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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 6970 matches for " Tania Rahman "
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Heavy Metals, Metalloids, Their Toxic Effect and Living Systems  [PDF]
Ferdous Seraj, Tania Rahman
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2018.913191
Abstract: Pollution of the biosphere by heavy metals is a global hazard that has accelerated since the beginning of the industrial revolution. Toxic heavy metals are harmful to living organisms even at low concentrations whereas heavy metals that are essential trace elements are required by plants at low concentrations but can become toxic at high concentrations. Heavy metals released from different sources accumulate in soil and, where bioavailability is high enough; can adversely affect soil biological functioning and other properties, leading to the loss of soil and ecosystem fertility and health. It is important that heavy metal contaminated sites are remediated as heavy metals do not decompose into less harmful substances like organic contaminants, and thus are retained in the soil. In this review, we survey and analysis our current knowledge and understanding of the abundance of heavy metals in soil, their phytoavailability, their toxicity, their uptake and transport, role of rhizobia and other microbes and overall rhizosphere processes.
Available Approaches of Remediation and Stabilisation of Metal Contamination in Soil: A Review  [PDF]
Tania Rahman, Md. Ferdous Seraj
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2018.910148
Abstract: Anthropogenic activities, such as mining of natural resources, manufac-turing industries, modern agricultural practices and energy production have resulted in the release of heavy metals with resultant harmful im-pacts in some natural environments. Toxic heavy metals are harmful to living organisms even at low concentrations. Therefore, heavy metal contaminated sites should be remediated as heavy metals do not decompose into less harmful substances and are retained in the soil. Conventional methods are used for remediation of heavy metal contaminated soils such as heavy metal extraction, immobilization and removal of soils to landfill produce large quantities of toxic products including insoluble hydroxides and are rarely cost effective. The advent of bioremediation technologies like biosparging, bioventing and bioaugmentation has provided an alternative to conventional methods for remediating heavy metal contaminated soils. A subset of bacteria found in the rhizosphere has been found to increase the tolerance of plants to heavy metals in soil. These bacteria commonly known as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria or Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) are showing promise as a bioremediation technique for the stabilisation and remediation of heavy metal contami-nated sites. PGPR can improve plant growth via a variety of mechanism including fixing atmospheric N to improve N status and making plants more tolerant of heavy metals. Scattered literature is harnessed to review the principles, advantages and disadvantages of the available technologies for remediating heavy metal contaminated soils and is presented.
Dissecting Emerging Aspects of Regulatory Circuitry in Man and Mice: Regulatory T Cell Biology  [PDF]
Tania Rahman, Md. Ferdous Seraj, Annelise Casellato
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2018.99031
Abstract: Regulatory T cells (Treg), a component of adaptive immunity, are well known for their immunosuppressive roles and their ability to maintain the balance between the immunological and pathological reactions. Treg have been shown to provide protective responses and their depletion has resulted severe pathology in some pathogen infections. The work presented here has unravelled the potential of regulatory cells in the immune system including different repertoir of Treg cell subsets, markers to distinguish them, Treg suppression mechanisms in the pathogenesis of various infections and summarize different mouse models depleting Tregs. These findings would help set up future avenues of research to elucidate a key mechanism of action of these cells and provide new therapeutic insights for pathogenesis and also for broader antibacterial/antiviral/antiproliferative immunity.
Unravelling the Functions of Regulatory T Cells during Infection  [PDF]
Tania Rahman, Md Ferdous Seraj, Annelise Casellato
Open Journal of Medical Microbiology (OJMM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojmm.2018.84011
Abstract: Accumulating evidences have suggested that Treg have an active role in the regulation of immunity to infection. Treg suppress not only autoimmune responses but also other immune responses for instance, during acute infections, against commensal microbes in inflammatory diseases or during chronic illness. Treg have been shown to limit exacerbated inflammation to avoid collateral tissue damage. Treg are also suggested to provide early protective responses in some viral infections as the permitting timely entry of effector cells in infected tissue. Furthermore, Treg have been shown to contribute to form memory pool after resolution of infection. In this review, we survey and analysis our current knowledge and relative dynamics of Treg in a wide range of infection settings and elaborate the examples in which these cells are of critical importance in conferring tolerance, suppressing pathogenesis, inducing protection and optimizing immunity to eliminate infection.
Lessons from Vibrio Pathogen and the Comparative Study of Vaccines Developed  [PDF]
Tania Rahman, Md Ferdous Seraj, Silvia Buroni
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2018.812064
Abstract: Cholera continues to be one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality among children and adults in developing countries. Vaccine against cholera is an approach in the control of this epidemic and pandemic disease. From the development of very early oral cholera vaccine, advances in vaccine development documented due to a good illustration of the epidemiology, outbreak strategy, and pathophysiology of the disease causing pathogen. The newer-generation oral cholera vaccines are safe and guarantee a high level of protection during outbreak settings for several years. Yet infants and young children in developing countries are hyporesponsive to vaccines and show poor protection against cholera. In this review, we survey and analyse our current knowledge on the etiology of cholera, its clinical manifestation, global epidemiology and elaborate the vaccine candidates, which are effective against the pathogen and the corresponding immune responses to the available vaccines. These reviews comprehensively cover the salient features of recent discoveries related to Vibrio cholerae virulence, past and present vaccine candidates and their advantages and disadvantages with their development strategies. We believe that the advances that have been included in this review will give a comprehensive insight to the prevention and control of cholera outbreaks and development of effective cholera vaccines.
Citrobacter rodentium, a Gut Pathogen: The Yin and the Yang of Its Pathophysiology, Immunity and Clinical Manifestation in Mice  [PDF]
Tania Rahman, Md. Ferdous Seraj, Md. Monirul Islam
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2018.89047
Abstract: Pathogenic strains of E. coli including enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) are principle causes for diarrhoea in many parts of the globe. Citrobacter rodentium (C. rodentium), a gram negative bacterium, is a murine pathogen that also utilizes type III secretion system and similar virulence factors to EPEC and EHEC and forms comparable attaching/effacing lesions in the intestines as EPEC and EHEC. The infection caused by C. rodentium in mice is usually self-limiting and results in only minor systemic effects with higher mortality in some susceptible mouse strains. All these characteristics have made the bacteria a commonly used model to study host immune responses to pathogenic E. coli infection. In this review, we focus on the impact of virulence factors of the pathogen; different immune components involved in the immune response and summarize their role during C. rodentium infection.
Dopamine-β-Hydroxylase (DBH), Its Cofactors and Other Biochemical Parameters in the Serum of Neurological Patients in Bangladesh
Khalilur Rahman,Farhana Rahman,Tania Rahman,Takeshi Kato
International Journal of Biomedical Science , 2009,
Abstract: Dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DBH) is a neurotransmitter synthesizing enzyme which catalyzes the formation of norepinephrine from dopamine. In this study, we measured the level of DBH activity in the serum of patients of three different age groups (8-14 yrs, 20-40 yrs and 45-60 yrs) suffering from neurological diseases. Serum DBH activity was measured in 38 neurological patients and 38 normal individuals in order to determine significant variables for its potential use to diagnose the neurological patients. It was found that the DBH activity decreased in the patients of all age groups. A considerable decrease in activity was observed in the patients of 8-14 yrs age group (14.2 nmoles/min/ml in patients compared to the normal value of 22.6). A significant decrease in activity was found in the 20-40 yrs age group (23.4 nmoles/min/ml in patients compared to the normal value of 33.0). The decrease in DBH activity was also found in the patients of 45-60 yrs age group but to a lesser extent (26.4 nmoles/min/ml in the patients compared to the normal value of 30.2).The kinetic studies of DBH exhibited an increase of Km value and a decrease in Vmax in the neurological patients. Serum copper and ascorbic acid levels (cofactors of DBH) were found to be decreased in neurological patients and hence are in agreement with the decrease in DBH activity in these patients. Other parameters such as glucose and cholesterol levels increased, protein and zinc levels decreased and ALT, AST, creatinine and urea content remained nearly unchanged in the patients’ serum.
Downregulation of the DST Transcription Factor Using Artificial microRNA to Increase Yield, Salt and Drought Tolerance in Rice  [PDF]
Ar-Rafi Md. Faisal, Sudip Biswas, Tasnim Zerin, Tania Rahman, Zeba Islam Seraj
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2017.89149
Abstract: Abiotic stresses like salinity and drought directly affect plant growth and water availability, resulting in lower yield in rice. So, a combination of stress tolerance along with enhanced grain yield is a major focus of rice breeding. It was reported earlier that loss in function of the drought and salt tolerance (DST) gene results in increase in grain production through downregulating Gn1a/OsCKX2 expression. Moreover, dst mutants also showed enhanced drought and salt tolerance in rice by regulating genes involved in ROS homeostasis. In the present study, we proceeded to test these reports by downregulating DST using artificial microRNA technology in the commercial but salt sensitive, high-yielding, BRRIdhan 28 (BR28). This cultivar was transformed with DST_artificial microRNA (DST_amiRNA) driven by the constitutive CaMV35S promoter using tissue culture independent Agrobacterium mediated in planta transformation. DST_amiRNA transgenic plants were confirmed by artificial microRNA specific PCR. Transformed plants at T0 generation showed vigorous growth with significantly longer panicle length and higher primary branching resulting in higher yield, compared to the wild type (WT) BR28. Semi-quantitative RT PCR confirmed the
Preparation of Micron-Sized Di-Functional Magnetic Composite Polymer Particles  [PDF]
Hasan Ahmad, Tania Tofaz, Mohammad Wali Ullah Oli, Mohammad Abdur Rahman, Mohammad Abdul Jalil Miah, Klaus Tauer
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2010.13019
Abstract: In this investigation micron-sized monodisperse magnetic composite polymer particles with amino and amide functional groups were prepared considering their applications in biotechnology. First, polystyrene/poly (acrylic acid-acrylam- ide-N-N-methylene-bis-acrylamide) [PS/P(AA-AAm-MBAAm)] composite polymer particles were prepared by seeded copolymerization. The carboxyl groups present on or near the particles surface were modified by amine-nucleophile, ethylene diamine (EDA), through pre-activation with dicyclohexyl carbodiimide as coupling agent. The aminated particles were then magnetically modified and named as aminated-Fe3O4 composite particles. Formation of such magnetic composite particles was confirmed by scanning electron micrographs, FTIR-spectra and magnetic susceptibility measurement. The produced composite particles were paramagnetic. To see the relative hydrophilic character of the particles surface the adsorption behavior of trypsin (TR) as biomolecule was studied on PS particles and aminated-Fe3O4 composite particles. The magnitude of adsorbed TR on PS particles was higher than that on aminated-Fe3O4 composite particles.
Yersinia enterocolitica: Epidemiological Studies and Outbreaks
Atiqur Rahman,Tania S. Bonny,Siriporn Stonsaovapak,Chiraporn Ananchaipattana
Journal of Pathogens , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/239391
Abstract: Yersinia enterocolitica is the most common bacteriological cause of gastrointestinal disease in many developed and developing countries. Although contaminated food is the main source of human infection due to Y. enterocolitica, animal reservoir and contaminated environment are also considered as other possible infection sources for human in epidemiological studies. Molecular based epidemiological studies are found to be more efficient in investigating the occurrence of human pathogenic Y. enterocolitica in natural samples, in addition to conventional culture based studies. 1. Introduction Foodborne diseases are a widespread and growing public health problem in developed and developing countries [1]. Amongst those, yersiniosis due to infection with the bacterium Yersinia enterocolitica is the frequently reported zoonotic gastrointestinal disease after campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis in many developed countries, especially in temperate zones [2]. Within developed countries, incidences of yersiniosis and foodborne outbreaks are appeared to be lower in the United States than many European countries [3–5]. In European countries, numbers of reported cases of human in England and Wales are lower than those in other European countries where fewer than 0.1 cases of yersiniosis per 100,000 individuals were reported in the United Kingdom in 2005, in contrast to 12.2 in Finland and 6.8 in Germany [6]. On the other hand, the high prevalence of gastrointestinal illness including fatal cases due to yersiniosis is also observed in many developing countries like Bangladesh [7], Iraq [8], Iran [9], and Nigeria [10], which indicates major underlying food safety problems in low- and middle-income countries. Worldwide, infection with Y. enterocolitica occurs most often in infants and young children with common symptoms like fever, abdominal pain, and diarrhea, which is often bloody. Older children and young adults are not out of risk. The predominant symptoms within these age groups are right-sided abdominal pain and fever, sometimes confused with appendicitis. Occasionally, the Y. enterocolitica associated complications such as skin rash, joint pains, or spread of bacteria to the bloodstream can also occur. Although Y. enterocolitica is a ubiquitous microorganism, the majority of isolates recovered from asymptomatic carriers, infected animals, contaminated food, untreated water, and contaminated environmental samples are nonpathogenic having no clinical importance [11]. At the same time, the epidemiology of Y. enterocolitica infections is complex and remains poorly
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