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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4254 matches for " Takashi Uzu "
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Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors in Diabetic Nephropathy
Shinji Kume,Takashi Uzu,Keiji Isshiki,Daisuke Koya
PPAR Research , 2008, DOI: 10.1155/2008/879523
Abstract: Diabetic nephropathy is a leading cause of end-stage renal disease, which is increasing in incidence worldwide, despite intensive treatment approaches such as glycemic and blood pressure control in patients with diabetes mellitus. New therapeutic strategies are needed to prevent the onset of diabetic nephropathy. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated nuclear transcription factors that play important roles in lipid and glucose homeostases. These agents might prevent the progression of diabetic nephropathy, since PPAR agonists improve dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. Furthermore, data from murine models suggest that PPAR agonists also have independent renoprotective effects by suppressing inflammation, oxidative stress, lipotoxicity, and activation of the renin-angiotensin system. This review summarizes data from clinical and experimental studies regarding the relationship between PPARs and diabetic nephropathy. The therapeutic potential of PPAR agonists in the treatment of diabetic nephropathy is also discussed.
Autophagy as a Therapeutic Target in Diabetic Nephropathy
Yuki Tanaka,Shinji Kume,Munehiro Kitada,Keizo Kanasaki,Takashi Uzu,Hiroshi Maegawa,Daisuke Koya
Experimental Diabetes Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/628978
Abstract: Diabetic nephropathy is a serious complication of diabetes mellitus, and its prevalence has been increasing worldwide. Therefore, there is an urgent need to identify a new therapeutic target to prevent diabetic nephropathy. Autophagy is a major catabolic pathway involved in degrading and recycling macromolecules and damaged organelles to maintain intracellular homeostasis. The study of autophagy in mammalian systems is advancing rapidly and has revealed that it is involved in the pathogenesis of various metabolic or age-related diseases. The functional role of autophagy in the kidneys is also currently under intense investigation although, until recently, evidence showing the involvement of autophagy in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy has been limited. We provide a systematic review of autophagy and discuss the therapeutic potential of autophagy in diabetic nephropathy to help future investigations in this field.
The Role of Autophagy in the Pathogenesis of Diabetic Nephropathy
Kosuke Yamahara,Mako Yasuda,Shinji Kume,Daisuke Koya,Hiroshi Maegawa,Takashi Uzu
Journal of Diabetes Research , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/193757
Abstract: Diabetic nephropathy is a leading cause of end-stage renal disease worldwide. The multipronged drug approach targeting blood pressure and serum levels of glucose, insulin, and lipids fails to fully prevent the onset and progression of diabetic nephropathy. Therefore, a new therapeutic target to combat diabetic nephropathy is required. Autophagy is a catabolic process that degrades damaged proteins and organelles in mammalian cells and plays a critical role in maintaining cellular homeostasis. The accumulation of proteins and organelles damaged by hyperglycemia and other diabetes-related metabolic changes is highly associated with the development of diabetic nephropathy. Recent studies have suggested that autophagy activity is altered in both podocytes and proximal tubular cells under diabetic conditions. Autophagy activity is regulated by both nutrient state and intracellular stresses. Under diabetic conditions, an altered nutritional state due to nutrient excess may interfere with the autophagic response stimulated by intracellular stresses, leading to exacerbation of organelle dysfunction and diabetic nephropathy. In this review, we discuss new findings showing the relationships between autophagy and diabetic nephropathy and suggest the therapeutic potential of autophagy in diabetic nephropathy. 1. Introduction The increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus and its vascular complications has become a major health problem worldwide. Diabetic nephropathy is a serious complication of diabetes and is a common cause of end-stage renal disease. Diabetes induces glomerular damage, along with proteinuria, and subsequent tubulointerstitial lesions, leading to end-stage renal disease [1–3]. Initially, the patient shows hyperfiltration, represented by high glomerular filtration rates (GFRs) and occasional occurrence of microalbuminuria. Later, the patient shows a gradual decline in the GFR and persistence of microalbuminuria that comes before mild and subsequently moderate proteinuria. Urinary protein seems to be almost entirely reabsorbed in early and late proximal tubules and may induce tubulointerstitial damage [3]. Reducing proteinuria by keeping blood pressure and blood glucose levels under control is therefore a primary therapeutic goal with diabetic nephropathy [4, 5]. Unfortunately, however, some patients develop treatment-resistant proteinuria, resulting in end-stage renal disease. There is now an urgent need to identify new therapeutic target molecules or cellular processes that underlie the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy to establish additional
Four-body Faddeev-Yakubovsky calculation of polarization transfer coefficient $\bm{K}_y^{y'}$ in the $^2$H$(\vec{\bm{d}}, \vec{\bm{p}})^3$H reaction at very low energies
Eizo Uzu
Physics , 2002,
Abstract: The polarization transfer coefficient $K_y^{y'}$ for the $^2$H$(\vec{d}, \vec{p})^3$H reaction at energies $E_{\rm lab.} = 30$, 50, 70, and 90keV is calculated using the four-body Faddeev-Yakubovsky equation. We employ a separable type of the Paris potential. The experimental data [Phys. Rev. {\bf C64}, 047601 (2001)] agrees with our solution at the scattering angle $\theta_{\rm c.m.}=0^\circ$, and there is no discrepancy pointed out in that paper. We found that the $K_y^{y'}$ is sensitive to the incident deuteron energy at this angle.
Successful Renal Replacement Therapy for a Patient with Severe Hemophilia after Surgical Treatment of Intracranial Hemorrhage and Hydrocephalus
Noriko Kato,Masami Chin-Kanasaki,Yuki Tanaka,Mako Yasuda,Yukiyo Yokomaku,Masayoshi Sakaguchi,Keiji Isshiki,Shin-ichi Araki,Shigeru Ohta,Takashi Uzu
Case Reports in Nephrology , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/824709
Abstract: A 21-year-old Japanese male with severe hemophilia A was developed end-stage renal failure. He was placed on combination therapy with peritoneal dialysis (PD) and hemodialysis (HD). Eight months later, he developed a hypertensive cerebral hemorrhage. After emergency surgery, he was managed with PD without HD to avoid cerebral edema. One month later, his renal replacement therapy was switched to HD (three times a week) from PD, since a ventriculoperitoneal shunt catheter was placed to treat his hydrocephalus. HD could be performed safety without anticoagulant agents on condition that factor VIII is given after every HD.
Numerical and Experimental Investigation of a Supersonic Flow Field around Solid Fuel on an Inclined Flat Plate
Uzu-Kuei Hsu
Modelling and Simulation in Engineering , 2009, DOI: 10.1155/2009/823874
Abstract: This research adopts a shock tube 16 meters long and with a 9 cm bore to create a supersonic, high-temperature, and high-pressure flowfield to observe the gasification and ignition of HTPB solid fuel under different environments. Also, full-scale 3D numerical simulation is executed to enhance the comprehension of this complex phenomenon. The CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) code is based on the control volume method and the pre-conditioning method for solving the Navier-Stokes equations to simulate the compressible and incompressible coupling problem. In the tests, a HTPB slab is placed in the windowed-test section. Various test conditions generate different supersonic Mach numbers and environmental temperatures. In addition, the incident angles of the HTPB slab were changed relative to the incoming shock wave. Results show that as the Mach number around the slab section exceeded 1.25, the flowfield temperature achieved 1100 K, which is higher than the HTPB gasification temperature (930 K ~ 1090 K). Then, gasification occurred and a short-period ignition could be observed. In particular, when the slab angle was 7°, the phenomenon became more visible. This is due to the flow field temperature increase when the slab angle was at 7°.
Complex-Orbital Order in Fe_3O_4 and Mechanism of the Verwey Transition
Hisashi Uzu,Arata Tanaka
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1143/JPSJ.77.074711
Abstract: Electronic state and the Verwey transition in magnetite (Fe_3O_4) are studied using a spinless three-band Hubbard model for 3d electrons on the B sites with the Hartree-Fock approximation and the exact diagonalisation method. Complex-orbital, e.g., 1/sqrt(2)[|zx> + i |yz>], ordered (COO) states having noncollinear orbital moments ~ 0.4 mu_B on the B sites are obtained with the cubic lattice structure of the high-temperature phase. The COO state is a novel form of magnetic ordering within the orbital degree of freedom. It arises from the formation of Hund's second rule states of spinless pseudo-d molecular orbitals in the Fe_4 tetrahedral units of the B sites and ferromagnetic alignment of their fictitious orbital moments. A COO state with longer periodicity is obtained with pseudo-orthorhombic Pmca and Pmc2_1 structures for the low-temperature phase. The state spontaneously lowers the crystal symmetry to the monoclinic and explains experimentally observed rhombohedral cell deformation and Jahn-Teller like distortion. From these findings, we consider that at the Verwey transition temperature, the COO state remaining to be short-range order impeded by dynamical lattice distortion in high temperature is developed into that with long-range order coupled with the monoclinic lattice distortion.
Dynamic Simulation and Hemolysis Evaluation of the Regurgitant Flow over a Tilting-Disc Mechanical Heart Valve in Pulsatile Flow  [PDF]
Uzu-Kuei Hsu, Pong-Jeu Lu
World Journal of Mechanics (WJM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/wjm.2013.33014
Abstract:

Regurgitation in the heart diastolic phase represents a critical flow condition associated with many heart valve design considerations. The finite volume method, the Low-Reynolds-Number k-ω turbulent model and sliding mesh model are employed to solve and compare the complex flow field and the torque in each case. The end results expected from a cardiovascular CFD analysis are not limited only to the flowfield investigations. More importantly, it needs an evaluation criterion to judge if the design is acceptable as considered from a broader blood cell damage or activation perspective. In this study, blood cell damage index developed based on stress-time empirical rule and Lagrangian particle tracking is introduced to assess the viscous and turbulence-induced stresses effect to the blood cells.

Influence of Some Soil Properties on the Uptake of Lead And Chromium by Telfairia occidentalis
Orhue, R. E.,Uzu, F.
Journal of Environmental Issues and Agriculture in Developing Countries , 2010,
Abstract: Trials were conducted between September and December in the year 2009 to determine the relationship between some soil properties and heavy metal uptake by Telfairia occidentalis using correlation coefficient (r) analysis. In the greenhouse, soil sample collected from surface 0-15 depth of soil was bulked mixed thoroughly, air dried, sieved and thereafter 5 kg weighed and put in each of the 96 pots. Each of the heavy metals (chromium nitrate Cr (N03)2 .9H20 and lead nitrate Pb (N03)2) was applied at 0, 50, 100, 200 mg per 5 kg soil. While in the field, the heavy metal rates of 0, 20, 40, 80 kgha-1 equivalents to 0, 50,100,200 mg per 5 kg soil were used in a treatment combination of 2 x 4 factorial organized in Randomized Complete Block Design in three replicates and each replicate had 32 pots. Results revealed that the soil pH, amorphous Al oxide, amorphous Fe oxide, free Al oxide, free Fe oxide, available Phosphorus (P), effective cation exchange capacity, organic carbon (C), sand, silt and clay negatively correlated with lead (Pb) and chromium (Cr) uptake by the plant and were significant at (P<0.05) level of probability. Also, revealed that increase in these soil properties decrease the uptake of these metals. Therefore, it is advisable to maintain these soil properties at higher levels to reduce the heavy metal uptake by Telfairia occidentalis.
GW501516, a PPARδ Agonist, Ameliorates Tubulointerstitial Inflammation in Proteinuric Kidney Disease via Inhibition of TAK1-NFκB Pathway in Mice
Xu Yang, Shinji Kume, Yuki Tanaka, Keiji Isshiki, Shin-ichi Araki, Masami Chin-Kanasaki, Toshiro Sugimoto, Daisuke Koya, Masakazu Haneda, Takeshi Sugaya, Detian Li, Ping Han, Yoshihiko Nishio, Atsunori Kashiwagi, Hiroshi Maegawa, Takashi Uzu
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0025271
Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are a nuclear receptor family of ligand-inducible transcription factors, which have three different isoforms: PPARα, δ and γ. It has been demonstrated that PPARα and γ agonists have renoprotective effects in proteinuric kidney diseases; however, the role of PPARδ agonists in kidney diseases remains unclear. Thus, we examined the renoprotective effect of GW501516, a PPARδ agonist, in a protein-overload mouse nephropathy model and identified its molecular mechanism. Mice fed with a control diet or GW501516-containing diet were intraperitoneally injected with free fatty acid (FFA)-bound albumin or PBS(?). In the control group, protein overload caused tubular damages, macrophage infiltration and increased mRNA expression of MCP-1 and TNFα. These effects were prevented by GW501516 treatment. In proteinuric kidney diseases, excess exposure of proximal tubular cells to albumin, FFA bound to albumin or cytokines such as TNFα is detrimental. In vitro studies using cultured proximal tubular cells showed that GW501516 attenuated both TNFα- and FFA (palmitate)-induced, but not albumin-induced, MCP-1 expression via direct inhibition of the TGF-β activated kinase 1 (TAK1)-NFκB pathway, a common downstream signaling pathway to TNFα receptor and toll-like receptor-4. In conclusion, we demonstrate that GW501516 has an anti-inflammatory effect in renal tubular cells and may serve as a therapeutic candidate to attenuate tubulointerstitial lesions in proteinuric kidney diseases.
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