Abstract:
A quasitoric manifold is a smooth 2n-manifold M^{2n} with an action of the compact torus T^n such that the action is locally isomorphic to the standard action of T^n on C^n and the orbit space is diffeomorphic, as manifold with corners, to a simple polytope P^n. The name refers to the fact that topological and combinatorial properties of quasitoric manifolds are similar to that of non-singular algebraic toric varieties (or toric manifolds). Unlike toric varieties, quasitoric manifolds may fail to be complex; however, they always admit a stably (or weakly almost) complex structure, and their cobordism classes generate the complex cobordism ring. As it have been recently shown by Buchstaber and Ray, a stably complex structure on a quasitoric manifold is defined in purely combinatorial terms, namely, by an orientation of the polytope and a function from the set of codimension-one faces of the polytope to primitive vectors of an integer lattice. We calculate the \chi_y-genus of a quasitoric manifold with fixed stably complex structure in terms of the corresponding combinatorial data. In particular, this gives explicit formulae for the classical Todd genus and signature. We also relate our results with well-known facts in the theory of toric varieties.

Abstract:
We review a class of problems on the borders of topology of torus actions, commutative homological algebra and combinatorial geometry, which is currently being investigated by Victor Buchstaber and the author. The text builds on the lectures delivered on the transformation group courses in Osaka City University and Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona. We start with discussing several well-known results and problems on combinatorial geometry of polytopes and simplicial complexes, and then move gradually towards investigating the combinatorial structures associated with spaces acted on by the torus. Parallelly, we set up the required commutative algebra apparatus, including Cohen-Macaulay/Gorenstein rings and Stanley-Reisner face rings of simplicial complexes.

Abstract:
We refer to an action of the group Z/p (p here is an odd prime) on a stably complex manifold as simple if all its fixed submanifolds have the trivial normal bundle. The important particular case of a simple action is an action with only isolated fixed points. The problem of cobordism classification of manifolds with simple action of Z/p was posed by V.M.Buchstaber and S.P.Novikov in 1971. The analogous question of cobordism classification with stricter conditions on Z/p-action was answered by Conner and Floyd. Namely, Conner and Floyd solved the problem in the case of simple actions with identical sets of weights (eigenvalues of the differential of the map corresponding to the generator of Z/p) for all fixed submanifolds of same dimension. However, the general setting of the problem remained unsolved and is the subject of our present paper. We have obtained the description of the set of cobordism classes of stably complex manifolds with simple Z/p-action both in terms of the coefficients of universal formal group law and in terms of the characteristic numbers, which gives the complete solution to the above problem. In particular, this gives a purely cohomological obstruction to the existence of a simple Z/p-action (or an action with isolated fixed points) on a manifold. We also review connections with the Conner-Floyd results and with the well-known Stong-Hattori theorem.

Abstract:
We obtain general formulae expressing Hirzebruch genera of a manifold with Z/p-action in terms of invariants of this action (the sets of weights of fixed points). As an illustration, we consider numerous particular cases of well-known genera, in particular, the elliptic genus. We also describe the connection with the so-called Conner-Floyd equations for the weights of fixed points.

Abstract:
Let $\rho:(D^2)^m\to I^m$ be the orbit map for the diagonal action of the torus $T^m$ on the unit poly-disk $(D^2)^m$, $I^m=[0,1]^m$ is the unit cube. Let $C$ be a cubical subcomplex in $I^m$. The moment-angle complex $\ma(C)$ is a $T^m$-invariant bigraded cellular decomposition of the subset $\rho^{-1}(C)\subset(D^2)^m$ with cells corresponding to the faces of $C$. Different combinatorial problems concerning cubical complexes and related combinatorial objects can be treated by studying the equivariant topology of corresponding moment-angle complexes. Here we consider moment-angle complexes defined by canonical cubical subdivisions of simplicial complexes. We describe relations between the combinatorics of simplicial complexes and the bigraded cohomology of corresponding moment-angle complexes. In the case when the simplicial complex is a simplicial manifold the corresponding moment-angle complex has an orbit consisting of singular points. The complement of an invariant neighbourhood of this orbit is a manifold with boundary. The relative Poincare duality for this manifold implies the generalized Dehn-Sommerville equations for the number of faces of simplicial manifolds.

Abstract:
The paper surveys some new results and open problems connected with such fundamental combinatorial concepts as polytopes, simplicial complexes, cubical complexes, and subspace arrangements. Particular attention is paid to the case of simplicial and cubical subdivisions of manifolds and, especially, spheres. We describe important constructions which allow to study all these combinatorial objects by means of methods of commutative and homological algebra. The proposed approach to combinatorial problems relies on the theory of moment-angle complexes, currently being developed by the authors. The theory centres around the construction that assigns to each simplicial complex $K$ with $m$ vertices a $T^m$-space $\zk$ with a special bigraded cellular decomposition. In the framework of this theory, the well-known non-singular toric varieties arise as orbit spaces of maximally free actions of subtori on moment-angle complexes corresponding to simplicial spheres. We express different invariants of simplicial complexes and related combinatorial-geometrical objects in terms of the bigraded cohomology rings of the corresponding moment-angle complexes. Finally, we show that the new relationships between combinatorics, geometry and topology result in solutions to some well-known topological problems.

Abstract:
We show that the cohomology algebra of the complement of a coordinate subspace arrangement in m-dimensional complex space is isomorphic to the cohomology algebra of Stanley-Reisner face ring of a certain simplicial complex on m vertices. (The face ring is regarded as a module over the polynomial ring on m generators.) Then we calculate the latter cohomology algebra by means of the standard Koszul resolution of polynomial ring. To prove these facts we construct an equivariant with respect to the torus action homotopy equivalence between the complement of a coordinate subspace arrangement and the moment-angle complex defined by the simplicial complex. The moment-angle complex is a certain subset of a unit poly-disk in m-dimensional complex space invariant with respect to the action of an m-dimensional torus. This complex is a smooth manifold provided that the simplicial complex is a simplicial sphere, but otherwise has more complicated structure. Then we investigate the equivariant topology of the moment-angle complex and apply the Eilenberg-Moore spectral sequence. We also relate our results with well known facts in the theory of toric varieties and symplectic geometry.

Abstract:
An n-dimensional polytope P^n is called simple if exactly n codimension-one faces meet at each vertex. The lattice of faces of a simple polytope P^n with m codimension-one faces defines an arrangement of even-dimensional planes in R^{2m}. We construct a free action of the group R^{m-n} on the complement of this arrangement. The corresponding quotient is a smooth manifold Z_P invested with a canonical action of the compact torus T^m with the orbit space P^n. For each smooth projective toric variety M^{2n} defined by a simple polytope P^n with the given lattice of faces there exists a subgroup T^{m-n}\subset T^m acting freely on Z_P such that Z_P/T^{m-n}=M^{2n}. We calculate the cohomology ring of Z_P and show that it is isomorphic to the cohomology ring of the face ring of P^n regarded as a module over the polynomial ring. In this way the cohomology of Z_P acquires a bigraded algebra structure, and the additional grading allows to catch the combinatorial invariants of the polytope. At the same time this gives an example of explicit calculation of the cohomology of the complement of an arrangement of planes, which is of independent interest.

Abstract:
We prove that the integral cohomology algebra of the moment-angle complex Z_K, or of the corresponding coordinate subspace arrangement complement U(K), is isomorphic to the Tor-algebra of the face ring Z[K] of simplicial complex K.

Abstract:
Our aim is to bring the theory of analogous polytopes to bear on the study of quasitoric manifolds, in the context of stably complex manifolds with compatible torus action. By way of application, we give an explicit construction of a quasitoric representative for every complex cobordism class as the quotient of a free torus action on a real quadratic complete intersection. We suggest a systematic description for omnioriented quasitoric manifolds in terms of combinatorial data, and explain the relationship with non-singular projective toric varieties (otherwise known as toric manifolds). By expressing the first and third authors' approach to the representability of cobordism classes in these terms, we simplify and correct two of their original proofs concerning quotient polytopes; the first relates to framed embeddings in the positive cone, and the second involves modifying the operation of connected sum to take account of orientations. Analogous polytopes provide an informative setting for several of the details.