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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 769 matches for " Tara Whitehill "
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Perception of Speech by Individuals with Parkinson's Disease: A Review
Lorinda C. Kwan,Tara L. Whitehill
Parkinson's Disease , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/389767
Abstract: A few clinical reports and empirical studies have suggested a possible deficit in the perception of speech in individuals with Parkinson's disease. In this paper, these studies are reviewed in an attempt to support clinical anecdotal observations by relevant empirical research findings. The combined evidence suggests a possible deficit in patients' perception of their own speech loudness. Other research studies on the perception of speech in this population were reviewed, in a broader scope of the perception of emotional prosody. These studies confirm that Parkinson's disease specifically impairs patients' perception of verbal emotions. However, explanations of the nature and causes of this perceptual deficit are still limited. Future research directions are suggested. 1. Introduction Parkinson’s disease is generally believed to be caused by a loss of dopaminergic cells in the substantia nigra pars compacta of the basal ganglia [1] Reduction of dopamine limits the ability of the basal ganglia to coordinate inhibitory and excitatory neural motor signals in cortical-subcortical circuits. The motor consequences of such malfunction are rigidity, tremor, and dyskinesia. Speech production is also affected by Parkinson’s disease, resulting in hypokinetic dysarthria, which is characterized by monoloudness, monotone, and unclear articulation [2–6]. Approximately 70%–75% of individuals with Parkinson’s disease exhibit speech disorder at some stage of the disease [7, 8]. However, the motor speech disorder does not necessarily correlate with the disease severity [9]. The results of medical, surgical, and deep-brain stimulation treatments of dysarthria in Parkinson’s disease have been variable and generally disappointing [8, 10]. Several studies have suggested that the pathophysiology of speech disorder may be different from limb movement disorders in Parkinson’s disease, including studies employing functional imaging [11, 12], demonstrating a negative correlation between disease severity and impaired speech [13], and showing nonresponsiveness towards levodopa in people with Parkinson’s disease-induced oral festination [14]. However, other studies found mixed results [15, 16]. More studies are needed to explore this area [8]. Recent pathophysiological research studies have added new knowledge to the original dopamine depletion theory. Parkinson’s disease is now seen as a complex neurodegenerative disease. H. Braak and E. Braak [17] suggested a sequence of pathophysiological progression of Parkinson’s disease that affects first the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus
Communication Impairments in Parkinson's Disease
Bruce Murdoch,Tara Whitehill,Miet de Letter,Harrison Jones
Parkinson's Disease , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/234657
Communication Impairments in Parkinson's Disease
Bruce Murdoch,Tara Whitehill,Miet de Letter,Harrison Jones
Parkinson's Disease , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/234657
Effect of LSVT on Lexical Tone in Speakers with Parkinson's Disease
Tara L. Whitehill,Lorinda Kwan,Flora P.-H. Lee,Mia M.-N. Chow
Parkinson's Disease , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/897494
Abstract: Lee Silverman Voice Treatment (LSVT) has well-documented treatment efficacy for individuals with hypokinetic dysarthria associated with Parkinson's disease (PD). Positive changes have been noted after treatment not only for vocal loudness but also for many other speech dimensions, including intonation (monotonicity). There have been few studies investigating the effect of LSVT on lexical tone which, like intonation, is controlled by variations in fundamental frequency. This study involved 12 Cantonese speakers with idiopathic PD who were enrolled in a standard LVST treatment protocol. Speech data were collected 3-4 days before treatment and 1 day after treatment. A wide variety of perceptual and acoustic variables were analyzed. The results showed significant improvements in loudness and intonation after treatment, but no significant changes in lexical tone. These results have theoretical implications for the relationship between tone and intonation and for models of the physiological control of fundamental frequency. 1. Effect of LSVT on Lexical Tone in Speakers with Parkinson’s Disease Lee Silverman Voice Treatment (LSVT), which focuses on increasing vocal loudness, was developed for the treatment of voice and speech impairment in individuals with Parkinson’s disease (PD). The treatment protocol involves intensive treatment delivery (a one-hour session, four days a week for four weeks) and has been fully described elsewhere [1]. LSVT has well-documented treatment efficacy (e.g., [2, 3]). Positive changes have been noted not only for vocal loudness but also for many other speech dimensions, including intonation [1, 2]. Monotonicity, a disruption in intonation, is considered one of the hallmarks of hypokinetic dysarthria [4]. An estimated 60–70% of the world’s languages are tonal [5]; that is, where words of different meaning can be marked by variations in tone alone. Whereas intonation is associated with variation in fundamental frequency at the phrasal level, lexical tone is associated with variation in fundamental frequency at the syllable level. Cantonese (Chinese) has six contrastive tones, which vary according to pitch height and pitch contour [6]. Using the numerical system developed by Chao [7], where the first number represents the beginning level of the tone and the second number indicates the finishing level of the tone, the six lexical tones of Cantonese are 55 (high level), 35 (high rising), 33 (mid level), 21 (low falling), 23 (low rising), and 22 (low level). There have been few studies of hypokinetic dysarthria in speakers of lexical
Understanding ACT-R - an Outsider's Perspective
Jacob Whitehill
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: The ACT-R theory of cognition developed by John Anderson and colleagues endeavors to explain how humans recall chunks of information and how they solve problems. ACT-R also serves as a theoretical basis for "cognitive tutors", i.e., automatic tutoring systems that help students learn mathematics, computer programming, and other subjects. The official ACT-R definition is distributed across a large body of literature spanning many articles and monographs, and hence it is difficult for an "outsider" to learn the most important aspects of the theory. This paper aims to provide a tutorial to the core components of the ACT-R theory.
Exploiting an Oracle that Reports AUC Scores in Machine Learning Contests
Jacob Whitehill
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: In machine learning contests such as the ImageNet Large Scale Visual Recognition Challenge and the KDD Cup, contestants can submit candidate solutions and receive from an oracle (typically the organizers of the competition) the accuracy of their guesses compared to the ground-truth labels. One of the most commonly used accuracy metrics for binary classification tasks is the Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristics Curve (AUC). In this paper we provide proofs-of-concept of how knowledge of the AUC of a set of guesses can be used, in two different kinds of attacks, to improve the accuracy of those guesses. On the other hand, we also demonstrate the intractability of one kind of AUC exploit by proving that the number of possible binary labelings of $n$ examples for which a candidate solution obtains a AUC score of $c$ grows exponentially in $n$, for every $c\in (0,1)$.
Discriminately Decreasing Discriminability with Learned Image Filters
Jacob Whitehill,Javier Movellan
Computer Science , 2011,
Abstract: In machine learning and computer vision, input images are often filtered to increase data discriminability. In some situations, however, one may wish to purposely decrease discriminability of one classification task (a "distractor" task), while simultaneously preserving information relevant to another (the task-of-interest): For example, it may be important to mask the identity of persons contained in face images before submitting them to a crowdsourcing site (e.g., Mechanical Turk) when labeling them for certain facial attributes. Another example is inter-dataset generalization: when training on a dataset with a particular covariance structure among multiple attributes, it may be useful to suppress one attribute while preserving another so that a trained classifier does not learn spurious correlations between attributes. In this paper we present an algorithm that finds optimal filters to give high discriminability to one task while simultaneously giving low discriminability to a distractor task. We present results showing the effectiveness of the proposed technique on both simulated data and natural face images.
Vozes do Camboja: formas locais de responsabiliza??o por atrocidades sistemáticas
Urs, Tara;
Sur. Revista Internacional de Direitos Humanos , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S1806-64452007000200004
Abstract: this article seeks to defend three propositions. first, the extraordinary chambers in the courts of cambodia (informally known as the khmer rouge trials) is unlikely to achieve any of the primary goals put forward by its proponents. second, the court runs the risk of doing harm. third, it becomes apparent that other culturally-specific processes have a greater chance at making a long-term impact and satisfying victims.
The environmental feasibility of algae biodiesel production
Tara Shirvani
Applied Petrochemical Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1007/s13203-012-0015-5
Abstract: Microalgae can grow in waste or seawater, have vastly superior biomass yields per hectare and, most importantly, the CO2 removed from the atmosphere during photosynthetic growth of the plant offsets CO2 released during fuel combustion. Algae-based fuel products are more promising than first-generation biofuels, as they exclude land use and food security issues, but require a mass production breakthrough to be viable. Through a life cycle approach, we evaluate whether algal biodiesel production can be a viable fuel source once the energy and carbon intensity of the process are managed accordingly. Currently, algae biodiesel production is 2.5 times as energy intensive as conventional diesel. Biodiesel from advanced biomass can only realize its inherent environmental advantages of GHG emissions reduction once every step of the production chain is fully optimized and decarbonized. In the case of Saudi Arabia which operates on a 100 % fossil-based electricity and heat grid, the inherent environmental advantages of producing algae biodiesel would be heavily overshadowed by the nation’s carbon-intensive energy and power sector.
Beautiful Death: the Nineteenth-Century Fascination with Antigone
Tara Beaney
Opticon1826 , 2009, DOI: 10.5334/opt.070902
Abstract: This article investigates the reception of Sophocles’ Antigone in early nineteenth-century Germany, a period in which interest in ancient Greek tragedy flourished, with Antigone being particularly prominent. The essay considers two influential figures of the period who regarded the work highly: the philosopher G.W.F. Hegel (1770-1831) and the poet Friedrich H lderlin (1770- 1843). In discussing their attitudes towards Antigone, the article raises the long-standing philosophical problem of how tragic representations of suffering and death, such as Antigone’s self-sacrifice, can arouse aesthetic pleasure and fascination. To address this problem, a sociohistorical approach is taken, exploring how the topos of female death may have appealed to the imagination of these important thinkers. The story of Antigone has a peculiar persistence. Since Sophocles wrote the tragedy nearly two and a half thousand years ago, it has been repeatedly translated, adapted and interpreted, retaining its potential to captivate new audiences and readers. This phenomenon itself has attracted a wealth of critical studies, notably George Steiner’s Antigones (1984). Moreover, as any survey of critical interest in Antigone reveals, the story has been discussed in a wide range of discourses, from philosophy to politics to psychoanalysis and, more recently, feminism. In this article, my focus is on an intriguing confluence within the play, namely that of tragic death and femininity. I consider the reception of Antigone in Germany around the 1800s, when the tragedy was particularly popular, and I ask the question: to what extent was the fascination with this tragedy a fascination with Antigone’s death?
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