Abstract:
We investigate strong-coupling corrections to single-particle excitations in the normal state of a spin-polarized unitary Fermi gas. Within the framework of an extended T-matrix approximation, we calculate the single-particle density of states, as well as the single-particle spectral weight, to show that the so-called pseudogap phenomenon gradually disappears with increasing the magnitude of an effective magnetic field. In the highly spin-polarized regime, the calculated spin-polarization rate as a function of the effective magnetic field agrees well with the recent experiment on a 6Li Fermi gas. Although this experiment has been considered to be incompatible with the existence of the pseudogap in an unpolarized Fermi gas, our result clarifies that the observed spin-polarization rate in the highly spin-polarized regime and the pseudogap in the unpolarized limit can be explained in a consistent manner, when one correctly includes effects of population imbalance on single-particle excitations. Since it is a crucial issue to clarify whether the pseudogap exists or not in the BCS (Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer)-BEC (Bose-Einstein condensation) crossover regime of an ultracold Fermi gas, our results would be useful for the understanding of this strongly interacting fermion system.

Abstract:
We investigate the stability of $\pi$-phase in a polarized superfluid Fermi gas ($N_\uparrow>N_\downarrow$, where $N_\sigma$ is the number of atoms in the hyperfine state described by pseudospin-$\sigma$). In our previous paper [T. Kashimura, S. Tsuchiya, and Y. Ohashi, Phys. Rev. A {\bf 82}, 033617 (2010)], we showed that excess atoms ($\Delta N=N_\uparrow-N_\downarrow$) localized around a potential barrier embedded in the system induces the $\pi$-phase at T=0, where the phase of superfluid order parameter differ by $\pi$ across the junction. In this paper, we extend our previous work to include temperature effects within the mean-field theory. We show that the $\pi$-phase is stable even at finite temperatures, although transition from the $\pi$-phase to 0-phase eventually occurs at a certain temperature. Our results indicate that the $\pi$-phase is experimentally accessible in cold Fermi gases.

Abstract:
We investigate the possibility of superfluid/ferromagnet/superfluid (SFS)-junction in a superfluid Fermi gas. To examine this possibility in a simple manner, we consider an attractive Hubbard model at $T=0$ within the mean-field theory. When a potential barrier is embedded in a superfluid Fermi gas with population imbalance ($N_\uparrow>N_\downarrow$, where $N_\sigma$ is the number of atoms with pseudospin $\sigma=\uparrow,\downarrow$), this barrier is shown to be {\it magnetized} in the sense that excess $\uparrow$-spin atoms are localized around it. The resulting superfluid Fermi gas is spatially divided into two by this {\it ferromagnet}, so that one obtains a junction similar to the superconductor/ferromagnet/superconductor-junction discussed in superconductivity. Indeed, we show that the so-called $\pi$-phase, which is a typical phenomenon in the SFS-junction, is realized, where the superfluid order parameter changes its sign across the junction. Our results would be useful for the study of magnetic effects on fermion superfluidity using an ultracold Fermi gas.

Abstract:
We discuss an idea to realize a spontaneous current in a superfluid Fermi gas. When a polarized Fermi superfluid ($N_\up > N_\dwn$, where $N_\sigma$ is the number of atoms in the hyperfine state described by pseudospin $\sigma=\uparrow, \downarrow$.) is loaded onto a ring-shaped trap with a weak potential barrier, some of excess atoms ($\Delta N=N_\uparrow-N_\downarrow$) are localized around the barrier. As shown in our previous paper [T. Kashimura, S. Tsuchiya, and Y. Ohashi, Phys. Rev. A \textbf{82}, 033617 (2010)], this polarized potential barrier works as a $\pi$-junction in the sense that the superfluid order parameter changes its sign across the barrier. Because of this, the phase of the superfluid order parameter outside the junction is shown to be twisted by $\pi$ along the ring, which naturally leads to a circulating supercurrent. While the ordinary supercurrent state is obtained as a metastable state, this spontaneous current state is shown to be more stable than the case with no current. Our results indicate that localized excess atoms would be useful for the manipulation of the superfluid order parameter in cold Fermi gases.

Abstract:
We investigate magnetic properties and effects of pairing fluctuations in the BCS (Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer)-BEC (Bose-Einstein condensation) crossover regime of an ultracold Fermi gas. Recently, Liu and Hu, and Parish, pointed out that the strong-coupling theory developed by Nozi\`eres and Schmitt-Rink (NSR), which has been extensively used to successfully clarify various physical properties of cold Fermi gases, unphysically gives negative spin susceptibility in the BCS-BEC crossover region. The same problem is found to also exist in the ordinary non-self-consistent T-matrix approximation. In this paper, we clarify that this serious problem comes from incomplete treatment in term of pseudogap phenomena originating from strong pairing fluctuations, as well as effects of spin fluctuations on the spin susceptibility. Including these two key issues, we construct an extended T-matrix theory which can overcome this problem. The resulting positive spin susceptibility agrees well with the recent experiment on a 6Li Fermi gas done by Sanner and co-workers. We also apply our theory to a polarized Fermi gas to examine the superfluid phase transition temperature Tc, as a function of the polarization rate. Since the spin susceptibility is an important physical quantity, especially in singlet Fermi superfluids, our results would be useful in considering how singlet pairs appear above and below Tc in the BCS-BEC crossover regime of cold Fermi gases.

Abstract:
We investigate magnetic properties of an ultracold Fermi gas with population imbalance. In the presence of population imbalance, the strong-coupling theory developed by Nozieres and Schmitt-Rink (which is frequently referred to as the NSR theory, or Gaussian fluctuation theory) is known to give unphysical results in the BCS-BEC crossover region. We point out that this problem comes from how to treat pseudogap effects originating from pairing fluctuations and many-body corrections to the spin susceptibility. We also clarify how to overcome this problem by including higher order fluctuations beyond the ordinary T-matrix theory. Calculated spin susceptibility based on our extended T-matrix theory agrees well with the recent experiment on a 6Li Fermi gas.

Abstract:
We have established expression vectors which encode SCTs of rat MHC-I (RT1.Al) with Tax180-188 peptide. Human cell lines transfected with the established expression vectors were able to induce IFN-γ and TNF-α production by a Tax180-188-specific CTL line, 4O1/C8. We have further fused the C-terminus of SCTs to EGFP and established cells expressing SCT-EGFP fusion protein on the surface. By co-cultivating the cells with 4O1/C8, we have confirmed that the epitope-specific CTLs acquired SCT-EGFP fusion proteins and that these EGFP-possessed CTLs were detectable by flow cytometric analysis.We have generated a SCT of rat MHC-I linked to Tax epitope peptide, which can be applicable for the induction of Tax-specific CTLs in rat model systems of HTLV-I infection. We have also established a detection system of Tax-specific CTLs by using cells expressing SCTs fused with EGFP. These systems will be useful tools in understanding the role of HTLV-I specific CTLs in HTLV-I pathogenesis.Human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) is etiologically linked to adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) [1,2], a chronic progressive neurological disorder termed HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) [3,4], and various other human diseases [5-8]. ATL is a malignant lymphoproliferative disease affecting a subgroup of middle-aged HTLV-I carriers characterized by the presence of mature T cell phenotype [9]. HTLV-I genome contains a unique 3' region, designated as pX, which encodes the viral transactivator protein, Tax [10]. Because of its broad transactivation capabilities [11], it is speculated that Tax plays a central role in HTLV-I associated immortalization and transformation of T cells, which may lead to the development of ATL.Tax is also known as a major target protein recognized by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) of HTLV-I carriers [12]. It has been reported that the levels of HTLV-I-specific CTL are quite diverse among HTLV-I carriers and that ATL patients have impaired l

Abstract:
We investigate single-particle properties of a mass-imbalanced Fermi gas in the BCS (Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer)-BEC (Bose-Einstein condensation) crossover region. In the presence of mass imbalance, we point out that the ordinary $T$-matrix approximation, which has been extensively used to clarify various BCS-BEC crossover physics in the mass-balanced case, unphysically gives a double-valued solution in terms of the superfluid phase transition temperature $T_{\rm c}$ in the crossover region. To overcome this serious problem, we include higher order strong-coupling corrections beyond the $T$-matrix level. Using this extended $T$-matrix theory, we calculate single-particle excitations in the normal state above $T_{\rm c}$. The so-called pseudogap phenomena originating from pairing fluctuations are shown to be different between the light mass component and heavy mass component, which becomes more remarkable at higher temperatures. Since Fermi condensates with hetero-Cooper pairs have recently been discussed in various fields, such as exciton (polariton) condensates, as well as color superconductivity, our results would be useful for the further development of Fermi superfluid physics, beyond the conventional superfluid state with homo-Cooper pairs.

Abstract:
We investigate the superfluid phase transition and effects of mass imbalance in the BCS (Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer)-BEC (Bose-Einstein condensation) crossover regime of an cold Fermi gas. We point out that the Gaussian fluctuation theory developed by Nozi\`eres and Schmitt-Rink and the $T$-matrix theory, that are now widely used to study strong-coupling physics of cold Fermi gases, give unphysical results in the presence of mass imbalance. To overcome this problem, we extend the $T$-matrix theory to include higher-order pairing fluctuations. Using this, we examine how the mass imbalance affects the superfluid phase transition. Since the mass imbalance is an important key in various Fermi superfluids, such as $^{40}$K-$^6$Li Fermi gas mixture, exciton condensate, and color superconductivity in a dense quark matter, our results would be useful for the study of these recently developing superfluid systems.

Abstract:
A layer
structured titanate Cs_{2}Ti_{5}O_{11}·(1 + x)H_{2}O
(x = 0.70) has
been prepared in a solid state reaction using Cs_{2}CO_{3} and anatase
type TiO_{2} at 900°C. Ion exchange reactions of Cs^{+} in
the interlayer space were studied in aqueous solutions. The single phases of Li^{+}, Na^{+} and H^{+} exchange products were obtained. The
three kinds of resulting titanates were evaluated for use as the cathodes in
rechargeable sodium batteries after dehydrations by
heating at 200°C in a vacuum. The
electrochemical measurements showed that they exhibited the reversible Na^{+} intercalation-deintercalation in a voltage range of 0.5 - 3.5 V or 0.7 - 4.0 V. The Li^{+} exchange product showed the best performance of the
discharge-charge capacities in
this study. The initial Na^{+} intercalation-deintercalation capacities
of the Li_{2}Ti_{5}O_{11} were 120 mAh/g and
100 mAh/g; the amounts of Na^{+} correspond to 1.9 and 1.6 of the
formula unit, respectively. The titanates are nontoxic, inexpensive and environmentally benign.