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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 404390 matches for " Tania M. Lincoln "
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The Effect of an Educating versus Normalizing Approach on Treatment Motivation in Patients Presenting with Delusions: An Experimental Investigation with Analogue Patients
Eva Lüllmann,Tania M. Lincoln
Schizophrenia Research and Treatment , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/261587
Abstract: Until recently a widespread recommendation for clinicians was not to respond to the content of patients' delusions but to stress at an early time point that the patient has a mental illness (educating approach). An opposed recommendation is to validate the patients’ symptoms and normalize them (normalizing approach). This study used an experimental design to compare the impact of these two approaches on treatment motivation (TM). A cover story about a person who develops persecutory delusions was used to guide a sample of 81 healthy participants who served as analogue patients into imagining experiencing delusions. This was followed by a random assignment to either an educating or a normalizing consultation with a fictive clinician. Consultations only differed in content. Finally, we assessed the participants' motivation to accept medication (Medication TM), psychological treatment (Psychological TM), and treatment offered by this particular clinician independent of the kind of treatment (Clinician-related TM). Participants in the normalizing condition showed higher Clinician-related and Psychological TM than those in the educating condition. Medication TM was unaffected by condition. Following our results using a normalizing approach seems to be advisable in a first-contact situation with patients with delusions and favourable to a simple educating approach. 1. Introduction Communication with the patient is a central feature of mental health treatment. In treating delusions, the question of what constitutes a “good communication style” is controversial. There seems to be a considerable gap between patients’ and clinicians’ perspectives of good communication in the consultation. Many patients actively attempt to talk about their delusional beliefs [1] and expect the clinician to listen and respond to their problems [2]. This expectation stands in contrast to clinical practice. Through analysing conversations in routine psychiatrist-patient consultations, McCabe et al. [1] found that psychiatrists avoid responding to the patients’ concerns and rather evade their questions. Van Meer [3] confirmed that many psychiatrists were traditionally trained not to respond to delusional beliefs. Although today the idea of discussing the content of patients’ beliefs is somewhat more widespread, many clinicians still fear that responding to delusional beliefs in an empathic manner or discussing them will make them worse [4]. Consequently, clinicians try to communicate that the delusional belief is a symptom of a mental disorder. This so-called “doctor-knows-best”
Jumping to Conclusions Is Associated with Paranoia but Not General Suspiciousness: A Comparison of Two Versions of the Probabilistic Reasoning Paradigm
Steffen Moritz,Niels Van Quaquebeke,Tania M. Lincoln
Schizophrenia Research and Treatment , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/384039
Abstract: Theoretical models ascribe jumping to conclusions (JTCs) a prominent role in the pathogenesis of paranoia. While many earlier studies corroborated this account, some newer investigations have found no or only small associations of the JTC bias with paranoid symptoms. The present study examined whether these inconsistencies in part reflect methodological differences across studies. The study was built upon the psychometric high-risk paradigm. A total of 1899 subjects from the general population took part in an online survey and were administered the Paranoia Checklist as well as one of two different variants of the probabilistic reasoning task: one variant with a traditional instruction (a) and one novel variant that combines probability estimates with decision judgments (b). Factor analysis of the Paranoia Checklist yielded an unspecific suspiciousness factor and a psychotic paranoia factor. The latter was significantly associated with scores indicating hasty decision making. Subjects scoring two standard deviations above the mean of the Paranoia Checklist showed an abnormal data-gathering style relative to subjects with normal scores. Findings suggest that the so-called decision threshold parameter is more sensitive than the conventional JTC index. For future research the specific contents of paranoid beliefs deserve more consideration in the investigation of decision making in schizophrenia as JTC seems to be associated with core psychosis-prone features of paranoia only.
Jumping to Conclusions Is Associated with Paranoia but Not General Suspiciousness: A Comparison of Two Versions of the Probabilistic Reasoning Paradigm
Steffen Moritz,Niels Van Quaquebeke,Tania M. Lincoln
Schizophrenia Research and Treatment , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/384039
Abstract: Theoretical models ascribe jumping to conclusions (JTCs) a prominent role in the pathogenesis of paranoia. While many earlier studies corroborated this account, some newer investigations have found no or only small associations of the JTC bias with paranoid symptoms. The present study examined whether these inconsistencies in part reflect methodological differences across studies. The study was built upon the psychometric high-risk paradigm. A total of 1899 subjects from the general population took part in an online survey and were administered the Paranoia Checklist as well as one of two different variants of the probabilistic reasoning task: one variant with a traditional instruction (a) and one novel variant that combines probability estimates with decision judgments (b). Factor analysis of the Paranoia Checklist yielded an unspecific suspiciousness factor and a psychotic paranoia factor. The latter was significantly associated with scores indicating hasty decision making. Subjects scoring two standard deviations above the mean of the Paranoia Checklist showed an abnormal data-gathering style relative to subjects with normal scores. Findings suggest that the so-called decision threshold parameter is more sensitive than the conventional JTC index. For future research the specific contents of paranoid beliefs deserve more consideration in the investigation of decision making in schizophrenia as JTC seems to be associated with core psychosis-prone features of paranoia only. 1. Introduction Research on neuropsychological dysfunctions in schizophrenia (e.g., memory and executive dysfunction) has been increasingly extended by studies on cognitive biases [1–3]. Cognitive biases represent preferences, subtle distortions, and styles of information processing rather than neural deficits or mere inaccuracy [1]. An emerging literature has elucidated that persons with delusions tend to jump to conclusions [3, 4], are over-confident in their incorrect decisions [5–9], and show attributional biases [10–12], for example, a preference for monocausal inferences [13], and a bias against disconfirmatory evidence [14–18]. Some of these biases have been found to correlate with positive symptoms (i.e., delusions and hallucinations), which according to many clinicians represent the core of the disorder. Cognitive training programs such as the Social Cognition and Interaction Training (SCIT) [19, 20], the Maudsley Review Training Program [21] or the Metacognitive Training for Psychosis (MCT) [22, 23] have begun to translate these insights into practice: patients learn to
Can We Trust the Internet to Measure Psychotic Symptoms?
Steffen Moritz,Niels Van Quaquebeke,Tania M. Lincoln,Ulf K?ther,Christina Andreou
Schizophrenia Research and Treatment , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/457010
Abstract: Online studies are increasingly utilized in applied research. However, lack of external diagnostic verification in many of these investigations is seen as a threat to the reliability of the data. The present study examined the robustness of internet studies on psychosis against simulation. We compared the psychometric properties of the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences scale (CAPE), a self-report instrument measuring psychotic symptoms, across three independent samples: (1) participants with a confirmed diagnosis of schizophrenia, (2) participants with self-reported schizophrenia who were recruited over the internet, and (3) clinical experts on schizophrenia as well as students who were asked to simulate a person with schizophrenia when completing the CAPE. The CAPE was complemented by a newly developed 4-item psychosis lie scale. Results demonstrate that experts asked to simulate schizophrenia symptoms could be distinguished from real patients: simulators overreported positive symptoms and showed elevated scores on the psychosis lie scale. The present study suggests that simulated answers in online studies on psychosis can be distinguished from authentic responses. Researchers conducting clinical online studies are advised to adopt a number of methodological precautions and to compare the psychometric properties of online studies to established clinical indices to assert the validity of their results. 1. Introduction Traditionally, psychological assessments administered by an interviewer are preferred over nonpersonal assessments such as questionnaires. Face-to-face (FTF) assessment may in some cases unveil hidden symptoms and/or partly compensate for a lack of reliable information provided by a patient alone [1]. To illustrate, a patient with psychosis may deny hearing voices upon direct questioning but at the same time be observed talking to voices without overt source. This may persuade the clinician to discard the patient's response and suspect the presence of auditory hallucinations. On the other hand, research assessing the correspondence between self- and observer ratings indicates that self-report of psychotic symptoms is more reliable than commonly thought. Studies have generally found satisfactory associations between self- and observer-based ratings for overall pathology [2], negative symptoms [3], and positive symptoms [4–8]. Despite the aforementioned merits, clinical assessment is not without weaknesses. The presence of an assessor may induce important biases [9, 10], especially underreporting, that are often smaller with
Histiocitoma fibroso benigno profundo: achados na tomografia computadorizada e histologia
Farage, Luciano;Castro, Mário Augusto Padula;Macedo, Túlio Augusto Alves;Salom?o, Eliana Chaves;Machado, Tania Alcantara;Souza, Lincoln Pereira de;Freitas, Luiz de Oliveira;
Radiologia Brasileira , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-39842005000200012
Abstract: we present the computed tomography images of an 83-year-old male patient with a deep benign fibrous histiocytoma at the lateral aspect of the left leg. computed tomography images showed a well-defined mass with marked peripheral enhancement by iodinated contrast medium. only few reports of this rare soft tissue tumor can be found in the literature.
Spirituality in a secular age: From Charles Taylor to study of the Bible and spirituality
AT Lincoln
Acta Theologica , 2011,
Abstract: This essay proposes that those engaged in the study of the Bible in relation to spirituality would benefit from awareness of Charles Taylor’s thinking in A Secular Age, which is a narrative not only about the emergence of the secular but also about the role of the spiritual in Western civilization. The essay indicates the significance of Taylor’s work for understanding the present context of the experience of spirituality. It then suggests some possible implications for how biblical perspectives on spirituality might be studied, highlighting Taylor’s category of the social imaginary. Finally, it reflects on the potential of Taylor’s work for those who are interested in dialogue between a spirituality rooted in biblical perspectives and contemporary forms of spirituality, focusing on his notion of “fullness.”
One dimensional nearest neighbor exclusion processes in inhomogeneous and random environments
Lincoln Chayes,Thomas M. Liggett
Mathematics , 2007, DOI: 10.1007/s10955-007-9397-7
Abstract: The processes described in the title always have reversible stationary distributions. In this paper, we give sufficient conditions for the existence of, and for the nonexistence of, nonreversible stationary distributions. In the case of an i.i.d. environment, these combine to give a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of nonreversible stationary distributions.
Evaluation of Acute Chromium (III) Toxicity in Relation to Daphnia Similis  [PDF]
Petr Melnikov, Tania C. M. de Freitas
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2011.32015
Abstract: Acute chromium (III) toxicity in relation to Daphnia similis, most appropriate for Brazilian environment has been evaluated. The preliminary toxicity test showed that the median effective concentration was 10 mg/l. After having performed the final test, the immobility percentage was calculated for each concentration in relation to the total number of the used organisms within the chosen pH range. It was shown that the proposed methodology rendered realistic results and the 48-h CE50 value under the test conditions is 3.24 mg/l. The minimum concentration that did not show any toxicity to Daphnia similis was 2.5 mg of chromium (III) per liter. The obtained level is superior to the maximum limit recommended by the Brazilian norms, 0.5 mg/l.
Out of equilibrium dynamics with Matrix Product States
M. L. Wall,Lincoln D. Carr
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1088/1367-2630/14/12/125015
Abstract: Theoretical understanding of strongly correlated systems in one spatial dimension (1D) has been greatly advanced by the density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG) algorithm, which is a variational approach using a class of entanglement-restricted states called Matrix Product States (MPSs). However, DRMG suffers from inherent accuracy restrictions when multiple states are involved due to multi-state targeting and also the approximate representation of the Hamiltonian and other operators. By formulating the variational approach of DMRG explicitly for MPSs one can avoid errors inherent in the multi-state targeting approach. Furthermore, by using the Matrix Product Operator (MPO) formalism, one can exactly represent the Hamiltonian and other operators. The MPO approach allows 1D Hamiltonians to be templated using a small set of finite state automaton rules without reference to the particular microscopic degrees of freedom. We present two algorithms which take advantage of these properties: eMPS to find excited states of 1D Hamiltonians and tMPS for the time evolution of a generic time-dependent 1D Hamiltonian. We properly account for time-ordering of the propagator such that the error does not depend on the rate of change of the Hamiltonian. Our algorithms use only the MPO form of the Hamiltonian, and so are applicable to microscopic degrees of freedom of any variety, and do not require Hamiltonian-specialized implementation. We benchmark our algorithms with a case study of the Ising model, where the critical point is located using entanglement measures. We then study the dynamics of this model under a time-dependent quench of the transverse field through the critical point. Finally, we present studies of a dipolar, or long-range Ising model, again using entanglement measures to find the critical point and study the dynamics of a time-dependent quench through the critical point.
Some Characteristics and Impacts of the Drought and Water Crisis in Southeastern Brazil during 2014 and 2015  [PDF]
Carlos A. Nobre, Jose A. Marengo, Marcelo E. Seluchi, L. Adriana Cuartas, Lincoln M. Alves
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2016.82022
Abstract: Since the austral summer of 2014 southeastern Brazil has been experiencing one of the most severe droughts in decades. This rainfall deficiency has generated water shortages and a water crisis that have affected population and local economies in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, the largest megacity in South America. By January 2015, main reservoirs had reached storage levels of only 5% of their 1.3 billion m3 capacity. The meteorological causes of the drought situation were linked to changes in the regional circulation, characterized by a mid-troposphere blocking high that lasted 45 days during the summer of 2014 over southeastern Brazil, something not seen in five decades. The water crisis was aggravated by a combination of lack of rainfall and higher temperatures, the summer of 2014 being the warmest and driest over the Cantareira reservoir system since 1951. Increasing population and water consumption increased vulnerability in the region, and while human-induced warming may not have generated the atmospheric conditions behind the 2014 and 2015 summer droughts in Southeast Brazil, it is more likely that the warm temperatures have affected the severity of the drought and exacerbated the impacts on the population.
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