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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1661 matches for " Tamara; "
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World Demand as a Determinant of Immiserizing Growth  [PDF]
Tamara Todorova
iBusiness (IB) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/ib.2010.23033
Abstract: Theoretically economic growth could have negative effects over the growing economy when production expands for products the world demand for which is inelastic. If growth occurs in sectors and for products the world demand for which is elastic it could be expected that total revenues to domestic producers and exporters increase. Our goal is to prove that growth would be immiserizing only for products for which world demand is inelastic and expansion leads to a sizable worsening of the terms of trade. We show that there are few such commodities, namely food products and natural resources such as oil. Studying econometrically the demand function for Brazilian coffee as an example, we compare our estimation of the elasticity of demand for Brazil’s exports of green coffee with other research on the world elasticity of demand for green coffee. We conclude that for manufactured products the demand for which is highly elastic it is unlikely that exporting countries fall into immiserization, therefore, growth and further participation in global trade turn out to be quite beneficial. Our conclusion is that too much emphasis is put in economic theory and trade policy on the concept of immiserizing growth which is more of a theoretical possibility than a real-life problem.
The Economic Dynamics of Inflation and Unemployment  [PDF]
Tamara Todorova
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2012.22025
Abstract: We study the time path of inflation and unemployment using the Blanchard treatment of the relationship between the two and taking the monetary policy condition into account. We solve the model both in continuous and discrete time and compare the results. The economic dynamics of inflation and unemployment shows that they fluctuate around their intertemporal equilibria, inflation around the growth rate of nominal money supply, respectively, and unemployment around the natural rate of unemployment. However, while the continuous-time case shows uniform and smooth fluctuation for both economic variables, in discrete time their time path is explosive and nonoscillatory. The hysteresis case shows dynamic stability and convergence for inflation and unemployment to their intertemporal equilibria both in discrete and continuous time. When inflation affects unemployment adversely the time paths of the two, both in discrete and continuous time, are dynamically unstable.
Implementation of Creative Education Policy in Russian Higher Education Curricula  [PDF]
Tamara Savelyeva
Creative Education (CE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2014.52014
Abstract:

An ongoing restructuring of Russian higher education prioritizes development of a “creative educational system” as one of its policy directions. Following this recent policy mandate, Russian universities have been introducing new curricular models, which they adopt from the Western academic school of teaching and learning. However, Western-designed curricular novelties and methodologies that support creative education policies have been criticized for lacking success in Russian HE due to key differences in traditional cultures of educational systems. How do faculty facilitate curricular changes in support of the creative education policy? This study addresses this question by exploring the implementation of a specific curricular module in the field of creative education—the Sustainability project in two Russian universities. The resulting descriptive model comprises antecedents, processes, and contents of the project implementation under three broad categories of the university restructuring: organization, environment, and relation. I discuss the findings in terms of the two important characteristics of the resulted curricular implementation model: (1) the culturally sensitive nature of creative education curricular adaptation in post-Soviet higher education, and (2) non-linearity of the curricular education policy enactment in Russian university classrooms.

Positron Emission Tomography-Computed Tomography (PET-CT) in Head and Neck Pathology  [PDF]
Luis A. Tamara, Ines Velez, Claudia Tamara
Open Journal of Radiology (OJRad) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ojrad.2011.11002
Abstract: Cancer of the head and neck is often devastating and the morbidity associated with its treatment is substantial. Positron Emission Tomography-Computed Tomography (PET-CT) combines the power of biological / molecular imaging with the anatomic detail of CT in order to provide a very sensitive and specific imaging tool for the evaluation of head and neck pathology. PET can aid the clinician in establishing diagnosis, staging, (It has been shown to be more accurate than CT), assessing, prognosis and determining response to therapy. Lymphoma, melanoma, multiple myeloma, leukemia, salivary gland tumors, odontogenic carcinomas, soft tissue sarcomas, thyroid, parathyroid, lacrimal gland and bone / cartilage tumors are some of the entities where PET-CT may be useful. (Tumors of salivary glands and of odontogenic tissue are particularly difficult to diagnose due to the relative infrequency when compared with other tumors and the extremely vast histologic variation).It is important to note that carcinoma metastasis, is the most common malignancy found within the mandibular bone. PET-CT and skeletal scintigraphy are both very sensitive and specific in these types of patients.
Optimal Time and Opportunity Cost of Job Search in Low-Income Groups: An Out-of-the-Job Search Model  [PDF]
Tamara Todorova, Veselina Dzharova
Modern Economy (ME) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/me.2010.13022
Abstract: Our paper studies the causes of poverty from the perspective of job search. We show that poor people remain poor because they have less time and initial endowment to search for a better job. Initial endowment is key to successful job search, as one can afford not to work and search longer for a better job. Having an initial endowment, a worker is able to educate or re-qualify himself. Working long hours and obtaining low pay, poor people have little time to look for a better job. Low-paid, low-skilled jobs rarely allow on-the-job search like high-paid positions where with the help of contacts and a lot of idle time professionals seek better jobs. Quitting in order to find a better job increases the opportunity cost of search for poorer people. Since they do not have any accumulated income, they can only live off their salary. With less income and time, poorer people are less likely to get educated since education requires both wealth and free time. But being less educated, they are likely to remain poor as education is a promise for success in contemporary society. Thus, they remain in the vicious circle of poverty. In order to prove this hypothesis we investigate optimal search time for a better job as dependent on factors such as wage rate, individual’s income, education, and skills.
Hydrochemical Peculiarities of Bog Ecosystems in the North-Siberian Lowland  [PDF]
Tamara Efremova, Stanislav Efremov
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2010.27077
Abstract: Surface waters of eutrophic bogs (fens) in the North-Siberian (Taimyr) lowland are characterized by hydrocarbonate, sulfate as well as hydro carbonate-sulfate calcium-magnesium composition. They relate to the type of oxygen waters, mainly, to the class of neutral weakly alkaline and to the family of ultrafresh and fresh waters and to the kind of waters poor with dissolved organic matter. Natural hydrochemical background of bog ecosystems makes in heavy metals in the first approximation: Co–0.16, Pb–0.57, Ni–4.67 and Cu–5.94 mkg/L. In most cases the surface waters are not polluted by heavy metals. Bog waters located in immediate closeness from Norilsk mining and smelting industrial complex are polluted by nickel at mid-level.
Social-Psychological Model of the “Migration Circle”: Potential Emigrants, Migrants,Remigrants  [PDF]
Svetlana Gurieva, Tamara Kinunen
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2014.211023
Abstract: А fundamentally new model of “migration circle” is considered in accordance with modern theo-ries of migration and adaptation. This model is represented in the following basic stages: starting- up (the potential emigrants), the main (directly emigrants), and final (re-emigrants). The benchmark analysis of values and dominant ethnic tendencies of migrants residing at different stages of migration (at the miscellaneous points of the “migration circle”) has revealed the existing of the significant differences in the value preferences’ structure, dominant ethnic tendencies, social and cultural distance. The received data allow forecasting accurate to 72% the emigrants’ success of adaptation to a new social and cultural environment. Accumulating during the investigation scientific theoretical material allows finding solution of many practical problems arising at the threshold of emigration (potential emigrants) either in situations of the return to Motherland (re-emigrants).
Modern Basics Philosophy of Education  [PDF]
Oleg Bazaluk, Tamara Blazhevich
Creative Education (CE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2015.611119
Abstract: In this article, the authors examine the current understanding of the foundations of the philosophy of education. Lately, when speaking about the human development and education, one concretizes that it is about the perfection of mind. At the end of the XX century, the subject of the educational impact was considered as a person, consisting of social and biological entity, but at the beginning of the XXI century the situation changed. Advances in neurosciences (RistoKalervoNäätänen, James Olds, Donald Olding Hebb, Elhonon Goldberg and others) are allowed to concretize the subject of educational impact and distinguish the material organization in a person that really makes him differ from the world of living organisms. We are talking about neural structures that are formed and developed in the human brain and which are not observed (if they are observed in different formats and with different functional manifestations) in the brain of higher animals. We are talking about consistently evolving neural ensembles of subconsciousness and consciousness which perform the corresponding functions: subconscious (unconscious) and conscious. If the consistent development of the structure of the human brain is studied by neurobiology, the development of the functions of this structure is studied by psychology. Methods, ways and means of transmission of socio-cultural heritage from one generation to another are researched by pedagogy. Therefore, the philosophy of education that considers the impact of educational technology, and global educational model should be based on the integration of research in neurobiology, psychology and pedagogy.
The Effectiveness of the Functional Magnetic Stimulation Therapy in Treating Sciatica Syndrome  [PDF]
Tamara Radakovi?, Nikola Radakovi?
Open Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation (OJTR) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojtr.2015.33009
Abstract: Introduction: Degenerative or traumatic causes are most common in generating sciatica syndrome, which is normally treated with well-known physical therapy methods. A relatively new way of treating sciatica problems is so-called functional magnetic stimulation (FMS), whose principle is based on electromagnetic field inducing electrical field inside the body. Electrical field triggers action potential of nerve cells and that way stimulates peripheral motor nerve system. Aim: Aim of this study is to measure and estimate the effectiveness of implementing therapy with functional magnetic stimulation in regular physical treatment of sciatica syndrome. Materials and Methods: 28 male patients aged between 30 and 55 with back problem were recruited on an outpatient basis. FMS therapy was performed with TESLA Stym? device (Iskra Medical d.o.o., Slovenia) treating lumbosacral region equally on both sides of the spine. Physical examination was performed to evaluate tree parameters: the mobility of the lumbar spine in flexion and extension, together with the straight leg raise test (Lasegue sign). We estimated patients’ progress, comparing angle values of mobility from the first examination day with other examination days. Results: In FMS treated group of patients, lumbosacral flexion, extension and Lasegue test angle were significantly higher compared to day 0 on the first physical examination day (day 3) (p < 0.05). In control group such increase of a measured angle was not noticed until a second physical examination day (day 5) or a third physical examination day (day 8) (p < 0.05). Discussion: Results in this study showed that applying FMS therapy along with other standard physical therapy methods rapidly increased effectiveness of the treatment of sciatica syndrome (lat. ischialgia). It suggests that functional magnetic therapy could be suggested as a regular physical therapy method in treating this kind of pain syndromes.
Dominant Factors of the Nature Regulating CO2 Release from Boreal Forest Land  [PDF]
Ryunosuke Kikuchi, Tamara T. Gorbacheva
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2012.32036
Abstract: Temperature is often considered as a primary factor for microbial decomposition of soil organic carbon. Boreal forests are the large terrestrial carbon pool: if carbon stored in this region is transferred to the atmosphere as CO2 by a warming-induced acceleration of its decomposition, there will be positive feedback to global warming. It is reported that real issue regarding the release of carbon from soils to the atmosphere is how natural factors interact to influence decomposition of soil organic matter, so we observed mass losses (indicating decomposition rates) from litter and litterfall in a Northern Fennoscandia forest over 3 years under natural conditions. Our field survey has demonstrated that mass losses from most kinds of sample had moderate correlation with the temperature. Of the various samples, the canopy-gap litter alone had a greater rate (~70%) of mass loss. It is at least necessary to make a clear distinction of monitoring sites (under the canopy and in the canopy gap) when discussing the effect of climate on soil CO2 release from high-latitude forests. Though temperature, soil moisture and soil properties are prioritized in the issue of soil CO2 release, our results suggest that the fungi/bacteria rate and the wind-related mix/fragmentation are also important factors to be considered; however, this speculation is just tentative, and more detail research is called for.
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