thermodynamically motivated gradient dynamics formulation based on an underlying free energy functional. As a result, we find that in the case of strong anchoring the elastic distortion energy is always stabilising. To support the discussion in the main part of the paper, an appendix gives the full derivation of the evolution equation for the film thickness via asymptotic expansion.
An Updated Review of Tyrosinase Inhibitors
Te-Sheng Chang
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2009, DOI: 10.3390/ijms10062440
Abstract: Tyrosinase is a multifunctional, glycosylated, and copper-containing oxidase, which catalyzes the first two steps in mammalian melanogenesis and is responsible for enzymatic browning reactions in damaged fruits during post-harvest handling and processing. Neither hyperpigmentation in human skin nor enzymatic browning in fruits are desirable. These phenomena have encouraged researchers to seek new potent tyrosinase inhibitors for use in foods and cosmetics. This article surveys tyrosinase inhibitors newly discovered from natural and synthetic sources. The inhibitory strength is compared with that of a standard inhibitor, kojic acid, and their inhibitory mechanisms are discussed.
Natural Melanogenesis Inhibitors Acting Through the Down-Regulation of Tyrosinase Activity
Te-Sheng Chang
Materials , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/ma5091661
Abstract: Melanogenesis is a biosynthetic pathway for the formation of the pigment melanin in human skin. A key enzyme, tyrosinase, catalyzes the first and only rate-limiting steps in melanogenesis, and the down-regulation of enzyme activity is the most reported method for the inhibition of melanogenesis. Because of the cosmetically important issue of hyperpigmentation, there is a big demand for melanogenesis inhibitors. This encourages researchers to seek potent melanogenesis inhibitors for cosmetic uses. This article reviews melanogenesis inhibitors that have been recently discovered from natural sources. The reaction mechanisms of the inhibitors on tyrosinase activity are also discussed.
Evaluation of Depigmenting Activity by 8-Hydroxydaidzein in Mouse B16 Melanoma Cells and Human Volunteers
Sorgan Shou-Ku Tai,Ching-Gong Lin,Mon-Han Wu,Te-Sheng Chang
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2009, DOI: 10.3390/ijms10104257
Abstract: In our previous study, 8-hydroxydaidzein (8-OHDe) was demonstrated to be a potent and unique suicide substrate of mushroom tyrosinase. In this study, the compound was evaluated for in vitro cellular tyrosinase and melanogenesis inhibitory activities in mouse B16 melanoma cells and for in vivo skin-whitening activity in human volunteers. Tyrosinase activity and melanogenesis in the cell culture incubated with 10 μM of 8-OHDe were decreased to 20.1% and 51.8% of control, respectively, while no obvious cytotoxicity was observed in this concentration. In contrast, a standard tyrosinase inhibitor, kojic acid, showed 69.9% and 71.3% of control in cellular tyrosinase and melanogenesis activity, respectively, at a concentration as high as 100 μM. Hence, 8-OHDe exhibited more than an inhibitory effects on melanin production in B16 cells 10-fold stronger than kojic acid. In addition, when a cream containing 4% 8-OHDe was applied to human skin in an in vivo study, significant increases in the dL*-values were observed after three weeks. Moreover, the increase in the dL*-values after 8-week treatment with 4% 8-OHDe (from -0.57 to 1.94) is stronger than those of 2% 8-OHDe treatment (from 0.26 to 0.94) and 2% ascorbic acid-2-glucoside treatment (from 0.07 to 1.54). From the results of the study, it was concluded that 8-OHDe, the potent suicide substrate of mushroom tyrosinase, has depigmenting activities in both mouse melanoma cells and in human volunteers. Thus, the compound has significant potential for use in cosmetics as a skin-whitening ingredient.
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