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A study of visual and musculoskeletal health disorders among computer professionals in NCR Delhi
Talwar Richa,Kapoor Rohit,Puri Karan,Bansal Kapil
Indian Journal of Community Medicine , 2009,
Abstract: Objective: To study the prevalence of health disorders among computer professionals and its association with working environment conditions. Study design: Cross sectional. Materials and Methods: A sample size of 200 computer professionals, from Delhi and NCR which included software developers, call centre workers, and data entry workers. Result: The prevalence of visual problems in the study group was 76% (152/200), and musculoskeletal problems were reported by 76.5% (153/200). It was found that there was a gradual increase in visual complaints as the number of hours spent for working on computers daily increased and the same relation was found to be true for musculoskeletal problems as well. Visual problems were less in persons using antiglare screen, and those with adequate lighting in the room. Musculoskeletal problems were found to be significantly lesser among those using cushioned chairs and soft keypad. Conclusion: A significant proportion of the computer professionals were found to be having health problems and this denotes that the occupational health of the people working in the computer field needs to be emphasized as a field of concern in occupational health.
A study of job satisfaction and work environment perception among doctors in a tertiary hospital in Delhi
Kaur Suminder,Sharma Rahul,Talwar Richa,Verma Anita
Indian Journal of Medical Sciences , 2009,
Abstract: Background : Many doctors are dissatisfied with their jobs, which is due to long working hours and overwork. This can affect patient care and reduce quality of care. Objectives : To study job satisfaction among doctors in a tertiary hospital in Delhi and the various factors related with it. Materials and Methods: Data collection was done among 250 doctors on tenure-based job, selected by stratified random sampling, in a teaching hospital in Delhi, by using a self-administered questionnaire. Statistical Analysis : Proportions and Chi-square tests. Results : The mean number of work-hours among doctors was 9.7 ± 2.7 hours per day, and the mean number of night shifts was 5.6 per month. About half (49.6%) of the doctors were dissatisfied with the average number of work-hours per day. Dissatisfaction was significantly more in those who had an average of> 8 work-hours per day and who had ≥8 night shifts per month. About half (45.6%) of the doctors considered their salary as ′bad,′ and this was significantly more among unmarried doctors, interns and those who had ≥8 night shifts per month. More than half (55.2%) of the doctors were dissatisfied with their choice of profession, i.e., being a doctor, as compared to other professions. Conclusions : A significant proportion of doctors were found to be dissatisfied with the average number of their work-hours and salary. Factors like the average number of work-hours per day and the number of night shifts per month were found to have a significant relation with dissatisfaction. Further studies are needed to explore how best the work-hours of doctors could be adjusted to improve their job satisfaction.
Psychosocial Determinants of Tobacco Use among School Going Adolescents in Delhi, India
Varun Kumar,Richa Talwar,Neelam Roy,Deepak Raut,Saudan Singh
Journal of Addiction , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/170941
Abstract: Background. Tobacco use is one of the major preventable causes of premature death and disease in the world. Many psychosocial factors were found to influence tobacco use. Therefore the present study was designed to determine the role of psychosocial factors associated with tobacco use among school going adolescents in Delhi, India. Methods. Cross-sectional study was conducted from February 2013 to September 2013 in four government schools in South district of Delhi, India. The questionnaire contains questions adapted from GYTS (Global Youth Tobacco Survey) to find the prevalence and pattern of tobacco use among adolescents. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 21. Results. The prevalence of ever and current tobacco use was found in 16.4% and 13.1%. Current smoking and current tobacco chewing were found in 10.2% and 9.4% students, respectively. The risk of current tobacco use was found to be higher among males ( value = 0.000) and in those who got higher pocket money ( value = 0.000). Psychosocial factors like lower general self-efficacy and maladjustments with peers, teachers, and schools were also found to be significant predictors of current tobacco use. Conclusion. The study has revealed higher prevalence of ever and current tobacco use among adolescent students in Delhi, India. 1. Introduction Tobacco use is one of the major preventable causes of premature death and disease in the world [1]. A disproportionate share of the global tobacco burden falls on developing countries, where 84% of 1.3 billion current smokers reside. Nearly 70% of the world’s smokers live in low and middle-income countries [2]. The World Health Organization (WHO) attributes approximately 5 million deaths a year to tobacco. The number is expected to exceed 10 million deaths by 2020, with approximately 70% of these deaths occurring in developing countries [3]. India is the second largest consumer of tobacco in the world. The tobacco situation in India is unique because of a vast spectrum of tobacco products available for smoking as well as smokeless use. The early age of initiation underscores the urgent need to intervene and protect this vulnerable group from falling prey to this addiction. In India alone, nearly 1 in 10 adolescents in the age group 13–15?yr have ever smoked cigarettes and almost half of these report initiating tobacco use before 10?yr of age. Addiction to tobacco and harmful nontobacco products by youth is assuming alarming proportion in India [4]. Recent studies have found that tobacco use is increasing among school children in India and a sizeable
Genital Ulcer Disease: How Worrisome Is It Today? A Status Report from New Delhi, India
Sumathi Muralidhar,Richa Talwar,Deepa Anil Kumar,Joginder Kumar,Manju Bala,Nilofar Khan,V. Ramesh
Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/203636
Abstract: Background and Objectives. Genital ulcer diseases represent a diagnostic dilemma, especially in India, where few STI clinics have access to reliable laboratory facility. The changing STI trends require that a correct diagnosis be made in order to institute appropriate treatment and formulate control policies. The objective of this study was to determine recent trends in aetiology of genital ulcers, by using accurate diagnostic tools. Methods. Specimens from 90 ulcer patients were processed for dark field microscopy, stained smears, culture for H. ducreyi, and real-time PCR. Blood samples were collected for serological tests. Results. Prevalence of GUD was 7.45 with mean age at initial sexual experience as 19.2 years. Use of condom with regular and nonregular partners was 19.5% and 42.1%, respectively. Sexual orientation was heterosexual (92.2%) or homosexual (2.2%). There were 8 cases positive for HIV (8.9%). Herpes simplex virus ulcers were the commonest, followed by syphilis and chancroid. There were no cases of donovanosis and LGV. Conclusions. A valuable contribution of this study was in validating clinical and syndromic diagnoses of genital ulcers with an accurate aetiological diagnosis. Such reliable data will aid treatment and better define control measures of common agents and help eliminate diseases amenable to elimination, like donovanosis. 1. Introduction Genital ulcer diseases (GUDs) often represent a diagnostic dilemma, especially in developing countries, like India, where few sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics have access to reliable laboratory facility. The changing trends in STIs make it imperative that a correct diagnosis be made in order to institute appropriate treatment and formulate policies for control. The annual global incidence of GUD exceeds 20 million cases [1]. In 1960s and 1970s, bacterial GUDs were the commonest. By 1980s, with the advent of HIV, the viral GUDs took over [2]. Thus, over time the trends in microorganisms causing GUD have undergone considerable change across the developed world, with bacterial aetiologies giving way to viral causes. Genital herpes has become the most common STD among clinic attendees [3] and the leading cause of genital ulcers worldwide [4]. For viral GUDs, prevention and counseling are more important rather than early diagnosis and treatment, as is the case with bacterial GUDs [2]. Often, in GUDs, it is seen that more than one aetiological agent may be found, if careful evaluation is conducted [5]. An accurate diagnosis of a GUD is often not possible when based solely on history
Investigation on Temperature Sensing of Nanostructured Zinc Oxide Synthesized via Oxalate Route  [PDF]
Richa Srivastava
Journal of Sensor Technology (JST) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jst.2012.21002
Abstract: A detailed study is reported of the synthesis and characterization of n- type ZnO nanomaterial and its application as temperature sensor. The ZnO nanomaterial has been synthesized through pyrolysis of the oxalate produced by a conventional precipitation method. It is synthesized by flash heating the oxalate at 450°C for 15 min. Pellet of this material was prepared and used as a sensing element. The variations in resistance of sensing pellet at different temperatures were recorded. The relative resistance was decreased linearly with increasing temperatures over the range, 120°C - 260°C. The activation energy of ZnO calculated from Arrhenius plot was found 1.12 eV. Temperature response in terms of the relative variation, ΔR, of sensor resistance to a given temperature was measured. Scanning electron micrograph of the sensing element has been studied. Pellet of the ZnO is comprised of nanorods of varying diameters and different lengths. Diameter of ZnO nanorods varies from 75 to 300 nm. X-ray diffraction pattern of the sensing element reveal their nano-crystalline nature. Optical characterization of the sensing material was carried out by UV-visible spectrophotometer. By UV-Vis spectra, the estimated value of band gap of ZnO was found 4.7 eV.
Unravelling the Cipher of Indian Rupee’s Volatility: Testing the Forecasting Efficacy of the Rolling Symmetric and Asymmetric GARCH Models  [PDF]
Shalini Talwar, Aparna Bhat
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2018.86079
Abstract: Modelling exchange rate volatility is crucially important because of its diverse implications on the profitability of corporations and decisions of policy makers. This paper empirically investigates exchange rate volatility of India’s currency by applying rolling symmetric and asymmetric GARCH models to the USDINR and EURINR daily exchange rates for a period spanning April 1, 2006 through January 31, 2018, resulting in total observations of 2861. To estimate GARCH (1,1) and EGARCH (1,1) models, the data window is rolled over five years with nearly 1200 observations and one month is used as forecast period for each window. Both, in-sample criteria like the log likelihood criteria, Akaike information criterion (AIC), the Bayesian information criterion (SIC) and Hannan Quinn criterion (HQC) as well as the out-of-sample criteria like Mean Squared Error (MSE) and Mean Absolute Error (MAE) have been used to test model fit and forecast accuracy of the models. To test the robustness of the findings, Diebold-Mariano test is used to compare the predictive accuracy of both the models. Further, the forecasting accuracy of the two models has also been tested by splitting the sample period into periods of tranquility and volatility in Indian exchange rate. Results show that GARCH (1,1) model with generalized error distribution is adequate to capture the mean and volatility process of USDINR and EURINR exchange rate returns.
Integration of GDP and FDI in Economies at Different Stages of Growth  [PDF]
Shalini Talwar, Shaila Srivastava
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2018.811144
Abstract: The objective of this study is to analyze the relationship between FDI and GDP for countries representing developed, developing and underdeveloped economies around the world. The countries identified for the purpose are Bhutan, Ethiopia, India, Brazil, USA and UK. Johansen cointegration test reveals that long-run equilibrium relationship between the two variables exists for Ethiopia, India and UK only. The VEC model shows no related short-run causality for any of these three countries. The study has implications in terms of policy decisions. Using FDI to boost GDP growth rate in the short-run is not an effective option for any country under the study. Since the vector error correction (VEC) model suggests that the two variables have a statistically significant adjustment mechanism for India, the study concludes that India can use FDI to leverage her long-term GDP. No evidence of link between the state of development of economy and integration of FDI and GDP is found by the study.
Risk Assessment of Land Subsidence in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal, Using Remote Sensing and GIS  [PDF]
Richa Bhattarai, Akihiko Kondoh
Advances in Remote Sensing (ARS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ars.2017.62010
Abstract: Land subsidence is identified as a global problem and intensive studies are being conducted worldwide to detect and monitor risk of this problem. Risk assessment of land subsidence is simply an evaluation of the probability and frequency of occurrence of land subsidence, exposure of people and property to the subsidence and consequence of that exposure. Remote sensing technology was used to extract information of land subsidence in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. Also, Disaster Risk Index method and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) along with Geographic Information System (GIS) tools were used to assess risk of land subsidence in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. Subsidence volume for locations Central Kathmandu, Chauni, Lalitpur, Imadol, Thimi, Madhyaour Thimi, New Baneshwor, Koteshwor and Gothatar was calculated using a simple mathematical formula. The subsidence depth for these locations was found to be in a range of 1 cm to 17 cm and the maximum subsidence velocity was found to be 4.8 cm/yr. This study revealed that the location where maximum subsidence was observed (i.e. Central Kathmandu and Lalitpur) was found to be at high risk of experiencing land subsidence induced damage. Other location where subsidence was observed was found to be at medium risk and the rest of the Kathmandu valley was found to be at low risk with current data situation. This study can be considered as the first step towards other comprehensive study relating to land subsidence risk assessment. The outcome of this research provides a basic understanding of the current situation that can further assist in developing prevention and risk management techniques.
A method to calculate the voltage-current characteristics of
Rajneesh Talwar
Maejo International Journal of Science and Technology , 2009,
Abstract: The voltage-current characteristics of the Schottky barrier diode defined by the diode equation can be obtained by using iteration method and a C++ program. The diode equation is split into two functions and the current density for a specified forward voltage is evaluated at a point where the equality of these two functions is seen to hold. A set of values of current and voltage are generated using the C++ program. The device parameters, i.e. area, barrier height and doping level, were obtained from published work. These are found to tally well with experimental results. The analysis has been made using 4H silicon carbide diodes with contacts of nickel, titanium and gold.
Estimation of power dissipation of a 4H-SiC Schottky barrier diode with a linearly graded doping profile in the drift region
Rajneesh Talwar
Maejo International Journal of Science and Technology , 2009,
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to establish the importance of a linearly graded profile in the drift region of a 4H-SiC Schottky barrier diode (SBD). The power dissipation of the device is found to be considerably lower at any given current density as compared to its value obtained for a uniformly doped drift region. The corresponding values of breakdown voltages obtained are similar to those obtained with uniformly doped wafers of 4H-SiC.
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