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Objective Assessment of Skin Tightening Using Multisource, Phase-Controlled Radiofrequency in Asians  [PDF]
Yohei Tanaka
Journal of Cosmetics, Dermatological Sciences and Applications (JCDSA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jcdsa.2013.31016
Abstract:

Background: Radiofrequency has been proven to penetrate deeper than optical light sources independent of skin color allowing a safer treatment for the Asian skin type. Many studies have indicated the efficacy of various types of devices, but have not included a sufficient objective evaluation. Multisource radiofrequency uses multiple phase controlled radiofrequency generators with real time impedance control, allowing painless, deeper dermal heating with better adaptation to differences in individual skin impedance. In this study we used three-dimensional imaging for the objective evaluation of facial skin tightening by multisource phase-controlled radiofrequency. Methods: Twenty Japanese patients were treated with a multisource phase-controlled radiofrequency device. Three-dimensional imaging was performed with a Canfield Scientific Vectra camera and software, and quantitative volume measurements were taken to evaluate the change in the post-treatment volume. The patients then provided subjective assessments. Results: Objective assessments of the treated cheek volume evaluated by a three-dimensional color schematic representation with quantitative volume measurements showed significant improvement three months after the final treatment. The mean volume reduction at the last post-treatment visit was 3.878 ± 2.86 mL. The post-treatment volume was significantly reduced compared to the pretreatment volume in all of the volunteers (P = 0.0007). Ninety-five percent of volunteers reported satisfaction with the improvement of skin laxity, and ninety percent of volunteers reported satisfaction with the improvement of wrinkles, such as the nasolabial folds. Conclusions: The advantages of these multisource phase-controlled radiofrequency treatments are its high efficacy for skin tightening associated with minimal level of discomfort, minimal side effects, and low cost. Taken together,

Matrix Isolation and Computational Study on the Photolysis of CHCl2COCl  [PDF]
Nobuaki Tanaka
Open Journal of Physical Chemistry (OJPC) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojpc.2014.43014
Abstract:

UV light photolysis of dichloroacetyl chloride (CHCl2COCl) has been investigated by infrared spectroscopy in cryogenic Ar, Kr, Xe, and O2 matrices. The formation of CHCl3 and CO was found to be the dominant process over the ketene formation. The C-C bond cleaved products CHCl2 and COCl were also observed. As the number of the chlorine atom substitution to methyl group of acetyl chloride increased, the C-C bond cleaved product yield in the triplet state increased, which can be attributed to an internal heavy-atom effect where the intersystem crossing rate was enhanced.

A Short Derivation of the Kuhn-Tucker Conditions  [PDF]
Yoshihiro Tanaka
Open Journal of Optimization (OJOp) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojop.2015.42006
Abstract: The Kuhn-Tucker conditions have been used to derive many significant results in economics. However, thus far, their derivation has been a little bit troublesome. The author directly derives the Kuhn-Tucker conditions by applying a corollary of Farkas’s lemma under the Mangasarian-Fromovitz constraint qualification and shows the boundedness of Lagrange multipliers.
Cross Correlation of Intra-day Stock Prices in Comparison to Random Matrix Theory  [PDF]
Mieko Tanaka-Yamawaki
Intelligent Information Management (IIM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/iim.2011.33008
Abstract: We propose and apply a new algorithm of principal component analysis which is suitable for a large sized, highly random time series data, such as a set of stock prices in a stock market. This algorithm utilizes the fact that the major part of the time series is random, and compare the eigenvalue spectrum of cross correlation matrix of a large set of random time series, to the spectrum derived by the random matrix theory (RMT) at the limit of large dimension (the number of independent time series) and long enough length of time series. We test this algorithm on the real tick data of American stocks at different years between 1994 and 2002 and show that the extracted principal components indeed reflects the change of leading stock sectors during this period.
Characteristics of Unsteady Boundary Layer Induced by the Compression Wave Propagating in a Tunnel  [PDF]
Toshiyuki Tanaka, Toshiyuki Aoki
Open Journal of Fluid Dynamics (OJFD) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojfd.2012.24A030
Abstract:

A compression wave is generated ahead of a high-speed train, while entering a tunnel. This compression wave propa- gates to the tunnel exit and spouts out as a micro pressure wave, causing an exploding sound. In order to estimate the magnitude correctly, the mechanism of the attenuation and distortion of a compression wave propagating along a tunnel must be understood and experimental information on these phenomena is required. An experimental and numerical in- vestigation is carried out to clarify the mechanism of the propagating compression wave in a tube. The final objective of our study is to understand the mechanism of the attenuation and distortion of propagating compression waves in a tun- nel. In the present paper, experimental investigations are carried out on the transition of the unsteady boundary layer induced by a propagating compression wave in a model tunnel by means of a developed laser differential interferometry technique.

Density Functional Theory Studies on the Addition and Abstraction Reactions of OH Radical with Benzoate Anion  [PDF]
Nobuaki Tanaka, Shigeo Itoh
Open Journal of Physical Chemistry (OJPC) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpc.2013.31002
Abstract:

The addition and abstraction reactions of OH radical with benzoate anion are investigated by density functional theory calculations that include solvent effects using UB3LYP, UCAM-B3LYP, UmPW1PW91 and UM06-2X functionals with the 6-311++G(2d,2p) basis set. Geometry optimizations of the reactants, products and transition state species are performed for the possible reaction paths. For the addition reactions, those targeting the ipso-, ortho-, meta- and para-carbons are predicted to be exoergic. The H-atom abstraction reactions from ortho, meta and para positions are also predicted to be exoergic. On the basis of the rate constants calculated by means of the transition state theory, the H-atom abstraction reaction from the ortho position is determined to be the favored path followed by the ortho OH addition reaction.

In-Situ Monitoring of Chemical Vapor Deposition from Trichlorosilane Gas and Monomethylsilane Gas Using Langasite Crystal Microbalance  [PDF]
Hitoshi Habuka, Yurie Tanaka
Journal of Surface Engineered Materials and Advanced Technology (JSEMAT) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jsemat.2013.31A009
Abstract:

Using the langasite crystal microbalance (LCM), the trends in film thickness produced by means of the chemical vapor deposition using trichlorosilane gas, monomethylsilane gas and their mixed gas were observed at 600?C and evaluated by comparison with the information from a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The crystalline silicon film thickness from trichlorosilane gas was comparable to that of an amorphous silicon carbide film from monomethylsilane gas. The film obtained from the gas mixture was amorphous and was the thinnest in this study. Because the thickness trend obtained by the LCM agreed with that by the TEM, the LCM is shown to be a convenient evaluation tool for the behavior of various film deposition.

Effect of thermal therapy using hot water bottles on brain natriuretic peptide in chronic hemodialysis patients  [PDF]
Yoko Uchiyama-Tanaka
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.52034
Abstract:

Introduction: The use of repeated thermal therapy for improving the symptoms of chronic heart failure (CHF) has been recently demonstrated. Usually, thermal therapy requires an infrared dry sauna. However, it is difficult for small clinics to acquire such an expensive and extensive system. The author assessed the efficacy of its substitution with hot water bottles. Moreover, there are no prior studies demonstrating the efficacy of thermal therapy in hemodialysis patients with chronic heart failure. Methods: The author evaluated plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels in 98 hemodialysis patients in a clinic. A total of nine patients whose BNP levels were more than 500 pg/mL agreed to be enrolled in this study and received thermal therapy using hot water bottles. Results: Plasma BNP levels, a potential marker for CHF, tended to decrease (891 ± 448 pg/mL to 680 ± 339 pg/mL), but the difference was not significant (P = 0.0845). The oral temperature changed from 36.44± 0.45to 37.04± 0.48 (+0.597, P < 0.0001). No side effects were experienced during the therapy. Moreover, most patients had an improvement in their symptoms and the ability to perform activities of daily living. Conclusion: Thermal therapy using hot water bottles is very safe and tends to reduce plasma BNP levels in hemodialysis patients with CHF.

Beneficial Applications and Deleterious Effects of Near-Infrared from Biological and Medical Perspectives  [PDF]
Yohei Tanaka, Lisa Gale
Optics and Photonics Journal (OPJ) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/opj.2013.34A006
Abstract:

Over half of solar energy consists of near-infrared and a wide range of preventative mechanisms have been evolutionarily maintained in organisms to protect against effects of near-infrared. However, the biological effects of near-infrared have not been investigated in detail. Despite the essential requirement of a water-filter to imitate solar near-infrared filtered by atmospheric water, previous studies used near-infrared resources without a water-filter or a cooling system. With these methods, near-infrared energy is primarily absorbed in the superficial tissues, thus these approaches are unable to sufficiently evaluate the biological effects of solar near-infrared that reaches human tissue. We have elucidated that near-infrared (1100 - 1800 nm together with a water-filter that excludes wavelengths 1400 - 1500 nm) non-thermally affects the skin into the deeper tissues. The biological effects of near-infrared have both beneficial applications and deleterious effects. Near-infrared induces collagen and elastin stimulation, which achieves skin rejuvenation and skin tightening, and induces long-lasting vasodilation that may prevent vasospasm and be beneficial for ischemic disorders. Near-infrared also relaxes and weakens dystonic and hypertrophic muscles to reduce wrinkles and myalgia. Nearinfrared is an essential tool in cancer detection and imaging, and induces drastic non-thermal DNA damage of mitotic cells, which may be beneficial

Effect of Surface Texturing on Lubricating Condition under Point Contact Using Numerical Analysis  [PDF]
Yuji Ohue, Hideki Tanaka
Engineering (ENG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2013.54050
Abstract:

The contact fatigue life of machine elements is affected by pitting, wear and so on, under heavier loading conditions. Increasing the fatigue life requires mainly the improvements of lubricating condition, operating condition and materials. In order to improve the lubricating condition, it is necessary to investigate the relation of the microscopic surface texturing and the contact modes of machine elements. In this paper, thus, the pressure and oil film thickness of the contact between sphere and the plate with 5 kinds surface texturing were calculated using a commercial software based on Reynolds equation. There was sufficient evidence to suggest that the dimple shape was the optimum texturing to increase the lubricating condition.

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