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Beyond vegetative propagation of indigenous fruit trees: case of Dacryodes edulis (G. Don) H. J. Lam and Allanblackia floribunda Oliv.
Asaah, Ebenezar K.,Tchoundjeu, Zac,Van Damme, Patrick
Afrika Focus , 2012,
Abstract: Indigenous fruits/nuts of Africa’s humid tropics are increasingly being recognized for their contribution to food security, health (nutrition/medicine), income generation, employment and environmental benefits. However, cultivation of the trees yielding these fruits/nuts is constrained by lack of improved planting materials that are true-to-type and have a short enough juvenile phase to fruit production. In addition, information on both above and belowground growth attributes of these species is scarce. This paper presents an overview of the results of a doctoral research focused on two African indigenous fruit tree species, i.e. Dacryodes edulis (G. Don) H. J. Lam (Burseraceae) and Allanblackia floribunda Oliv. (Clusiaceae), which are currently under domestication. For D. edulis, the objective was to assess and compare the structural and fine rooting systems together with the above ground growth attributes of fruiting trees propagated either sexually or vegetatively. The research aim for A. floribunda was to shorten the long juvenile phase before first fruiting through grafting techniques. In summary, the results from the studies on D. edulis suggest that vegetative propagation of the species, reduces the long juvenile phase to fruiting and maintains trueness in the transfer of desirable traits over generations, it also results in trees that are apparently less competitive for below ground resources, have more stable root system, and are bigger in stature and higher in carbon sinks compared to trees of seed origin. In parallel, A. floribunda was shown to be amenable to grafting both under nursery and field (in situ) conditions. Furthermore, a grafted A. floribunda tree transplanted in the field in 2007, flowered and carried a single fruit to maturity after 4 years, thereby reducing the long juvenile period to first fruit production from about 10-12 years reported in literature to less than 5 years. The findings of this doctoral research are therefore pertinent to efforts towards indigenous fruit/nut tree domestication. However, research should be confirmed as it can be considered a pilot study, one that aims to obtain insights into the effect of vegetative propagation methods on above and below ground growth and development of improved planting materials of D. edulis and A. floribunda under domestication.
Effective propagation of Diospyros crassiflora (Hiern) using twig cuttings
Tsobeng Alain * , Tchoundjeu Zacharie, Kouodiekong Lazare, Asaah Ebenezer
International Journal of Biosciences , 2011,
Abstract: The African ebony (Diospyros crassiflora) is a well-sought commercial timber tree. As a result of intense harvesting pressure it ranks high on the IUCN' 1994 CITES list as endangered. Insufficient availability of seeds has limited the current efforts to propagate D. crassiflora from seedlings. Therefore, vegetative propagation through leafy stem cutting could be an alternative. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of four rooting media, length of cuttings and auxin (seradix-2) application on the rooting ability of stem cuttings set up in a non-mist propagator. The rooting process was monitored over 14 weeks. Root development started after 9 weeks. At 14 weeks, the Seradix-2 and rooting medium significantly improved the rooting ability. Decomposed sawdust was the best substrate. The combination of the three factors didn’t significantly influence rooting of cuttings. Stem cuttings of 5 cm length survive better in non-mist propagator. The results of the study suggest that D. crassiflora is amenable to vegetative propagation by leafy stem cutting.
Domestication and Sustainable Use of Genetic Resources of a Native Tree with High Economic Potential in Ghana  [PDF]
Theresa Peprah, Kwame Antwi Oduro, Daniel E. Kwaku Addo Siaw, Joseph Rexford Cobbinah, Zacharia Tchoundjeu, Anthony John Simons, Ramni Jamnadass, Daniel Aninagyei Ofori
Open Journal of Forestry (OJF) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojf.2015.57060
Abstract: Allanblackia parviflora A. Chev., an underutilized fruit tree species commonly found in tropical rainforest of West Africa, has potential for integration into agroforestry systems for economic and environmental benefits. The seed oil of A. parviflora is considered economically important but wild fruits collection produces an average of 40 tons of oil annually. However, over 100,000 tons of Allanblackia seed oil is needed annually by food and cosmetics industries. The need to domesticate and conserve A. parviflora to ensure adequate sustainable supply of seed oil and to sustainably manage the genetic resources is therefore critical. This paper reviews the current state-of-the art on domestication and sustainable use efforts of Allanblackia. Propagation methods have been developed to encourage large scale commercial cultivation, include grafting, rooting of stem cuttings and research into improved seed germination. Range-wide germplasm collection has been undertaken leading to establishment of 140 accessions in a gene bank for future source of germplasm. Mother blocks, i.e. established plots consisting of grafts, seedlings and cuttings, have been established at Rural Resource Centres with 58 elite clones, which have been recommended for distribution to farmers. The diversification of cropping systems to include A. parviflora trees is projected to contribute to community livelihoods development and poverty reduction through large-scale production and supply chain development of the species. Furthermore, the integration of A. parviflora into agroforestry systems is important for the conservation of the genetic resources of the species.
Farmers\' Participation In Ex-Situ Conservation Of Indigenous Fruit Trees In Southern Nigeria
P O Anegbeh, Z Tchoundjeu, B C Anuforom, V Ukafor, C Usoro
Journal of Agriculture and Social Research (JASR) , 2004,
Abstract: Farmer Participatory Research (FPR) is a new approach, which the World Agro forestry Centre (ICRAF), International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), NGOs and farmers are using to effectively design and implement community-based conservation project in Nigeria prior to ex-situ conservation. Socioeconomic and market surveys were conducted and base-line data collected in seven communities. Results from seven pilot sites in Southern Nigeria indicate that community farmers readily adopted tree domestication, increasingly acquired skills, easily established community nurseries, enthusiastically identified and conserved economic fruit trees, including Irvingia gabonensis, Irvingia wombolu, Dacryodes edulis, Chrysophyllum albidum, Garcinia kola, in the rural communities. The participatory approach, which involves rural farmers direct involvement in decision making and in the development of suitable practices, is not only effective in reducing genetic loss, but also increases availability and yields of indigenous fruit trees (non-timber forest products). Journal of Agriculture and Social Research Vol. 4 (2) 2004: 33-42
Antecedents and Effects of Group Sales on Supply Chain Performance: The Case of Kola Production and Marketing in Cameroon
Amos Gyau,Zac Tchoundjeu,Divine Foundjem-Tita,Ebenezer Asaah,Charlie Mbosso,Steven Franzel
Research Journal of Agronomy , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/rjagr.2011.4.9
Abstract: Kola plays an important role in the livelihoods of people in the Northwest region of Cameroon. However, the potential benefits of the product have not been fully exploited due to many problems including ineffective marketing techniques. In an attempt to address this problem, some organisations have facilitated the producers of kola to embark on group sales as a means to improve their marketing performance. During the 1st 5 years of implementation of this programme, there was no clear picture about the impact of the marketing intervention programme on the marketing performance of the farmers. This study discusses the main antecedents and producers perception of the effects of the group sales on the supply chain performance of kola producers in Cameroon. Using open ended interviews with 50 farmers, the study reveals that group sales has the potential to improve kola supply chain performance through increase in prices, quantity harvested and sold and increase in number of producers involved in the group.
Rethinking Rights and Interests of Local Communities in REDD+ Designs: Lessons Learnt from Current Forest Tenure Systems in Cameroon
S. Ngendakumana,E. G. Bachange,P. Van Damme,S. Speelman,D. Foundjem-Tita,Z. Tchoundjeu,A. Kalinganire,S. B. Bandiaky
ISRN Forestry , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/830902
Abstract: It is increasingly becoming clear that reforms based on the claims of local forest communities regarding the right to natural resources will be needed to adequately address issues of sustainable development in Sub-Saharan Africa. The current institutional and policy frameworks of Cameroon and other SSA countries have bestowed exclusive land tenure rights to the State, while curtailing access of local farmers to forest and forest-based resources on which they depend for a living. It is therefore unlikely that successful forest conservation and implementation of REDD+ can be possible without recognition and enforcement of customary tenure. This paper aimed to sense smallholders' perceptions on rights and risks in the current forestry policy arena linked with the climate change debate in Cameroon. Using semistructured questionnaires and focus group discussions about 7 key informants and 66 community forest users were investigated about the current tenure systems and the risks of related conflicts. Findings from the field provide empirical evidence on the sources of conflict. Based on failures and positive elements of community forestry, the lessons learnt could enrich the on-going REDD safeguard debates and serve as guiding milestones towards the effectiveness of this initiative across the country and the continent. 1. Introduction Cameroon is a tropical forest country with about 42% forest cover and hence it is known as an area with high potential to implement the concept of REDD+ (reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation plus sustainable management of forests, conservation of forest carbon, and enhancement of carbon stocks). As in many other developing countries, in Cameroon there are few reliable statistics on forest cover loss, but estimates of annual deforestation range from 0.4 to 1.0 percent [1, 2]. Also the causes of deforestation are uncertain and in Sub-Saharan Africa, those drivers are embedded in socioeconomic relations between the state, the private sector and local people as well as in poor governance within the forestry sector [3]. While smallholder slash and burn agriculture and fuel wood demand are widely believed to be responsible for about 80 percent of deforestation [4], these factors are often secondary effects of tropical timber harvesting that degrades forest cover and contributes to associated declines in biodiversity. In the light of the climate change debate and the role which deforestation plays to stock and sequester CO2 from the atmosphere, the international community came up with a mechanism called REDD
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