Abstract:
We pose the following conjecture: (*) If A is the union of line segments in R^n, and B is the union of the corresponding full lines then the Hausdorff dimensions of A and B agree. We prove that this conjecture would imply that every Besicovitch set (compact set that contains line segments in every direction) in R^n has Hausdorff dimension at least n-1 and (upper) Minkowski dimension n. We also prove that conjecture (*) holds if the Hausdorff dimension of B is at most 2, so in particular it holds in the plane.

Abstract:
We consider decompositions of the real line into pairwise disjoint Borel pieces so that each piece is closed under addition. How many pieces can there be? We prove among others that the number of pieces is either at most 3 or uncountable, and we show that it is undecidable in $ZFC$ and even in the theory $ZFC + \mathfrak{c} = \omega_2$ if the number of pieces can be uncountable but less than the continuum. We also investigate various versions: what happens if we drop the Borelness requirement, if we replace addition by multiplication, if the pieces are subgroups, if we partition $(0,\infty)$, and so on.

Abstract:
R.D.Mauldin asked if every translation invariant $\sigma$-finite Borel measure on $\RR^d$ is a constant multiple of Lebesgue measure. The aim of this paper is to show that the answer is "yes and no", since surprisingly the answer depends on what we mean by Borel measure and by constant. We present Mauldin's proof of what he called a folklore result, stating that if the measure is only defined for Borel sets then the answer is affirmative. Then we show that if the measure is defined on a $\sigma$-algebra \emph{containing} the Borel sets then the answer is negative. However, if we allow the multiplicative constant to be infinity, then the answer is affirmative in this case as well. Moreover, our construction also shows that an isometry invariant $\sigma$-finite Borel measure (in the wider sense) on $\RR^d$ can be non-$\sigma$-finite when we restrict it to the Borel sets.

Abstract:
We show that the set of Liouville numbers is either null or non-$\sigma$-finite with respect to every translation invariant Borel measure on $\RR$, in particular, with respect to every Hausdorff measure $\iH^g$ with gauge function $g$. This answers a question of D. Mauldin. We also show that some other simply defined Borel sets like non-normal or some Besicovitch-Eggleston numbers, as well as all Borel subgroups of $\RR$ that are not $F_\sigma$ possess the above property. We prove that, apart from some trivial cases, the Borel class, Hausdorff or packing dimension of a Borel set with no such measure on it can be arbitrary.

Abstract:
Let K be a self-similar or self-affine set in R^d, let \mu be a self-similar or self-affine measure on it, and let G be the group of affine maps, similitudes, isometries or translations of R^d. Under various assumptions (such as separation conditions or we assume that the transformations are small perturbations or that K is a so called Sierpinski sponge) we prove theorems of the following types, which are closely related to each other; Non-stability: There exists a constant c<1 such that for every g\in G we have either \mu(K\cap g(K)) 0 \iff int_K (K\cap g(K)) is nonempty (where int_K is interior relative to K). Extension: The measure \mu has a G-invariant extension to R^d. Moreover, in many situations we characterize those g's for which \mu(K\cap g(K) > 0, and we also get results about those $g$'s for which $g(K)\su K$ or $g(K)\supset K$ holds.

Abstract:
We prove that a compact metric space (or more generally an analytic subset of a complete separable metric space) of Hausdorff dimension bigger than $k$ can be always mapped onto a $k$-dimensional cube by a Lipschitz map. We also show that this does not hold for arbitrary separable metric spaces. As an application we essentially answer a question of Urba\'nski by showing that the transfinite Hausdorff dimension (introduced by him) of an analytic subset $A$ of a complete separable metric space is the integer part of $\dim_H A$ if $\dim_H A$ is finite but not an integer, $\dim_H A$ or $\dim_H A-1$ if $\dim_H A$ is an integer and at least $\omega_0$ if $\dim_H A=\infty$.

Abstract:
Let us say that an element of a given family $\A$ of subsets of $\R^d$ can be reconstructed using $n$ test sets if there exist $T_1,...,T_n \subset \R^d$ such that whenever $A,B\in \A$ and the Lebesgue measures of $A \cap T_i$ and $B \cap T_i$ agree for each $i=1,...,n$ then $A=B$. Our goal will be to find the least such $n$. We prove that if $\A$ consists of the translates of a fixed reasonably nice subset of $\R^d$ then this minimum is $n=d$. In order to obtain this result we reconstruct a translate of a fixed function using $d$ test sets as well, and also prove that under rather mild conditions the measure function $f_{K,\theta} (r) = \la^{d-1} (K \cap \{x \in \RR^d : = r\})$ of the sections of $K$ is absolutely continuous for almost every direction $\theta$. These proofs are based on techniques of harmonic analysis. We also show that if $\A$ consists of the magnified copies $rE+t$ $(r\ge 1, t\in\R^d)$ of a fixed reasonably nice set $E\subset \R^d$, where $d\ge 2$, then $d+1$ test sets reconstruct an element of $\A$. This fails in $\R$: we prove that an interval, and even an interval of length at least 1 cannot be reconstructed using 2 test sets. Finally, using randomly constructed test sets, we prove that an element of a reasonably nice $k$-dimensional family of geometric objects can be reconstructed using $2k+1$ test sets. A example from algebraic topology shows that $2k+1$ is sharp in general.

Abstract:
We study the relationship between the sizes of two sets $B, S\subset\mathbb{R}^2$ when $B$ contains either the whole boundary, or the four vertices, of a square with axes-parallel sides and center in every point of $S$, where size refers to one of cardinality, Hausdorff dimension, packing dimension, or upper or lower box dimension. Perhaps surprinsingly, the results vary depending on the notion of size under consideration. For example, we construct a compact set $B$ of Hausdorff dimension $1$ which contains the boundary of an axes-parallel square with center in every point $[0,1]^2$, but prove that such a $B$ must have packing and lower box dimension at least $\tfrac{7}{4}$, and show by example that this is sharp. For more general sets of centers, the answers for packing and box counting dimensions also differ. These problems are inspired by the analogous problems for circles that were investigated by Bourgain, Marstrand and Wolff, among others.

Abstract:
We study parametrized families of orthogonal projections for which the dimension of the parameter space is strictly less than that of the Grassmann manifold. We answer the natural question of how much the Hausdorff dimension may decrease by verifying the best possible lower bound for the dimension of almost all projections of a finite measure. We also show that a similar result is valid for smooth families of maps from $n$-dimensional Euclidean space to $m$-dimensional one.

Abstract:
We give an affirmative answer to a question of K. Ciesielski by showing that the composition $f\circ g$ of two derivatives $f,g:[0,1]\to[0,1]$ always has a fixed point. Using Maximoff's Theorem we obtain that the composition of two $[0,1]\to[0,1]$ Darboux Baire-1 functions must also have a fixed point.