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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 208872 matches for " Tara L. LaRowe "
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Development of a Culturally Appropriate, Home-Based Nutrition and Physical Activity Curriculum for Wisconsin American Indian Families
Tara L. LaRowe, PhD,Deborah P. Wubben, MD, MPH,Kate A. Cronin, MPH,SuAnne M. Vannatter, RN, BSN
Preventing Chronic Disease , 2007,
Abstract: We designed an obesity prevention intervention for American Indian families called Healthy Children, Strong Families using a participatory approach involving three Wisconsin tribes. Healthy Children, Strong Families promotes healthy eating and physical activity for preschool children and their caregivers while respecting each community’s cultural and structural framework. Academic researchers, tribal wellness staff, and American Indian community mentors participated in development of the Healthy Children, Strong Families educational curriculum. The curriculum is based on social cognitive and family systems theories as well as on community eating and activity patterns with adaptation to American Indian cultural values. The curricular materials, which were delivered through a home-based mentoring model, have been successfully received and are being modified so that they can be tailored to individual family needs. The curriculum can serve as a nutrition and physical activity model for health educators that can be adapted for other American Indian preschool children and their families or as a model for development of a culturally specific curriculum.
Virtual Reality and Special Needs
Tara L. Jeffs
Themes in Science and Technology Education , 2009,
Abstract: The use of virtual environments for special needs is as diverse as the field of Special Educationitself and the individuals it serves. Individuals with special needs often face challenges withattention, language, spatial abilities, memory, higher reasoning and knowledge acquisition.Research in the use of Virtual Learning Environments (VLE) targets both cognition and behavior(Rizzo, et.al, 2001). Virtual environments encourage interactive learning and provide avariety of opportunities for the learner to have control over the learning process (Pantelidis,1993). Virtual reality technology is an exciting tool that involves a safe and supportive environmentto transfer knowledge between virtual and real worlds. Through such technology,individuals with special needs can look carefully at their own strengths, abilities, and learningpreferences in comparison to the required learning task and expected learning outcome. Thisarticle reviews relevant research that explores the use of virtual reality for individuals withspecial needs.
The Relationship of the Sapstreak Fungus, Ceratocystis virescens, to Sugar Maple Dieback and Decay in Northern Michigan  [PDF]
Tara L. Bal, Dana L. Richter, Andrew J. Storer, Martin F. Jurgensen
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2013.42A056
Abstract:

Unusually high levels of dieback have recently been reported in sugar maple, Acer saccharum Marsh., in Upper Michigan, and a network of plots was established to determine the extent and factors associated with the dieback. A possible contributor to this dieback is sapstreak disease caused by Ceratocystis virescens (Davidson) Moreau. Unhealthy trees with considerable crown dieback were evaluated across the western Upper Peninsula, MI to determine the prevalence of the sapstreak fungus using a minimally destructive sampling technique. Approximately 8% of 90 trees sampled were sapstreak positive and approximately 10% of trees were positive at one site that had recently been harvested. While the high levels of maple dieback present in these forests appear not to be directly caused by widespread sapstreak disease, the occurrence of sapstreak may be significantly impacting trees at some locations. However, even when present on a low number of trees, the biointeraction of sapstreak and decay rates from other fungi could be important for future tree mortality and value to the forest industry. Therefore, the effect of two sapstreak fungal isolates on the amount of decay caused by two common maple white rot fungi, Trametes versicolor (L.:Fr.) Pilat. And Irpex lacteus (Fr.:Fr.) Fr. was tested in the laboratory. Sugar maple wood blocks were precolonized by two native isolates of C. virescens followed by inoculation and incubation with decay fungi. Mean percent weight loss of blocks by white rot

Perception of Speech by Individuals with Parkinson's Disease: A Review
Lorinda C. Kwan,Tara L. Whitehill
Parkinson's Disease , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/389767
Abstract: A few clinical reports and empirical studies have suggested a possible deficit in the perception of speech in individuals with Parkinson's disease. In this paper, these studies are reviewed in an attempt to support clinical anecdotal observations by relevant empirical research findings. The combined evidence suggests a possible deficit in patients' perception of their own speech loudness. Other research studies on the perception of speech in this population were reviewed, in a broader scope of the perception of emotional prosody. These studies confirm that Parkinson's disease specifically impairs patients' perception of verbal emotions. However, explanations of the nature and causes of this perceptual deficit are still limited. Future research directions are suggested. 1. Introduction Parkinson’s disease is generally believed to be caused by a loss of dopaminergic cells in the substantia nigra pars compacta of the basal ganglia [1] Reduction of dopamine limits the ability of the basal ganglia to coordinate inhibitory and excitatory neural motor signals in cortical-subcortical circuits. The motor consequences of such malfunction are rigidity, tremor, and dyskinesia. Speech production is also affected by Parkinson’s disease, resulting in hypokinetic dysarthria, which is characterized by monoloudness, monotone, and unclear articulation [2–6]. Approximately 70%–75% of individuals with Parkinson’s disease exhibit speech disorder at some stage of the disease [7, 8]. However, the motor speech disorder does not necessarily correlate with the disease severity [9]. The results of medical, surgical, and deep-brain stimulation treatments of dysarthria in Parkinson’s disease have been variable and generally disappointing [8, 10]. Several studies have suggested that the pathophysiology of speech disorder may be different from limb movement disorders in Parkinson’s disease, including studies employing functional imaging [11, 12], demonstrating a negative correlation between disease severity and impaired speech [13], and showing nonresponsiveness towards levodopa in people with Parkinson’s disease-induced oral festination [14]. However, other studies found mixed results [15, 16]. More studies are needed to explore this area [8]. Recent pathophysiological research studies have added new knowledge to the original dopamine depletion theory. Parkinson’s disease is now seen as a complex neurodegenerative disease. H. Braak and E. Braak [17] suggested a sequence of pathophysiological progression of Parkinson’s disease that affects first the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus
Sex-specific mouse liver gene expression: genome-wide analysis of developmental changes from pre-pubertal period to young adulthood
Tara L Conforto, David J Waxman
Biology of Sex Differences , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/2042-6410-3-9
Abstract: Microarray analysis of male and female mouse liver was carried out at 3, 4, and 8 wk of age to elucidate developmental changes in gene expression from the late postnatal/pre-pubertal period to young adulthood.A large number of sex-biased and sex-independent genes showed significant changes during this developmental period. Notably, sex-independent genes involved in cell cycle, chromosome condensation, and DNA replication were down regulated from 3 wk to 8 wk, while genes associated with metal ion binding, ion transport and kinase activity were up regulated. A majority of genes showing sex differential expression in adult liver did not display sex differences prior to puberty, at which time extensive changes in sex-specific gene expression were seen, primarily in males. Thus, in male liver, 76% of male-specific genes were up regulated and 47% of female-specific genes were down regulated from 3 to 8 wk of age, whereas in female liver 67% of sex-specific genes showed no significant change in expression. In both sexes, genes up regulated from 3 to 8 wk were significantly enriched (p < E-76) in the set of genes positively regulated by the liver transcription factor HNF4α, as determined in a liver-specific HNF4α knockout mouse model, while genes down regulated during this developmental period showed significant enrichment (p < E-65) for negative regulation by HNF4α. Significant enrichment of the developmentally regulated genes in the set of genes subject to positive and negative regulation by pituitary hormone was also observed. Five sex-specific transcriptional regulators showed sex-specific expression at 4 wk (male-specific Ihh; female-specific Cdx4, Cux2, Tox, and Trim24) and may contribute to the developmental changes that lead to global acquisition of liver sex-specificity by 8 wk of age.Overall, the observed changes in gene expression during postnatal liver development reflect the deceleration of liver growth and the induction of specialized liver functions, with wi
Acute Myeloid Leukemia: Focus on Novel Therapeutic Strategies
Tara L. Lin and M. Yair Levy
Clinical Medicine Insights: Oncology , 2012, DOI: 10.4137/CMO.S7244
Abstract: Abstract: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous disease with variable clinical outcomes. Cytogenetic analysis reveals which patients may have favorable risk disease, but 5-year survival in this category is only approximately 60%, with intermediate and poor risk groups faring far worse. Advances in our understanding of the biology of leukemia pathogenesis and prognosis have not been matched with clinical improvements. Unsatisfactory outcomes persist for the majority of patients with AML, particularly the elderly. Novel agents and treatment approaches are needed in the induction, post-remission and relapsed settings. The additions of clofarabine for relapsed or refractory disease and the hypomethylating agents represent recent advances. Clinical trials of FLT3 inhibitors have yielded disappointing results to date, with ongoing collaborations attempting to identify the optimal role for these agents. Potential leukemia stem cell targeted therapies and treatments in the setting of minimal residual disease are also under investigation. In this review, we will discuss recent advances in AML treatment and novel therapeutic strategies.
Acute Myeloid Leukemia: Focus on Novel Therapeutic Strategies
Tara L. Lin,M. Yair Levy
Clinical Medicine Insights: Oncology , 2012,
Abstract:
A Gatekeeper Chaperone Complex Directs Translocator Secretion during Type Three Secretion
Tara L. Archuleta,Benjamin W. Spiller
PLOS Pathogens , 2014, DOI: doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1004498
Abstract: Many Gram-negative bacteria use Type Three Secretion Systems (T3SS) to deliver effector proteins into host cells. These protein delivery machines are composed of cytosolic components that recognize substrates and generate the force needed for translocation, the secretion conduit, formed by a needle complex and associated membrane spanning basal body, and translocators that form the pore in the target cell. A defined order of secretion in which needle component proteins are secreted first, followed by translocators, and finally effectors, is necessary for this system to be effective. While the secreted effectors vary significantly between organisms, the ~20 individual protein components that form the T3SS are conserved in many pathogenic bacteria. One such conserved protein, referred to as either a plug or gatekeeper, is necessary to prevent unregulated effector release and to allow efficient translocator secretion. The mechanism by which translocator secretion is promoted while effector release is inhibited by gatekeepers is unknown. We present the structure of the Chlamydial gatekeeper, CopN, bound to a translocator-specific chaperone. The structure identifies a previously unknown interface between gatekeepers and translocator chaperones and reveals that in the gatekeeper-chaperone complex the canonical translocator-binding groove is free to bind translocators. Structure-based mutagenesis of the homologous complex in Shigella reveals that the gatekeeper-chaperone-translocator complex is essential for translocator secretion and for the ordered secretion of translocators prior to effectors.
Weight perceptions of parents with children at risk for diabetes
Eva M Vivian, Tara L Becker, Aaron L Carrel
BMC Research Notes , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-5-47
Abstract: Thirty eight children, ages 8-16 years who were enrolled in a diabetes prevention study were surveyed to assess their perception of their weight. Nearly all (84%) of the children were obese. When asked whether they considered themselves to be overweight, African-American children were less likely to report that they were overweight than other children (33% vs. 80% of other children, p = 0.01). The parents of these children (n = 29) were also surveyed to assess their perception of their child's weight. The parents of two-thirds (65%) of the children reported that the child was overweight, while the rest reported their child was underweight or the right weight. African-American parents were less likely to report that their child's weight was unhealthy compared to other parents (46% vs. 77%, p = 0.069).This study's findings indicate that future intervention efforts should assess children's and parents' awareness of obesity and diabetes risk and these factors should be considered when developing prevention interventions for families with youth at risk for diabetes in underserved communities.It is now estimated that nearly one out of every six overweight youth has pre-diabetes [1]. Overweight adolescents with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are at risk of developing heart disease and other diabetes related complications before the age of 35. The burden of diabetes falls disproportionally on ethnic minority youth, particularly Native Americans, Hispanic/Latino Americans, and African Americans [2-4]. For example, nearly 50% of African American children born in the United States in 2000 are expected to develop diabetes in their lifetime [5]. These alarming figures, combined with the increasing representation of ethnic minorities in our country will result in enormous personal, societal, and economic costs for many decades. Strategies to address this problem are needed immediately, as prevention of diabetes is far preferable to treatment.Recently research related to childhoo
The HyVac4 Subunit Vaccine Efficiently Boosts BCG-Primed Anti-Mycobacterial Protective Immunity
Rolf Billeskov, Tara T. Elvang, Peter L. Andersen, Jes Dietrich
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0039909
Abstract: Background The current vaccine against tuberculosis (TB), BCG, has failed to control TB worldwide and the protective efficacy is moreover limited to 10–15 years. A vaccine that could efficiently boost a BCG-induced immune response and thus prolong protective immunity would therefore have a significant impact on the global TB-burden. Methods/Findings In the present study we show that the fusion protein HyVac4 (H4), consisting of the mycobacterial antigens Ag85B and TB10.4, given in the adjuvant IC31? or DDA/MPL effectively boosted and prolonged immunity induced by BCG, leading to improved protection against infection with virulent M. tuberculosis (M.tb). Increased protection correlated with an increased percentage of TB10.4 specific IFNγ/TNFα/IL-2 or TNFα/IL-2 producing CD4 T cells at the site of infection. Moreover, this vaccine strategy did not compromise the use of ESAT-6 as an accurate correlate of disease development/vaccine efficacy. Indeed both CD4 and CD8 ESAT-6 specific T cells showed significant correlation with bacterial levels. Conclusions/Significance H4-IC31? can efficiently boost BCG-primed immunity leading to an increased protective anti-M.tb immune response dominated by IFNγ/TNFα/IL-2 or TNFα/IL2 producing CD4 T cells. H4 in the CD4 T cell inducing adjuvant IC31? is presently in clinical trials.
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