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Patterns of sexual risk behavior among undergraduate university students in Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study
Tariku Dingeta, Lemessa Oljira, Nega Assefa
Pan African Medical Journal , 2012,
Abstract: Introduction: As part of the young age bracket, undergraduate university students are exposed to a range of risky behaviors including HIV/AIDS. Given the paucity of data among the risk behaviors of African university students, this study was conducted to examine the sexual risk behaviors of this group in Ethiopia. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on socio-demographic and sexual risk behavior characteristics among 1,286 undergraduate students at Haramaya University, Ethiopia from March to April, 2010. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to derive adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Results: About 355 (28%; 95% CI 25.5-30.5) students reported to have had sexual intercourse at least once. More proportion of male students ever had sex compared to females (OR 4.8; 95% CI 3.4-6.8, p<0.001). One fifth (22.8%) of these students had their sexual debut after they joined university. About six percent of students with sexual experience reported having had intercourse with same-sex partners. Half of the males with sexual experience had intercourse with a commercial sex worker. About 60% of students reported to have used a condom rarely. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that there is a high level of sexual risk behavior among the study population. Significant proportion of students were sexually active, the majority started sexual intercourse before they joined university. We recommend awareness campaigns and interventions on sexual and reproductive health issues for high school and university students in Ethiopia. Pan African Medical Journal 2012; 12:33
Social determinants of under-five mortality in Ethiopia: Event history analysis using evidence from Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS)  [PDF]
Tariku Dejene, Eshetu Girma
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.55115

Background: Under-five mortality is one of the indicators of the millennium development goals (MDGs) for the child mortality reduction goal. Understanding the social determinants of under-five mortality is helpful to narrow the gap between different social classes. Therefore, this study focused on the social determinants of under-five mortality inEthiopiausing EDHS 2011 data. Methods: The data source for this analysis was the 2011 EDHS which was undertaken over a five-month period from 27 December, 2010 to 3 June, 2011. The sample was selected using a stratified, two-stage cluster design. Samples of 16,515 women of reproductive age were interviewed. The questionnaire used to collect information from these women who had among other things such as background characteristics of women, birth history of these women and the survival of each birth at the time of the interview. Births that had occurred to women in the last 10 years prior to the date of the interview were extracted for the analysis. Descriptive statistical methods were used to describe the distribution of the characteristics of the data. Kaplan Meier plots and incidence rates per 1000 person years were used to compare survival across different categories of the risk factors. The effect of the risk factors on survival was analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regression. Data management and analysis were carried out using STATA 10. Results: A total of 23,581 under-five children were included in the study. The under-five mortality incidence rate in Ethiopia for the last ten years was 29.6 per 1000 person years. Maternal education beyond primary level of education reduced the risk of under-five mortality by about half. A significant reduction in risk of under-five mortality was observed among births to mothers residing in richest households. The hazard ratio (HR) was higher for under-five mortality among boys than daughters, twins than singleton, teen age mother than higher ages and short births than optimal. Conclusions: Empowering mothers with education and making them productive for improving their income are important aspects for reducing under-five mortality. Emerging regions were disadvantaged on the incidence of under-five mortality; however, there was a positive result in narrowing the urban-rural under-five

Determinates of Regain in Body Mass Index among Malnourished Aids Patients on Therapeutic Food in Amhara National Regional State, Northwest Ethiopia: A Retrospective Cohort Study  [PDF]
Molla Gedefaw, Moges Tariku
Open Journal of Epidemiology (OJEpi) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojepi.2015.52016
Abstract: Although its utilization is greatly disputed, ready-to-use therapeutic food has been started as clinical nutrition care and treatment for malnourished adult AIDS patients since 2011 in Amhara National Regional State. However, factors determining the intended outcome (weight gain) have not been properly investigated. The main objective of the study was to assess improvement in body mass index and to identify its determinant factors. A retrospective cohort study design was conducted. Cluster sampling was employed to select health facilities in which the service was provided in the region. Of the 44 health facilities, nine were selected using lottery method, and all patients receiving the care in these health institutions were included in the study. Using tailored structured checklist, data were collected, organized and cleaned. Using paired T-test existence of difference between the mean of body mass index at admission and at 3rd visit was measured. Finally analysis of association between some selected independent variables with the outcome variable was done using logistic regression model at 95% CI and p < 0.05. Of 431 study participants, 175 (40.6%) study participants’ body mass index was improved (≥18.5 kg/m2). Paired T-test revealed that there was a statistically significant difference between mean of body mass index at admission and at the 3rd visit. Good ready-to-use therapeutic food treatment adherence (AOR 11.145; 95% CI 6.556, 18.946), moderate acute malnutrition at admission (AOR 6.71; 95% CI 2.618, 17.195), good ART adherence (AOR 2.136; 95% CI, 1.269, 3.595) and being male (AOR 1.73; 95% CI 1.052, 2.850) have a statistically significant contribution for body mass index improvement. The study identifies factors that determine gain in body mass index among AIDS patients on ready-to-use therapeutic food. However, although the study revealed a statistically significant difference between body mass index during enrolment, and after three months, we disagreed with the right and left utilization of imported food because of lack of sustainability, and aid dependency. We rather recommend interventions that encourage households to produce food with similar outcomes from locally available food staff.
Befikadu Tariku,Singh Pragya
International Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Pharmacy , 2012,
Abstract: Bacteria are normal inhabitants of the gastrointestinal tract, where more than 400 bacterial species are found. Bacterial colonization of the gut begins at birth, as newborns are maintained in a sterile status until the delivery begins, and continues throughout life, with notable age-specific changes. Human milk oligosaccharides are complex glycans that are highly abundant in human breast milk. It is generally accepted that human milk oligosaccharides have prebiotic effects, selectively serving as a source of energy and nutrients for desired bacteria to colonize the infant intestine. The concentration and composition of oligosaccharides varied, indicates that the protective ability of breast milk based on human milk oligosaccharides vary. Prebiotic is commonly tested on infants not started complementary food as ingredients in formula and in adults. This review was intended to describe the outcomes of the prebiotic on the infants of complementary feeding age range and their tolerance to it. The study tried to identify articles published on the prebiotic and infants with complementary feeding age range. There were four studies on the complementary feeding age range of infants about the tolerance and effect of prebiotics use. Based on the gastrointestinal symptoms finding of the studies, the addition of the prebiotics were tolerated. All studies were based on the supplementation of the prebiotics to the formula or cereals. There is a need to identify the effect of addition of prebiotics to the infants of breastfeeding during introduction of complementary feeding, both by supplementation and based on the foods containing prebiotics.
Prevalence of Catha edulis (Khat) Chewing and Its Associated Factors among Ataye Secondary School Students in Northern Shoa, Ethiopia  [PDF]
Awoke Lakew, Behailu Tariku, Nigussie Deyessa, Yared Reta
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2014.410027
Abstract: The life time and current prevalence of khat chewing are 15.36% (95% CI; 11.7, 19.8) and 13.25% (95% CI; 11.0, 18.1) respectively. Multivariable logistic regression model revealed that male students [Adjusted OR = 2.15 (95% CI; 1.02, 4.56)], presence of chewer friends [Adjusted OR = 3.14 (95% CI; 1.53, 6.41)], having chewer family [Adjusted OR = 2.68 (95% CI; 1.13, 6.37)] and place of residency [Adjusted OR = 1.89 (95% CI; 1.0, 3.79)] were associated risk factors for khat chewing. Khat chewing is prevalent among students who are male, urban residents and students who have chewer friends and family. Therefore, to reduce the prevalence, social, economic and health effect of khat chewing, Minister of Education in collaboration with Ministry of Health has to work to incorporate life skill training in high school students’ curricula.
Previous utilization of service does not improve timely booking in antenatal care: Cross sectional study on timing of antenatal care booking at public health facilities in Addis Ababa
A Tariku, Y Melkamu, Z Kebede
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2010,
Abstract: Background: Antenatal care is more beneficial in preventing adverse pregnancy outcomes when it is sought early in pregnancy. However, existing evidence from developing countries including Ethiopia indicate that few women seek antenatal care at early stage of their pregnancy. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the timing of ANC booking and impact of previous antenatal care utilization on timing of first antenatal care booking in Addis Ababa governmental health institutions. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted to collect data from 630 pregnant women who were attending antenatal care service at 10 governmental health centers in Addis Ababa from March 1 to 30, 2008. Results: Past experience on antenatal care service utilization did not come out as a predictor for timely booking of antenatal care (OR=1.40, 95%CI: 0.91, 2.15). Multivariate analysis revealed that respondents who received advice on recommended time of booking, their pregnancy was planned and first pregnancy, were more likely to book timely compared to others (AOR=10.10, 95% CI: 4.54, 22.40; AOR=1.87, 95% CI:1.11, 3.23; (AOR= 1.86, 95% CI: 1.01, 3.44) respectively. Conclusions: Past utilization of antenatal care service did not come as a predictor for timely booking of the service, provided that advice on timely booking is the main factor. In order to improve the situation, strengthening of focused antenatal care, availing of clear service delivery guidelines and training of service providers are important.
Prevalence and Susceptibility Assay of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Bovine Mastitis in Dairy Farms of Jimma Town, South West Ethiopia
Tariku Sori,Jemal Hussien,Molalegne Bitew
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/javaa.2011.745.749
Abstract: Cross sectional experimental study was conducted to assess the prevalence and susceptibility pattern of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis to commonly used antibacterial agents in Jimma town dairy farms, South West Ethiopia from January-July, 2010. Milk samples were collected aseptically and California Mastitis Test (CMT) was carried out to identify subclinical mastitis from dairy cows. All CMT high scored and clinically positive samples were investigated microbiologically. Rate of isolation of Staphylococcus aureus was determined and susceptibility of 11 antibiotics against S. aureus was evaluated using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method and the result was expressed as sensitive, intermediate and resistant. From total of 218 milk samples collected, 164 CMT high score milk samples were cultured of which 86 (52.4%) of pure strains of S. aureus were isolated. Out of 86 pure isolates of S. aureus resistance was detected for Penicillin (87.2%), Nalidixic acid (92%), Amoxicillin (46%), Chloramphenicol (16%), Clindamycin (4%) and Vancomycin (3%). The study also revealed that S. aureus was found to be sensitive for Norfloxacilin, Gentamycin, Tetracycline and Bacitracin. The present finding indicates that these isolates exhibited the highest degree of resistance to Nalidicic Acid, Penicillin, Amoxicillin and Chloramphenicol of among the tested anti microbial agents in comparison to previous studies reported. Furthermore, resistance follow-up, appropriate selection and use of antibiotic is recommended in the treatment of mastitis.
External Parasite Infestations in Small Ruminants in Wolmera District of Oromiya Region, Central Ethiopia
Jemere Bekele,Martha Tariku,Rahmeto Abebe
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/javaa.2011.518.523
Abstract: A cross-sectional study aimed at determining the prevalence and identifying the major species of external parasites in small ruminants was carried out in seven localities (peasant associations) of Wolmera district from October 2008 to April 2009. External parasites were collected manually by hand or using forceps (for ticks). Specimens were preserved in 70% ethanol and subsequently examined in the laboratory for identification. Out of 322 sheep and 130 goats examined, 99.38% of sheep and 96.92% goats were infested with one or more external parasites. Seven genera of external parasites were identified in both sheep and goats which belong to lice, ticks, fleas and sheep ked. Damalinia ovis (83.23%) was the most dominant of all external parasites identified in sheep while Amblyomma variegatum (66.15%) was the uppermost of other external parasites in goats. Moreover, external parasites like Damalinia caprae, Linognathus ovillus, Linognathus stenopsis, Boophilus decoloratus, Rhipicephallus evertsi, Melophagus ovinus and Ctenocephalides species were detected at different degrees of magnitude. This finding has unveiled that external parasites are major problems in small ruminants in the study area. Lacks of awareness about the significance of the problems among owners and inaccessibility for control schemes have contributed to the widespread nature of external parasites in the area. In view of the significance of skin and hide production as a main source of foreign currency to the country and the ever increasing demands of livestock market, the high prevalence of external parasites prevailing in small ruminants in the area requires serious attention at the district level to minimize the effect of the problem.
Prevalence and Associated Factors of Intimate Partner Violence during Pregnancy among Recently Delivered Women in Public Health Facilities of Hossana Town, Hadiya Zone, Southern Ethiopia  [PDF]
Tariku Laelago, Tefera Belachew, Meseret Tamrat
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1100997
Abstract: Background: Intimate partner violence is recognized as a worldwide serious public health problem. It can cause serious injury, disability or death. Risk factors for intimate partner violence during pregnancy are often similar to risk factors for intimate partner violence in general. Objectives: To assess the prevalence and associated factors of intimate partner violence during pregnancy among recently delivered women in public health facilities of Hossana Town, Hadiya Zone, Southern Ethiopia, 2014. Methods: Facility based cross sectional study was conducted among 195 recently delivered women in public health facilities of Hossana Town, Hadiya zone, Southern Ethiopia from March 31-April 30, 2014. The data were collected by pretested structured questionnaire. Both bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were done to identify predictors of intimate partner violence during pregnancy. Results: Twenty three percent (23%) of women experienced at least one form of Intimate partner violence during pregnancy. Psychological violence was the most common form (20%) followed by physical (15%) and sexual violence (12%). Alcohol drinking by the partners (AOR = 22 (7.4, 65.6), no formal education of the partners (AOR = 10.8 (1.06, 108.5) and planned pregnancy (AOR = 0.23 (0.08, 0.67) were significantly associated with intimate partner violence during pregnancy. Conclusion: Our study established that intimate partner violence during pregnancy was a common experience. Partners’ alcohol drinking, no formal education of partners and planned pregnancy were associated with intimate partner violence during pregnancy. Health sector, police, lawyers and advocators should give due emphasis to the victims of this problem.
Prevalence and Socio-Demographic/Economic Risk Factors of Low and High Body Mass Index of Urban versus Rural Pregnant Women at Booking for Antenatal Care in Governmental Health Centers of Jimma Zone, Southwest Ethiopia  [PDF]
Chernet Hailu, Tariku Dejene, Bosena Tebeje
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1101672
Abstract: Background: Low Body Mass Index (BMI) continues to be a major health burden in addition to the emergence of new competing public health priority (high BMI) in developing countries. Abnormal BMI threatens both the health and survival of mothers and their infants, because it increases their susceptibility to life-threatening problems during pregnancy, and during and following childbirth. Although a number of studies done on nutrition, none was done in pregnancy in our country including Jimma Zone. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess prevalence and identify the risk factors associated with BMI status of pregnant women of urban versus rural residents of Jimma Zone, Southwest Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from March 03 to October 21, 2011 in randomly selected governmental health centers of Jimma Zone. A total of 1546 pregnant mothers (770 urban and 776 rural residents) who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were included in the study. Structured interviewer administered questionnaires were used for data collection: first exploratory/descriptive data analysis, then, multinomial logistic regression analysis employed using SPSS version 16.0 and significance level of 0.05. Results: Majority of, 60.8% urban and 60.2% rural resident, pregnant mothers had normal BMI at the time of their first booking for Antenatal Care (ANC) on static/outreach basis in the selected governmental health centers or Woredas (districts) of the Zone. Prevalence of low BMI (BMI ≤ 20 kg/m2) was higher in rural (27.3%) than urban (22.3%) pregnant mothers, whereas high BMI (BMI > 24 kg/m2) was higher in the urban (16.9%) than rural (12.6%) pregnant mothers (p < 0.05). The Woredas decreasing order by proportion of low BMI mothers was Kersa (37.6%), Omonada (33.3%) and Mana (28.5%) Gera (19.2%), Shebe Sombo (17.4%) and Seka Chekorsa (12.5%); whereas, the order by proportion of high BMI mothers was Gera (23.5%), Omonada (22.1%), Shebe Sombo (14.7%), Seka Chekorsa (10.2%), Mana (9.4%) and Kersa (8.5%) (P < 0.001). After employing multivariate multinomial logistic regression analysis: the important factors found independently associated with high BMI of the urban pregnant mothers were primary and above education level (AOR = 2.13, 95% CI, 1.21 - 3.74) and 3rd trimester gestation period (AOR = 3.21, 95% CI, 2.02 - 5.9). While, higher monthly household expenditure (351 - 500 Eth.birr, AOR = 1.89, 95% CI, 1.21 - 2.95; 501 - 700 Eth.birr, AOR = 2.80, 95% CI, 1.67 - 4.72; 701 - 1000 Eth.birr, AOR = 2.07, 95% CI, 1.07 - 4.02) and 3rd trimester gestation period (AOR = 0.44, 95% CI, 0.29 - 0.69) were for low BMI of the rural pregnant mothers at the time of their booking for ANC. Conclusion: A considerable proportion of both urban and rural pregnant mothers had low BMI as well as high BMI (higher in urban than rural). Therefore, strengthening antenatal care on nutrition, introducing/enhancing the culture of nutritional (BMI) status determination and monitoring starting1st trimester of pregnancy, preferably in pre-pregnancy period of reproductive age women, and undertaking further studies on the issue in different settings of the country are advisable.
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