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Neuroprotection Offered by Majun Khadar, a Traditional Unani Medicine, during Cerebral Ischemic Damage in Rats
Seema Yousuf,Fahim Atif,Muzamil Ahmad,Tauheed Ishrat,Badruzzaman Khan,Fakhrul Islam
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1093/ecam/nep224
Abstract: Stroke results in damages to many biochemical, molecular and behavioral deficits. Present study provides evidence of the protective efficacy of a Unani herbal medicine, Majun Khadar (MK), against cerebral ischemia-induced behavioral dysfunctions and neurochemical alterations in the hippocampus (HIP). Transient focal cerebral ischemia was induced for 2 h followed by reperfusion for 22 h in a rat model. Rats were divided into four groups: sham, middle cerebral artery occluded (MCAO), drug sham (MK; 0.816 g kg−1 orally for 15 days) and MK pre-treated ischemic group (MK
Glibenclamide Administration Attenuates Infarct Volume, Hemispheric Swelling, and Functional Impairments following Permanent Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Rats
Bushra Wali,Tauheed Ishrat,Fahim Atif,Fang Hua,Donald G. Stein,Iqbal Sayeed
Stroke Research and Treatment , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/460909
Abstract: Studies from a single laboratory have shown that in rodent models of permanent stroke, administration of the sulfonylurea glibenclamide (Glib) is highly effective in reducing edema, mortality, and lesion volume. The Stroke Therapy Academic Industry Roundtable (STAIR) recommends that new acute treatments for ischemic stroke to be replicated across different laboratories. Accordingly, we examined the effect of low-dose Glib in a permanent suture occlusion model of stroke. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) followed by an initial intraperitoneal injection of Glib (10?μg/kg) and the start of a constant infusion (200?ng/h) via miniosmotic pump at the onset of ischemia. Functional deficits were assessed by Neurological Severity Score (NSS) and grip-strength meter at 24 and 48?h after pMCAO. Glib-treated rats showed a significant reduction in infarct volume, lower NSS, and less hemispheric swelling compared to vehicle. Grip strength was decreased significantly in pMCAO rats compared to shams and significantly improved by treatment with Glib. Taken together, these data indicate that Glib has strong neuroprotective effects following ischemic stroke and may warrant further testing in future clinical trials for human stroke. 1. Introduction Stroke has recently been downgraded from the third to the fourth leading cause of death in the United States, partly because of better acute ischemic stroke prevention and management among the elderly. However, despite these advances, therapeutic options for brain ischemic stroke remain limited, and there has been a rise in midlife stroke cases [1]. Currently, the only interventions to improve functional recovery after stroke are rehabilitative strategies, which have had limited success, and genetically engineered tissue plasminogen activators (tPAs), which are still the only medications approved by the FDA and come with serious medical risks and limitations. Thus, the problem of finding a safe and effective acute neuroprotective treatment after stroke remains urgent. Posttreatment with Glibenclamide (Glib), a second-generation sulfonylurea, has been shown to reduce edema and mortality in brain injury models [2–5]. Several studies have found that Glib exerts beneficial effects by blocking the K-ATP channel [6] and/or SUR1 [2, 4]. Glib has also been shown to suppress neutrophil migration and chemotaxis following acute inflammatory response by blocking the K-ATP channel [7, 8] and to ameliorate damage caused by renal and intestinal ischemic reperfusion (IR) injury [7, 9]. Glib
Genomic profile of Toll-like receptor pathways in traumatically brain-injured mice: effect of exogenous progesterone
Fang Hua, Jun Wang, Tauheed Ishrat, Wenjing Wei, Fahim Atif, Iqbal Sayeed, Donald G Stein
Journal of Neuroinflammation , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1742-2094-8-42
Abstract: Bilateral cortical impact injury to the medial frontal cortex was induced in C57BL/6J mice. PROG was injected (i.p., 16 mg/kg body weight) at 1 and 6 h after surgery. Twenty-four hours post-surgery, mice were killed and peri-contusional brain tissue was harvested for genomic detection and protein measurement. RT-PCR arrays were used to measure the mRNA of 84 genes in TLR-mediated pathways. Western blot, ELISA and immunohistochemistry were used to confirm the protein expression of genes of interest.We found that 2 TLRs (TLR1 and 2), 5 adaptor/interacting proteins (CD14, MD-1, HSPA1a, PGRP and Ticam2) and 13 target genes (Ccl2, Csf3, IL1a, IL1b, IL1r1, IL6, IL-10, TNFa, Tnfrsf1a, Cebpb, Clec4e, Ptgs2 and Cxcl10) were significantly up-regulated after injury. Administration of PROG significantly down-regulated three of the 13 increased target genes after TBI (Ccl-2, IL-1b and Cxcl-10), but did not inhibit the expression of any of the detected TLRs and adaptor/interacting proteins. Rather, PROG up-regulated the expression of one TLR (TLR9), 5 adaptor/interacting proteins, 5 effectors and 10 downstream target genes. We confirmed that Ccl-2, Cxcl-10, TLR2 and TLR9 proteins were expressed in brain tissue, a finding consistent with our observations of mRNA expression.The results demonstrate that TBI can increase gene expression in TLR-mediated pathways. PROG does not down-regulate the increased TLRs or their adaptor proteins in traumatically injured brain. Reduction of the observed inflammatory cytokines by PROG does not appear to be the result of inhibiting TLRs or their adaptors in the acute stage of TBI.Traumatic brain injury (TBI) comprises a cascade of events that begins with a primary neuronal/glial insult and progresses to further proximal and distal cell loss. At the cellular level, the major effectors in this cascade are the activation of inflammatory responses including the release of cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules, and the recruitment of leukocytes [
Role of Matrix Metalloproteinase Activity in the Neurovascular Protective Effects of Angiotensin Antagonism
Tauheed Ishrat,Anna Kozak,Ahmed Alhusban,Bindu Pillai,Maribeth H. Johnson,Azza B. El-Remessy,Adviye Ergul,Susan C. Fagan
Stroke Research and Treatment , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/560491
Abstract: Background and Purpose. Oxidative stress and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity have been identified as key mediators of early vascular damage after ischemic stroke. Somewhat surprisingly, the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1) blocker, candesartan, has been shown to acutely increase MMP activity while providing neurovascular protection. We aimed to determine the contribution of MMP and nitrative stress to the effects of angiotensin blockade in experimental stroke. Methods. Wistar rats (n?=?9–14/group; a total of 99) were treated in a factorial design with candesartan 1?mg/kg IV, alone or in combination with either a peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst, FeTPPs, 30?mg/kg IP or GM6001 50?mg/kg IP (MMP inhibitor). Neurological deficit, infarct, size and hemorrhagic transformation (HT) were measured after 3?h of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and 21?h of reperfusion. MMP activity and nitrotyrosine expression were also measured. Results. Candesartan reduced infarct size and HT when administered alone ( ) and in combination with FeTPPs ( ). GM6001 did not significantly affect HT when administered alone, but the combination with candesartan caused increased HT ( ) and worsened neurologic score ( ). Conclusions. Acute administration of candesartan reduces injury after stroke despite increasing MMP activity, likely by an antioxidant mechanism. 1. Introduction Ischemic stroke, an obstruction of blood flow in a major cerebral vessel, remains a leading cause of adult disability and death in the United States [1]. Because of its complex pathology, a major research and clinical priority is to develop therapeutic interventions in the ischemic brain through the understanding of underlying mechanisms. Ischemia reperfusion leads to a cascade of pathophysiological processes, resulting in further brain damage. Accumulations of free radicals, oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS), not only increase the susceptibility of brain tissue to reperfusion-induced damage but also trigger numerous molecular cascades, leading to increased blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, brain edema, hemorrhage and inflammation, and brain death [2, 3]. As an important component of free radicals, RNS, including peroxynitrite (ONOO–), play important roles in the process of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. Ischemia reperfusion results in the production of peroxynitrite in ischemic brain, which triggers numerous molecular cascades and leads to vascular damage. In vitro, peroxynitrite strongly activates matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) [4, 5]. Peroxynitrite formation on
Remediation of Arsenic Toxicity in the Soil-Plant System by Using Zinc Fertilizers  [PDF]
Ishrat Jahan Sanchary, Shah Muhammad Imamul Huq
Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment (JACEN) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jacen.2017.61002
Abstract: Availability of soil arsenic (As) and plant As at various levels of zinc (Zn) and As applications were examined. A pot-culture experiment with a leafy vegetable, Kalmi (Ipomoea aquatica), on an Inceptisols, was conducted where As was applied with irrigation water at the rates of 0 mg/L (As control), 0.5 mg/L, 1 mg/L and 2 mg/L and Zn was added to the soil as ZnCl2 solution at the rate of 0 mg/L (Zn control), 1 mg/L, 2 mg/L and 3 mg/L during pot preparation. The experiment was conducted in triplicates for 45 days till the plants were grown to maturity. At the end of the experiment the remedial effect of Zn on As toxicity was examined and as such, yield parameters, As and Zn accumulation in Kalmi plants, residual concentrations of As and Zn in soils and plants were measured. It appeared from the present study that there exists an antagonistic relationship between Zn and As i.e., Zn in soils was found to reduce As availability in soils as well as its accumulation in plants, particularly at an elevated application rate of 3 mg/L Zn. The findings could be used as a strategy to mitigate arsenic toxicity in As contaminated soils.
VLSI Design of a 16-bit Pipelined RISC Processor
Tannu Chhabra,Md Tauheed Khan
International Journal of Electronics and Computer Science Engineering , 2012,
Abstract: In this paper we have described the design of a 16-bit pipelined RISC processor for applications in real-time embedded systems. The processor executes most of the instructions in single machine cycle making it ideal for use in high speed systems. The processor has been designed to be implemented on an FPGA using VHDL such that one can reconfigure it according to specific requirements of the target applications. The processor is powerful enough to be used as a stand-alone processing element and is generic enough to be used in multi-processor System on Chip.
Oriental Research Library of Kashmir: A Treasure Trove
Rosy Jan,Ishrat Majeed
Trends in Information Management , 2009,
Abstract: The study carries out subject and linguistic analysis of manuscript collection of Oriental Research library (Srinagar) through examining various hand lists to estimate contents and standardizing subject terms employing international vocabulary tools. The findings reveal that majority of manuscripts belong to religious text or literary works. Few of the manuscripts deal with Pure or Applied Sciences. Meager number is written in local languages and major portion of the collection is in West Asian languages.
Syeda Ishrat Bukhari
The Professional Medical Journal , 1995,
Abstract: Estimation of glycated hemoglobin, the so called glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA Ic) in the blood is a betterindex of elevation of blood sugar level as well as duration of hyperglycemic state in diabetics. Vascularcomplications in diabetics are attributed to an elevated levels of HbA Ic so the study was planned to correlateHbA Ic's concentrations with other biochemical indices indicated in the subject. Eighty adult diabetics andtwenty normal subjects were included in our study. The diabetics dividedinto four groups i^ cording to thetreatment they received, were measured for HbA Ic serum immunoreacMve insulin (SIRI), total cholesterol,triacylglycerols (TAG) and fasting plasma glucose (FPG). The values found were significantly higher tothose found in normal subjects. The HbA Ic levels well correlate with FPG and SIRI. Similarly totalcholesterol and TAG levels are increased significantly in all the groups.
Nora, Damini and Stella: A Comparative Study of Female Predicaments
Fariha Ishrat Chowdhury
International Journal of Social Sciences and Education , 2011,
Abstract: Much has been talked in literature about femininity and feminism. In a patriarchal society, females are expected to be enriched with feminine qualities; this is a universal urge of majority of people all over the world. As literature reflects life, in many literary pieces we notice that most of the time, it is the womankind who are generally the victims of social injustice, man made rules, fundamentalism and malpractices, Henrik Ibsen’s Nora in A Doll’s House (1879), Damini in Rabindranath Tagore’s Quartet (1916) and Stella in Tennessee Williams’ A Streetcar Named Desire (1947) are the three female characters from three different literary pieces whom we would like to discuss here with a view to demonstrating their actions under certain circumstances that ultimately prove that women’s suffering is universal, no matter time, race and geographical boundaries. When we introduce Nora, Damini and Stella, we find that Nora’s story is told against European background in the 1870s, Damini is from Indian setting before the First World War and Stella is from post World War II American society. These three women are different individuals but their position in their own society does not vary too much. My paper aims at illustrating how these three married ladies have to undergo domestic troubles when they are dependent on their male-counterparts in patriarchal society; also it highlights their level of self-realization arisen from their contextual surroundings.
Extended and Revised Analysis of Singly Ionized Tin: Sn II
K. Haris,A. Kramida,A. Tauheed
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1088/0031-8949/89/11/115403
Abstract: The electronic structure of singly ionized tin (SnII) is partly a one-electron and partly a three-electron system with ground configuration 5s25p. The excited configurations are of the type 5s2nl in the one-electron part, and 5s5p2, 5p3 and 5s5pnl (nl = 6s, 5d) in the three-electron system with quartet and doublet levels. The spectrum analyzed in this work was recorded on a 3 m normal incidence vacuum spectrograph of the Antigonish laboratory (Canada) in the wavelength region 300 - 2080 {\AA} using a triggered spark source. The existing interpretation of the one-electron level system was confirmed in this paper, while the 2S1/2 level of the 5s5p2 configuration has been revised. The analysis has been extended to include new configurations 5p3, 5s5p5d and 5s5p6s with the aid of superposition-of-configurations Hartree-Fock calculations with relativistic corrections. The ionization potential obtained from the ng series was found to be 118023.7(5) cm-1 (14.63307(6) eV). We give a complete set of critically evaluated data on energy levels, observed wavelengths and transition probabilities of Sn II in the range 888 - 10740 {\AA} involving excitation of the n = 5 electrons.
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