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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2496 matches for " Takeshi Oshima "
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Influence of Drinking Conditions on Alcohol Metabolism in Healthy Men with ALDH2*1/*1 Genotype: Comparison between Different Alcoholic Drinks with or without Meal  [PDF]
Yuko Abe, Tomomasa Kanda, Shunji Oshima, Youkichi Ohno, Takeshi Haseba
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2012.37132
Abstract: The influence of drinking conditions on alcohol metabolism and drunkenness was investigated in healthy men with ALDH2*1/*1 genotype aged from 40 to 60 who were occasional or habitual drinkers. The investigation was performed by open intersection competitive drinking tests at an ethanol dose of 0.32 g/kg under 4 different drinking conditions: beer without a meal [B(–)], shochu (a distilled spirit) without a meal [S(–)], beer with a meal [B(+)] and shochu with a meal [S(+)]. The blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and BAC-AUC (area under the curve) were lower in the B(–) than in the S(–). The blood acetaldehyde concentration (BAcH) and the serum acetate concentration (SAce) were also lower in the B(–) than in the S(–). The meal markedly decreased BAC, BAC-AUC and BAcH-AUC for both alcoholic beverages. Subjective drunkenness was stronger in order of B(+) < S(+) < B(–) < S(–), depending on BAC. Ethanol degradation rate (EDR: mg/kg/h) was higher in order of S(–) < B(–) < S(+) < B(+), which may be caused by differences in the numbers of glucide calories in the drinking conditions because some glucide is contained in beer (3.0 g/100 ml) but not in the spirit shochu. The ratio of lactic acid to pyruvic acid in the blood, which reflects the ratio of NADH/NAD+ in liver cells, was higher in the S(–) than in the B(–), and was decreased by the meal for both alcoholic beverages. These results suggested that glucide increase the rate of alcohol metabolism by supplying pyruvic acid to decrease the ratio of NADH/NAD+, which lowers BAC and relieves drunkenness. Thus, the intake of glucide calories while drinking is important to reduce the pharmacological and toxicological actions of alcohol.
Individual Differences in Blood Alcohol Concentrations after Moderate Drinking Are Mainly Regulated by Gastric Emptying Rate Together with Ethanol Distribution Volume  [PDF]
Shunji Oshima, Takeshi Haseba, Chiaki Masuda, Ema Kakimi, Manabu Sami, Tomomasa Kanda, Youkichi Ohno
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2012.36099
Abstract: Blood alcohol concentration (BAC) differs greatly among individuals, even when people of the same sex and age drink alcohol under the same drinking conditions. In this study, we investigated the main factors involved in the internal reg-ulation of individual differences in BAC, focusing on the alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (ADH1B) genotype, blood acetal-dehyde concentration (BAcH), amount of habitual alcohol consumption, pharmacokinetic parameters of BAC, distribution volume of ethanol (Vd), and gastric emptying rate (GER) under the same drinking conditions. Twenty healthy Japanese males aged between 40 and 59 years old and having the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) genotype of ALDH 2*1/*2 were recruited for this study. The subjects were given 0.32 g ethanol/kg body weight in the form of commercially available beer (5%, v/v). The results showed that BAC-max differed greatly among individuals with a more than two-fold variation. When the BAC-time curve was compared among ADH1B genotypes (ADH1B*1/*1, *1/*2, and *2/*2), there were no differences in BAC among the genotypes. Although BAcH, monthly alcohol consumption, elimination rate of blood ethanol (β value) and ethanol disappearance rate from the body (EDR) can affect BAC, all of them had no correlations with BAC-max. However, Vd (liter/kg), ΔPlasma glucose concentration (ΔPGC = PGC30 min ? PGC0 min) and the serum concentration of gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) did correlate with BAC-max. Model 2 in multiple linear regression analysis showed the optimal model for Vd and GIP with positive correlations with BAC-max. As GIP and ΔPGC are both reflected by gastric emptying rate (GER), we concluded that the individual differences in BAC after moderate drinking are mainly regulated by GER together with Vd. These findings demonstrate that together with body water content, the gastrointestinal tract plays an important role in the regulation of individual differences in BAC, involving first pass metabolism of ethanol.
Effect of ALDH2 Genetic Polymorphism on the Adaptive Change in Alcohol Metabolism Due to Continuous Moderate Alcohol Consumption in Humans  [PDF]
Shunji Oshima, Takeshi Haseba, Akihiro Nemoto, Sachie Siiya, Tomomasa Kanda, Youkichi Ohno
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2015.62020
Abstract: Few studies have assessed the difference in adaptive changes of alcohol metabolism in the case of chronic alcohol consumption pertaining to the genetic polymorphism of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) in humans. To evaluate the influences of ALDH2 genotypes on changes in alcohol metabolism due to continuous alcohol intake, we conducted an intervention study by setting a continuous drinking period between two abstinence periods. The subjects in this study comprised 20 - 25-year-old males, including 15 males carrying ALDH2*1/*1 and 16 carrying ALDH2*1/*2 genotypes. Following the abstinence period of 4 weeks (from day 1 to day 28), all subjects drank commercially available beer (500 ml) every evening for 6 weeks (from day 30 to day 71) and subsequently abstained from drinking again for 4 weeks (from day 73 to day 100). The next morning, after the end of each period, drinking tests (DTs) were performed on each subject (DT1 on day 29, DT2 on day 72, and DT3 on day 101) to examine alcohol metabolism. The subjects drank shochu (a distilled alcoholic beverage), with an ethanol dose of 0.32 g/kg, within 20 minutes after overnight fasting. The alcohol elimination rate in subjects with ALDH2*1/*1 genotype was significantly higher during DT2 after the drinking period as compared with those at both DT1 and DT3 after the abstinence periods, whereas the elimination rate in subjects with ALDH2*1/*2 genotype did not change significantly during 3 DTs. However, blood acetaldehyde levels significantly decreased in subjects with both ALDH2 genotypes during DT2 as compared with those during DT1. The physiological subjective responses to alcohol also significantly decreased during DT2 in subjects with ALDH2*1/*2 genotype. Moreover, serum lipids, gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), and uric acid concentrations also varied between subjects with different ALDH2 genotypes due to continuous drinking. These results suggested that ALDH2 polymorphism modified adaptive changes in alcohol metabolism and physiological responses to continuous moderate alcohol consumption.
Adult-Specific Systemic Over-Expression Reveals Novel In Vivo Effects of the Soluble Forms of ActRIIA, ActRIIB and BMPRII
Kengo Yamawaki, Shinobu Ueda, Tsutomu Okada, Takeshi Oshima, Makoto Kakitani, Takashi Kato, Kazuma Tomizuka
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0078076
Abstract: Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs)/growth differentiation factors (GDFs), which belong to the TGF-beta superfamily, are pleiotropic factors that play a role in regulating the embryonic development and postnatal homeostasis of various organs and tissues by controlling cellular differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. Conventional transgenic and knockout (KO) mouse approaches have provided only limited information regarding the in vivo functions of BMP signaling in adult animals due to the effects on prenatal development and the difficulty in manipulating multiligand signals simultaneously. We recently produced transgenic chimeric mice(Tg chimeras) in which the soluble IgG1-Fc fusion protein of three BMP type II receptors (ActRIIA, ActRIIB, BMPRII) was highly circulated (281-709 μg/ml), specifically in adult mouse blood. Since each BMP receptor can bind to multiple BMP ligands, these Tg chimeras should be useful to investigate the effects of trapping multiple BMP ligands. Remarkably, some phenotypes were unexpected based on previous studies, such as KO mouse analyses, presumably representing the effects of the multiple ligand trapping. These phenotypes included increased red blood cells (RBCs) and decreased viability in adults. In a further study, we focused on the phenotype of increased RBCs and found that extramedullary hematopoiesis in the spleen, not in the bone marrow, was increased using histological and flow cytometric analyses. Although it remains to be elucidated whether the transgene products affect the tissues directly or indirectly, our data provide novel and important insight into the biological functions of the soluble IgG1-Fc fusion protein of three BMP type II receptors in adults, and our approach should have broad applications to research on other ligand receptor families and studies involving mouse models.
Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor of the Nasal Septum
Yuri Okumura,Kazuhiro Nomura,Takeshi Oshima,Atsuko Kasajima,Takahiro Suzuki,Eichi Ishida,Toshimitsu Kobayashi
Case Reports in Otolaryngology , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/670105
Abstract: We report an extremely rare case of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the posterior edge of the nasal septum. An 11-year-old boy presented with frequent epistaxis and nasal obstruction persisting for one year. Based on the clinical presentation and imaging studies, juvenile angiofibroma was suspected, but angiography suggested the possibility of another type of tumor. Transnasal endoscopic surgery found that the tumor protruded into the nasopharynx from the posterior end of the nasal septum. Histological examination identified spindle cells with immunoreaction for vimentin, smooth muscle actin, and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), but not for desmin and cytokeratin. This is a report of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor mimicking juvenile angiofibroma. This case suggests that angiography is helpful in the differential diagnosis of epipharyngeal tumor in adolescence. 1. Introduction Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) was first observed in the lung in 1990 [1], but extrapulmonary IMTs have also since been reported. IMT is classified as myofibroblastic neoplasm with intermediate grade, which rarely metastasizes. The clinical presentation is a neoplastic process with recurrence and metastasis in some cases [2, 3]. IMT may occur throughout the body and is most commonly found in the lung, abdominal cavity, retroperitoneum, and extremities but is uncommon in the head and neck region [1, 4]. We present a case of IMT located in the nasopharynx, which mimicked juvenile angiofibroma. 2. Case Presentation An 11-year-old boy had visited a provincial hospital because of frequent epistaxis and nasal obstruction persisting for one year. A tumorous mass was found in the nasopharynx, so computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies were performed. Juvenile angiofibroma was suspected, so he was referred to our hospital for further examination and treatment. Physical examination found a smooth reddish mass in the nasopharynx. The imaging studies performed at the previous hospital were reexamined. CT scans showed a homogeneously enhanced soft tissue mass in the nasopharynx without bone destruction (Figure 1). The T1-weighted MR image with contrast medium demonstrated an isointense mass with homogeneous enhancement (Figure 2). These findings elucidated the diagnostic impression of juvenile angiofibroma, as suggested by the previous physicians. Angiography detected faint tumor staining, but no obvious feeding artery (Figure 3). This result suggested the possibility of tumors other than juvenile angiofibroma because of the unexpectedly poor
Evolution in an oncogenic bacterial species with extreme genome plasticity: Helicobacter pylori East Asian genomes
Mikihiko Kawai, Yoshikazu Furuta, Koji Yahara, Takeshi Tsuru, Kenshiro Oshima, Naofumi Handa, Noriko Takahashi, Masaru Yoshida, Takeshi Azuma, Masahira Hattori, Ikuo Uchiyama, Ichizo Kobayashi
BMC Microbiology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2180-11-104
Abstract: A phylogenetic tree of concatenated well-defined core genes supported divergence of the East Asian lineage (hspEAsia; Japanese and Korean) from the European lineage ancestor, and then from the Amerind lineage ancestor. Phylogenetic profiling revealed a large difference in the repertoire of outer membrane proteins (including oipA, hopMN, babABC, sabAB and vacA-2) through gene loss, gain, and mutation. All known functions associated with molybdenum, a rare element essential to nearly all organisms that catalyzes two-electron-transfer oxidation-reduction reactions, appeared to be inactivated. Two pathways linking acetyl~CoA and acetate appeared intact in some Japanese strains. Phylogenetic analysis revealed greater divergence between the East Asian (hspEAsia) and the European (hpEurope) genomes in proteins in host interaction, specifically virulence factors (tipα), outer membrane proteins, and lipopolysaccharide synthesis (human Lewis antigen mimicry) enzymes. Divergence was also seen in proteins in electron transfer and translation fidelity (miaA, tilS), a DNA recombinase/exonuclease that recognizes genome identity (addA), and DNA/RNA hybrid nucleases (rnhAB). Positively selected amino acid changes between hspEAsia and hpEurope were mapped to products of cagA, vacA, homC (outer membrane protein), sotB (sugar transport), and a translation fidelity factor (miaA). Large divergence was seen in genes related to antibiotics: frxA (metronidazole resistance), def (peptide deformylase, drug target), and ftsA (actin-like, drug target).These results demonstrate dramatic genome evolution within a species, especially in likely host interaction genes. The East Asian strains appear to differ greatly from the European strains in electron transfer and redox reactions. These findings also suggest a model of adaptive evolution through proteome diversification and selection through modulation of translational fidelity. The results define H. pylori East Asian lineages and provide essentia
Validity and Reliability of the Japanese Version of the painDETECT Questionnaire: A Multicenter Observational Study
Yoshitaka Matsubayashi, Katsushi Takeshita, Masahiko Sumitani, Yasushi Oshima, Juichi Tonosu, So Kato, Junichi Ohya, Takeshi Oichi, Naoki Okamoto, Sakae Tanaka
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0068013
Abstract: Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Japanese version of the painDETECT questionnaire (PDQ-J). Materials and Methods The translation of the original PDQ into Japanese was achieved according to the published guidelines. Subsequently, a multicenter observational study was performed to evaluate the validity and reliability of PDQ-J, including 113 Japanese patients suffering from pain. Results Factor analysis revealed that the main component of PDQ-J comprises two determinative factors, which account for 62% of the variance observed. Moreover, PDQ-J revealed statistically significant correlation with the intensity of pain (Numerical Rating Scale), Physical Component Score, and Mental Component Score of the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). The Cronbach alpha for the total score was 0.78 and for the main component was 0.80. In the analysis of test–retest method, the intraclass correlation coefficient between the two scores was 0.94. Conclusions We demonstrated the validity and reliability of PDQ-J. We encourage researchers and clinicians to use this tool for the assessment of patients who suffer suspected neuropathic pain.
Frontal Sinusitis with Mixed Bacterial Colonies Treated with the Combination of Endoscopic Modified Lothrop Procedure and External Approach
Kazuhiro Nomura,Yohei Honkura,Yuri Okumura,Atsuko Kasajima,Takahiro Suzuki,Toshiaki Kikuchi,Hiroshi Hidaka,Takeshi Oshima,Yukio Katori
Case Reports in Otolaryngology , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/541843
Abstract: Isolated frontal sinusitis with mixed bacterial colonies is extremely rare and has not been described. We report a case of isolated frontal sinus forming mixed bacterial colonies that occurred in the previously exposed frontal sinus. The material in the frontal sinus was macroscopically similar to sinus fungus ball. Surgical strategy followed that for sinus fungus ball. The material could not be completely removed even with an endoscopic modified Lothrop procedure (Draf type III procedure). Additional external incision enabled complete removal of the remnant infectious substance. Histological examination detected two different types of organisms as intermingled bacterial colonies. External approaches to the frontal fungus ball have recently been replaced by the endonasal approach. Our case suggests that material trapped in a pit or small crevice in a frontal sinus may not be removed intranasally. 1. Introduction Most cases of frontal sinusitis are caused by drainage congestion as a consequence of the complex anatomy of the frontal recess, but the infection may also spread via normal anatomical fissures or fracture lines [1]. The standard treatment technique for chronic frontal sinusitis is endoscopic removal of the uncinate process, ethmoid bulla, and common wall between the frontal sinus, the agger nasi cell, and supraorbital cell. Failure to achieve adequate removal of these walls may result in chronic edema and frontal sinus obstruction may develop [2]. The contents of the frontal sinus are mucous, pus, or mucin and can be removed with malleable suction or irrigation. Sinus fungus ball is a form of fungal sinusitis which is defined as a noninvasive chronic fungal sinusitis without inspissated allergic mucin. Sinus fungus ball occurs in immunocompetent hosts and endoscopic surgical treatment usually results in good outcome. Sinus fungus ball occurs most commonly in the maxillary or sphenoid sinuses [3, 4]. The standard treatment of fungus ball is complete removal of the fungus and wide opening of the ostium of the diseased sinus. Fungus ball of the frontal sinus is extremely rare, with fewer than 40 cases reported in the English literature [5, 6]. The surgical procedure is more difficult than those used in the maxillary and sphenoid sinuses because the possible maximum opening in the case of frontal sinus is relatively small [7]. Previously, almost all cases were treated with an external approach [5]. Recently, with the development of new instruments and innovations in endoscopic techniques, the Draf type III/endoscopic modified Lothrop procedure
Extensive [CI] Mapping toward the Orion-A Molecular Cloud
Yoshito Shimajiri,Takeshi Sakai,Takashi Tsukagoshi,Yoshimi Kitamura,Munetake Momose,Masao Saito,Tai Oshima,Kotaro Kohno,Ryohei Kawabe
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/774/2/L20
Abstract: We have carried out wide-field (0.17 degree^2) and high-angular resolution (21.3 arcsec ~ 0.04 pc) observations in [CI] line toward the Orion-A giant molecular cloud with the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE) 10 m telescope in the On-The-Fly (OTF) mode. Overall features of the [CI] emission are similar to those of the CO (1--0) emission in Shimajiri et al. (2011); the total intensity ratio of the [CI] to CO emission ranges from 0.05 to 0.2. The optical depth of the [CI] emission is found to be 0.1 -- 0.75, suggesting optically thin emission. The column density of the [CI] emission is estimated to be (1.0 -- 19) x 10^17 cm^-2. These results are consistent with the results of the previous [CI] observations with a low-angular resolution of 2.2 arcmin (e.g. Ikeda et al. 1999). In the nearly edge-on PDRs and their candidates of the Orion Bar, DLSF, M 43 Shell, and Region D, the distributions of the [CI] emission coincide with those of the CO emission, inconsistent with the prediction by the plane-parallel PDR model (Hollenbach & Tielens 1999). In addition, the [CI] distribution in the Orion A cloud is found to be more similar to those of the ^{13}CO (1--0), C^{18}O (1--0), and H^{13}CO^+ (1--0) lines than that of the CO (1--0) line, suggesting that the [CI] emission is not limited to the cloud surface, but is tracing the dense, inner parts of the cloud.
Characterization of Acid-Soluble Collagen from Skins of Surf Smelt (Hypomesus pretiosus japonicus Brevoort)  [PDF]
Takeshi Nagai
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2010.12010
Abstract: Acid-soluble collagen was extracted from the skins of surf smelt and characterized. The yield of collagen was high about 24.0% on a dry weight basis. By SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and CM-Toyopearl 650 M column chromatography, this collagen is a heterotrimer with a chain composition of α1α2α3. The denaturation temperature was 32.5℃, about 4.5℃ lower than that from porcine skin. Attenuated total reflectance-fourier transform infrared analysis showed that the percentage of secondary structural components in this collagen were 11% α-helix, 34% β-sheet, 19% β-turn, and 21% others. It suggests that the triple helical structure is present in the acid-soluble collagen from the skins of the surf smelt in comparison to that from the skin of porcine.
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