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Sour Ageusia in Two Individuals Implicates Ion Channels of the ASIC and PKD Families in Human Sour Taste Perception at the Anterior Tongue
Taufiqul Huque, Beverly J. Cowart, Luba Dankulich-Nagrudny, Edmund A. Pribitkin, Douglas L. Bayley, Andrew I. Spielman, Roy S. Feldman, Scott A. Mackler, Joseph G. Brand
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0007347
Abstract: Background The perception of sour taste in humans is incompletely understood at the receptor cell level. We report here on two patients with an acquired sour ageusia. Each patient was unresponsive to sour stimuli, but both showed normal responses to bitter, sweet, and salty stimuli. Methods and Findings Lingual fungiform papillae, containing taste cells, were obtained by biopsy from the two patients, and from three sour-normal individuals, and analyzed by RT-PCR. The following transcripts were undetectable in the patients, even after 50 cycles of amplification, but readily detectable in the sour-normal subjects: acid sensing ion channels (ASICs) 1a, 1β, 2a, 2b, and 3; and polycystic kidney disease (PKD) channels PKD1L3 and PKD2L1. Patients and sour-normals expressed the taste-related phospholipase C-β2, the δ-subunit of epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and the bitter receptor T2R14, as well as β-actin. Genomic analysis of one patient, using buccal tissue, did not show absence of the genes for ASIC1a and PKD2L1. Immunohistochemistry of fungiform papillae from sour-normal subjects revealed labeling of taste bud cells by antibodies to ASICs 1a and 1β, PKD2L1, phospholipase C-β2, and δ-ENaC. An antibody to PKD1L3 labeled tissue outside taste bud cells. Conclusions These data suggest a role for ASICs and PKDs in human sour perception. This is the first report of sour ageusia in humans, and the very existence of such individuals (“natural knockouts”) suggests a cell lineage for sour that is independent of the other taste modalities.
Comparative Studies on the Susceptibility of Various Vegetables to Bactrocera tau (Diptera:Tephritidae)
Roksana Huque
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: To study on the susceptibility of various vegetables to the females of B. tau, six vegetables (sweet gourd, kankrol, cucumber, potol, bottle gourd, snake gourd) were chosen as hosts for comparable studies by using choice and non-choice test. In choice test six species of vegetables were placed in small pieces (300 g) simultaneously for laying eggs by the 50 pairs of flies for the period of 2 h. On the other hand in non-choice test 300 g of either vegetables species were placed as oviposition substrate to 50 pairs of flies. Female flies showed various responses to the vegetables with regards to oviposition and adult emergence. According to the number of eggs laying by the female flies kankrol was found most susceptible and bottle gourd was found less susceptible to B. tau.
Influence of Reactive Volatile Organic Compounds on Ozone Production in Houston-Galveston-Brazoria Area  [PDF]
Samarita Sarker, Raghava R. Kommalapati, Ziaul Huque
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2015.64039
Abstract: Secondary pollutant ozone (O3) formation in a particular area is often influenced by various factors. Source of emissions is one of the factors. In south east Texas, Houston-Galveston-Brazoria (HGB) is a marginal non-attainment area for ozone (O3). A summer episode of May 28 to July 2, 2006 is simulated using Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions (CAMx). During this period O3 concentration in HGB often exceeds the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) 0.075 ppm of average 8 hour O3 concentration. HGB area has numerous point sources. Various studies found that some specific volatile organic compounds are very reactive in atmosphere. The objective of this study is to analyze the influence of volatile organic compounds present in point source emissions on the air quality of HGB area. For this purpose ozone sensitivity for HGB area is analyzed by the ratio of hydrogen peroxides (H2O2) to nitric acid (HNO3). HGB area is found NOx limited but reactive VOCs are found to be influential too. From (1-4 June, 2006) maximum O3 concentration was found on weekend, June 3. VOCs such as Acetaldehyde (ALD2), Formaldehyde (FORM) and Alkane (ETHA) showed good correlation with O3 concentrations on that day. In addition, Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) formation was found correlated to higher ozone production. Criteria pollutant Sulfur dioxide (SO2) was found to influence the ALD2 and ETHA concentrations, and thus indirectly influenced O3 production.
Role of Energy Storage on Distribution Transformer Loading in Low Voltage Distribution Network  [PDF]
Mohammad Taufiqul Arif, Amanullah M. T. Oo, A. B. M. Shawkat Ali
Smart Grid and Renewable Energy (SGRE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/sgre.2013.42029
Abstract: Energy storage (ES) is a form of media that store one form of energy to be utilized at another time. Importance of ES is comprehended while intermittent nature of renewable energy (RE) generation increases and integration into the grid becomes viable in terms of economics and environment. However, technical analysis should be carried out before large scale integration into the grid. Some utilities experienced in Europe and expressed concern about issues in integrating large scale renewable energy in the areas of harmonics, voltage regulation, network protection and islanding. In Australia, distribution network (DN) is not robust compared to the European grid; moreover loads are largely distributed over large geographical areas. Installation of RE such as roof top solar photovoltaic (PV) is increasing in Australia which also boosted by the governments incentives to the individual owners. It is therefore obvious that large scale PV integration into the Australian grid is imminent. The intermittent characteristic of solar PV is expected to have greater impacts on DN in Australia compared to the DN in Europe. Therefore this paper investigated the impacts of solar PV on low voltage (LV) DN where loads connected through distribution transformer (DT) and finally further investigation was conducted with the deployment of ES into the respective load centers. It was found that storage reduced the overall peak load condition on the DT, and also reduced the energy fluctuation in the DN. It was also found that storage improved the voltage regulation on the LV side of DT and stabilized node voltage.
Life-Cycle Analysis of Bio-Ethanol Fuel Emissions of Transportation Vehicles in Greater Houston Area  [PDF]
Raghava Kommalapati, Shahzeb Sheikh, Hongbo Du, Ziaul Huque
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2016.76072

Study is conducted on the life cycle assessment of bio-ethanol used for transportation vehicles and their emissions. The emissions that are analyzed include greenhouse gases, volatile organic compounds, sulfur oxide, carbon monoxide, nitrous oxide, particulate matter with the size less than 10 and 2.5 microns. Furthermore, various blends of bio-ethanol and gasoline are studied to learn about the impacts of higher blend on emissions. The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model software are used to simulate for emissions. The research analyzes two pathways of emissions: Well-to-Pump and Pump-to-Vehicle analyses. It is found that the fuel cell vehicles using 100% bio-ethanol have shown the most reduction in the amount of all the pollutants from the Pump-to-Vehicle emission analysis. The Well-to-Pump analysis shows that only greenhouse gases (GHGs) reduce with higher blends of bio-ethanol. All other pollutants VOC, CO, NOx, SOx, PM10 and PM2.5 emissions increase with the higher blending ratios. The Pump-to-Vehicle analysis shows that all the pollutant emissions reduce with the percentage increase of bio-ethanol in the fuel blends.

Impact of Different Parameters on Life Cycle Analysis, Embodied Energy and Environmental Emissions for Wind Turbine System  [PDF]
Nazia Binte Munir, Ziaul Huque, Raghava R. Kommalapati
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2016.77089

Due to the rapid depletion of fossil fuel reserves and increasing concern for climate change as a result of greenhouse gas effect, every country is looking for ways to develop eco-friendly renewable energy sources. Wind energy has become a good option due to its comparative economic advantages and environment friendly aspects. But there is always an ongoing debate if wind energy is as green as it seems to appear. Wind turbines once installed do not produce any greenhouse gases during operation, but it can and may produce significant emissions during manufacture, transport, installation and disposal stages. To determine the exact amount of emissions, it is necessary to consider all the stages for a wind turbine from manufacture to disposal. Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) is a technique that determines the energy consumption, emission of greenhouse gases and other environmental impacts of a product or system throughout the life cycle stages. The various approaches that have been used in the literature for the LCA of wind turbines have many discrepancies among the results, the main reason(s) being different investigators used different parameters and boundary conditions, and thus comparisons are difficult. In this paper, the influence of different parameters such as turbine size, technology (geared or gearbox less), recycling, medium of transport, different locations, orientation of the blade (horizontal or vertical), blade material, positioning of wind turbine (land, coastal or offshore), etc. on greenhouse gas emissions and embodied energy is studied using the available data from exhaustive search of literature. This provides tools to find better solutions for power production in an environmental friendly manner by selecting a proper blade orientation technique, with suitable blade material, technology, recycling techniques and suitable location.

Simulation Based Design Analysis of an Adjustable Window Function  [PDF]
Orvila Sarker, Rezaul Huque Khan
Journal of Signal and Information Processing (JSIP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jsip.2016.74019
Abstract: Window based Finite Impulse Response filters have the problem that in order to obtain better performance from these filters in terms of minimum stopband attenuation cost has to be paid for half main-lobe width and vice-versa. A solution of this contradictory behavior is to increase the length of the window which in turn requires more hardware hence increasing the cost of system. This paper proposes a novel window based on two shifted hyperbolic tangent functions. The proposed window contains an adjustable parameter, with the help of which desired time and frequency domain characteristics may be achieved for relatively shorter window length. The characteristics of the proposed window are compared with those of the two well-known adjustable windows namely Cosh window and Exponential window. MATLAB simulation results show that for the same value of window length, the proposed window provides improved output, and thus it makes a good compromise between minimum stopband attenuation and half main-lobe width compared to the windows mentioned previously.
Study on Voluntary Intake and Digestibility of Banana Foliage as a Cattle Feed
M. M. Rahman,K. S. Huque
Journal of Biological Sciences , 2002,
Abstract: The fresh and chopped banana plants were compared with that of the ensiled materials having them fed to mature bulls. Sixteen (16) young bulls approximately 3 years of age and weighing approx. 370 kg were used. The bulls were divided into 4 groups and were randomly allocated to the experimental diets e.g., T1 = banana pseudostem ensiled with 5% molasses, T2 = banana pseudostem ensiled with 5% molasses and 10% straw, T3 = chopped fresh banana pseudostem with 5% molasses, T4 = urea (3%)-molasses (15%)-straw (82%). All the diets were enriched with 3% urea. All the animals received 60 g/d of mineral 4 supplement including sodium sulphate and dicalcium phosphate. The daily average dry matter intake in percent live weight was 1.33, 2.73, 1.20 and 2.50, respectively. Dry matter digestibility was significantly (p<0.01) higher in the T2 (78%) fed animals than T1 (59%), T3 (65%) and T4 (62%). In T2 and T3 diets NH3 -N concentration were relatively high which ranged from 54.87 to 238.56 mg/L and 42.15 to 188.47 mg/L, respectively. The 48 h in sacco degradability of washed straw in response to feeding T1 , T2 and T3 diets were 50, 51 and 51%, respectively. The ME intake was significantly (p<0.01) higher in T2 (1300 KJ/kg W0.75 /d) than that of T3 (945 KJ/kg W0.75 /d), T4 (498 KJ/kg W0.75 /d) or T3 (515 KJ/kg W0.75 /d). It may be concluded that both the preserved and fresh chopped banana whole plants had digestibility of 59 to 78% and their intake in native bull ranged from 1.20 to 2.73% live weight.
Relative Contribution of Different Source Categories to Ozone Exceedances in the Houston-Galveston-Brazoria Area  [PDF]
Raghava R. Kommalapati, Md Tarkik Shahriar, Venkata S. V. Botlaguduru, Hongbo Du, Ziaul Huque
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2018.98052
Abstract: The goal of this study is to analyze the relative contribution of different emission source categories to ozone in the Houston-Galveston-Brazoria (HGB) area of Texas. Emission Processing System (EPS3) is used to prepare the emission files for five different source combination cases (Base case, Biogenic, Area + Biogenic, Mobile + Biogenic, Low-level Point + Biogenic). These emission files are used to perform photochemical modeling with Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions (CAMx), and the results are analyzed with Visual Environment for Rich Data Interpretation (VERDI) tool. The daily maximum ozone concentrations and individual contributions of the source categories were analyzed over a 15-day study period between June 1-15, 2012, at three locations (University of Houston-Sugarland, Bayland Park and Conroe). Biogenic sources contributed an average of 49.7% ± 12.8%, 43.1% ± 12.0%, and 39.9% ± 9.28% at Sugarland, Bayland Park and Conroe sites respectively, indicating the significance of isoprene emissions from the vegetation in northeast Houston. On peak ozone days, contribution of Mobile + Biogenic source category averages about 80.1% ± 12.6%, 79.9% ± 6.50%, and 75.9% ± 10.9% at Sugarland, Bayland Park and Conroe sites respectively, indicating the dominance of mobile source NOX emissions and the necessity for regulatory focus on mobile source emissions control.
Air Quality Impact of Biomass Co-Firing with Coal at a Power Plant in the Greater Houston Area  [PDF]
Iqbal Hossan, Venkata Sai Vamsi Botlaguduru, Hongbo Du, Raghava Rao Kommalapati, Ziaul Huque
Open Journal of Air Pollution (OJAP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojap.2018.73013
Abstract: The Houston-Galveston-Brazoria (HGB) area of Texas is a moderate nonattainment region for ozone, and has a history of severe summer ozone episodes. W. A. Parish power plant (WAP) located in the greater Houston area is the largest coal and natural gas based electricity generating unit (EGU) in Texas. Forest residue is an abundant renewable resource, and can be used to offset coal usage at EGUs. This study evaluates the impact of co-firing 5%, 10%, and 15% (energy-basis) of forest residue at WAP on the air quality of the HGB area. Photochemical modeling with Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions (CAMx) was conducted to investigate the air quality at three air quality monitoring sites (C696, C53, C556) in the HGB area, under two source scenarios (all-sources, point + biogenic sources). Significant reduction of SO2 and O3 was observed for 10% and 15% co-firing ratios at monitoring station (C696) close to WAP. The maximum reduction of ozone observed for 15% co-firing is 4.7% and 6.3% for all-sources and point + biogenic sources scenarios respectively. The reduction in other criteria air pollutants is not significant at all locations. The overall results from this study indicate that biomass co-firing at WAP would not lead to a significant reduction in ozone concentrations in the region during periods of peak ozone.
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