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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 210786 matches for " Tamara L. Watson "
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The nature of holistic processing in face and object recognition: current opinions
Tamara L. Watson,Rachel A. Robbins
Frontiers in Psychology , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00003
Biased Saccadic Responses to Emotional Stimuli in Anxiety: An Antisaccade Study
Nigel T. M. Chen, Patrick J. F. Clarke, Tamara L. Watson, Colin MacLeod, Adam J. Guastella
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0086474
Abstract: Research suggests that anxiety is maintained by an attentional bias to threat, and a growing base of evidence suggests that anxiety may additionally be associated with the deficient attentional processing of positive stimuli. The present study sought to examine whether such anxiety-linked attentional biases were associated with either stimulus driven or attentional control mechanisms of attentional selectivity. High and low trait anxious participants completed an emotional variant of an antisaccade task, in which they were required to prosaccade towards, or antisaccade away from a positive, neutral or threat stimulus, while eye movements were recorded. While low anxious participants were found to be slower to saccade in response to positive stimuli, irrespectively of whether a pro- or antisaccade was required, such a bias was absent in high anxious individuals. Analysis of erroneous antisaccades further revealed at trend level, that anxiety was associated with reduced peak velocity in response to threat. The findings suggest that anxiety is associated with the aberrant processing of positive stimuli, and greater compensatory efforts in the inhibition of threat. The findings further highlight the relevance of considering saccade peak velocity in the assessment of anxiety-linked attentional processing.
Mismatch Negativity/P3a Complex in Young People with Psychiatric Disorders: A Cluster Analysis
Manreena Kaur, Jim Lagopoulos, Philip B. Ward, Tamara L. Watson, Sharon L. Naismith, Ian B. Hickie, Daniel F. Hermens
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0051871
Abstract: Background We have recently shown that the event-related potential biomarkers, mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3a, are similarly impaired in young patients with schizophrenia- and affective-spectrum psychoses as well as those with bipolar disorder. A data driven approach may help to further elucidate novel patterns of MMN/P3a amplitudes that characterise distinct subgroups in patients with emerging psychiatric disorders. Methods Eighty seven outpatients (16 to 30 years) were assessed: 19 diagnosed with a depressive disorder; 26 with a bipolar disorder; and 42 with a psychotic disorder. The MMN/P3a complex was elicited using a two-tone passive auditory oddball paradigm with duration deviant tones. Hierarchical cluster analysis utilising frontal, central and temporal neurophysiological variables was conducted. Results Three clusters were determined: the ‘globally impaired’ cluster (n = 53) displayed reduced frontal and temporal MMN as well as reduced central P3a amplitudes; the ‘largest frontal MMN’ cluster (n = 17) were distinguished by increased frontal MMN amplitudes and the ‘largest temporal MMN’ cluster (n = 17) was characterised by increases in temporal MMN only. Notably, 55% of those in the globally impaired cluster were diagnosed with schizophrenia-spectrum disorder, whereas the three patient subgroups were equally represented in the remaining two clusters. The three cluster-groups did not differ in their current symptomatology; however, the globally impaired cluster was the most neuropsychologically impaired, compared with controls. Conclusions These findings suggest that in emerging psychiatric disorders there are distinct MMN/P3a profiles of patient subgroups independent of current symptomatology. Schizophrenia-spectrum patients tended to show the most global impairments in this neurophysiological complex. Two other subgroups of patients were found to have neurophysiological profiles suggestive of quite different neurobiological (and hence, treatment) implications.
Simulations of the OzDES AGN Reverberation Mapping Project
Anthea L. King,Paul Martini,Tamara M. Davis,K. D. Denney,C. S. Kochanek,Bradley M. Peterson,Andreas Skielboe,Marianne Vestergaard,Eric Huff,Darach Watson,Manda Banerji,Richard McMahon,Rob Sharp,C. Lidman
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stv1718
Abstract: As part of the OzDES spectroscopic survey we are carrying out a large scale reverberation mapping study of $\sim$500 quasars over five years in the 30 deg$^2$ area of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) supernova fields. These quasars have redshifts ranging up to 4 and have apparent AB magnitudes between $16.8
Olig1 and Olig2 promotes oligodendrocyte differentiation of neural stem cells in adult mice injured by EAE  [PDF]
Tamara L. Adams, Joseph M. Verdi
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2012.35073
Abstract: Investigating neural stem cell plasticity in the hippo-campal niche, we demonstrate that retroviral forced expression of Mash1 (Mammalian Achaete-Scute Homolog 1), Olig1(Oligodendrocyte transcription factor 1), and Olig2 (Oligodendrocyte transcription factor 2) genes, transcription factors involved in enhanced oligodendrogenesis, can contribute to directing the differentiation of adult subventricular zone neural stem cells to functional oligodendrocytes. We found that Mash1, Olig1 and Olig2 all induced oligodendrocyte differentiation. However, Olig1 and Olig2 induction resulted in an elevated number of generated oligoden-drocytes without a significant production of other cell lineages, unlike Mash1. These newly differentiated cells are also capable of migration and possible myelination, showing that targeting oligodendrocyte production and possible remyelination is a viable therapeutic strategy for restoration of neuronal function.
Measuring sleep in critically ill patients: beware the pitfalls
Paula L Watson
Critical Care , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/cc6094
Abstract: Heralded as the new frontier in critical care medicine, sleep in intensive care unit (ICU) patients is rapidly gaining attention. Researchers now recognize that ICU patients experience poor quality sleep with severely disrupted sleep architecture. The outcomes attributable to poor sleep quality in the ICU are not yet known and are thus the subject of numerous research studies. As in any developing field of investigation, researchers must evaluate the validity and reliability of the methodological tools they employ. The recent article by Bourne and colleagues provides an excellent discussion of the sleep measurement techniques which have been used in the ICU and the problems encountered with each in this specialized setting [1].As many as 61% of ICU patients report sleep deprivation, placing it among the most common stressors experienced during critical illness [2]. Previous studies used polysomnography (PSG) to demonstrate severe sleep fragmentation, a loss of circadian rhythm, and a decrease or absence of both slow wave sleep and rapid eye movement sleep [3-5]. In addition to causing emotional distress, sleep deprivation in the critically ill has been hypothesized to contribute to ICU delirium and neurocognitive dysfunction, prolongation of mechanical ventilation, and decreased immune function [6]. Little progress has been made, however, toward testing these hypotheses due to the difficulty of accurately measuring sleep in this patient population and setting.Polysomnography, the gold standard for sleep measurement, is an invaluable tool for the study of sleep in the ICU. But this expensive, labor intensive test requires trained personnel to interpret, and the dispersion of sleep in critically ill patients throughout both day and night means that PSG must be used around the clock to study sleep in the ICU [4]. The expense and labor required for these studies can be prohibitive such that investigators are exploring alternative sleep measurement techniques.Alternative
Eland browsing of Grewia occidentalis in semi-arid shrubland: the influence of bush clumps
L.H. Watson
Koedoe : African Protected Area Conservation and Science , 1999, DOI: 10.4102/koedoe.v42i1.224
Abstract: Grewia occidentalis plants in the study area generally occurred in bush clumps with other shrub species. Grewia occidentalis commonly occurred with Diospyros austro-africana, Rhus longispina and Rhus pollens (nurse shrubs), but seldom with Acacia kar-roo and Lycium cinereum (non-nurse shrubs). Eland browsed G. occidentalis plants at higher levels than other shrub species, but browsing was not evenly spread across all plants. Grewia occidentalis plants associated with nurse shrubs had lower levels of browsing than those growing alone and those growing with non-nurse shrubs, while G. occidentalis plants in the centre of nurse shrubs experienced the lowest levels of browsing. The latter group of plants also produced the most fruit. Eland browsing is consid-ered an important factor determining the distribution of G. occidentalis plants in the study area, while the presence of nurse shrubs is considered essential for the establishment and maintenance of the G. occidentalis population in the study area.
The cob building technique. Past, present and future
Watson, L.,McCabe, K.
Informes de la Construccion , 2011,
Abstract: Cob, an ancient earth building technique has given rise to hundreds of thousand buildings across Europe for centuries. It has a very distinct appearance of substantial organic walls punctuated with small apertures whose windows and doors are set back to create deep reveals. Traditionally protected by thatched roofs, these vernacular buildings make an important contribution to local identity. Cob buildings still survive and continue to be occupied in many European countries including France, Italy, Germany, Belgium, Czech Republic and England (1). Following a description of the cob technique, this paper will present a brief overview of the history of cob in Devon, a county in South West England. Recent English cob buildings will be introduced with a discussion of the potential of this earth building technique for future architecture. A través de Europa, cientos de miles de edificios han sido construidos por un método de construcción antiguo, el uso del cob. Estos edificios tienen una apariencia característica de muros orgánicos salpicados con peque as aperturas cuyas puertas y ventanas se rehunden para crear profundos relieves. Tradicionalmente protegidos por techos de paja, en estos edificios vernáculos está una parte importante de la identidad local. En muchos países europeos todavía se encuentran edificios hechos de cob, como Francia, Italia, Alemania, Bélgica, República Checa, e Inglaterra (1). Después de una descripción sobre el uso de cob, este artículo presentará una historia breve del uso de cob en Devon, una región en el suroeste de Inglaterra. También introducirá ejemplos de edificios modernos de cob, con una discusión sobre el potencial de usar este método de construcción en proyectos arquitectónicos en el futuro.
Bray,Tamara L.;
Chungará (Arica) , 2004, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-73562004000200010
Abstract: an on-going study of complete inka vessels found in museum collections suggests that the imperial assemblage is not as homogeneous or as evenly distributed throughout the empire as commonly thought. in this paper i compare frequencies, sizes, and stylistic variants of imperial inka pottery from the cuzco heartland region to materials found in the provincial districts of the empire. the significance of the differences and similarities noted between core and provincial assemblages are explored within the context of imperial state politics
Caught Between Cultures: Hmong Parents in America’s Sibling Society
Tamara L. Kaiser
Hmong Studies Journal , 2005,
Abstract: Based on a qualitative study of the Hmong Community in the Twin Cities of Minneapolis and St. Paul, this paper addresses the conflict between the traditionally hierarchical and patriarchal Hmong culture and those aspects of American culture that elevate freedom and equality over, not only patriarchy, but over hierarchy in general. Although this conflict has forced the Hmong community to change in some positive ways, it also creates great challenges for parents and their children. Distorted values of “freedom” and “equality,” promoted by much of American culture, compromise the ability of many Hmong to be effective parents. A comparison of traditional Hmong parenting with what author Robert Bly calls America’s “sibling society” demonstrates that both Hmong and mainstream families and society are hurt by a general rejection of authority and would greatly benefit from recognizing the value of hierarchy based on experience, genuine accomplishment and wisdom.
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