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Anodic Dissolution of Spheroidal Graphite Cast Iron with Different Pearlite Areas in Sulfuric Acid Solutions
Yoshikazu Miyata,Yuki Kuwahara,Shukuji Asakura,Tadashi Shinohara,Takao Yakou,Keiichi Shiimoto
International Journal of Corrosion , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/741378
Abstract: The rate equation of anodic dissolution reaction of spheroidal graphite cast iron in sulfuric acid solutions at 298?K has been studied. The cast irons have different areas of pearlite. The anodic Tafel slope of 0.043?V decade?1 and the reaction order with respect to the hydroxyl ion activity of 1 are obtained by the linear potential sweep technique. The anodic current density does not depend on the area of pearlite. There is no difference in the anodic dissolution reaction mechanisms between pure iron and spheroidal graphite cast iron. The anodic current density of the cast iron is higher than that of the pure iron. 1. Introduction Cast iron is widely used for pipes in neutral environments such as water and soil. A lot of experimental studies of cast iron for practical use were conducted [1–8]. A form of corrosion unique to cast irons is a selective leaching attack commonly referred to as graphitic corrosion [9, page 89]. A graphite network forms a corrosion-resistant phase called a graphitic layer. Therefore, the corrosion resistance of cast iron is said to be higher than that of steel. That is not necessarily the case. Laque reported that the corrosion rate of cast irons is lower than that of a steel in the atmosphere above the sea [2]. However, Paris and Bruniere [1] and Horikawa et al. [10] found that the corrosion rate of cast irons is nearly equal to that of steel in water and in atmosphere. Furthermore, a book said that graphitic corrosion does not occur in spheroidal graphite cast irons, because the graphite network does not exist [9, page 89], while another author reported that it occurs with both gray and spheroidal graphite cast irons [11]. These inconsistent results come from the complexity of graphitic corrosion. To elucidate the mechanisms of corrosion of cast iron, intensive studies are required. In this paper, the electrochemical dissolution of ferrous matrix is discussed. Cast iron is composed of pearlitic matrix, ferritic matrix, and graphite particles. The area of pearlite influences the physical properties such as tensile strength, elongation, and hardness [12]. Pearlitic matrix is a lamellar mixture of ferrite and cementite. Thus, the length of interfaces between ferrite and cementite becomes large with increasing pearlite area. Fontana [9, pages 28–31] and Trethewey and Chamberlain [13] described in their books that grain boundaries are high-energy areas and are more active chemically. The book by Evans said that regions near the grain boundaries may possess electrochemical properties different from those of the grain interiors
On Decay of Solutions and Spectral Property for a Class of Linear Parabolic Feedback Control Systems  [PDF]
Takao Nambu
Advances in Pure Mathematics (APM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/apm.2013.39A1005

Unlike regular stabilizations, we construct in the paper a specific feedback control system such that u(t) decays exponentially with the designated decay rate, and that some non-trivial linear functionals of u decay exactly faster than \"\". The system contains a dynamic compensator with another state v in the feedback loop, and consists of two states u and v. This problem entirely differs from the one with static feedback scheme in which the system consists only of a single state u. To show the essential difference, some specific property of the spectral subspaces associated with our control system is studied.

Electrode Property of Sintered Ceramic Based on CaMnO3 in LiOH Aqueous Solution  [PDF]
Takao Esaka, Yuhta Adachi
Journal of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering (MSCE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/msce.2014.24002
Abstract: Sintered ceramics of Ca0.9A0.1MnO3-δ(A = La, Nd, Sm, Gd and Y) were studied on their cathode properties in LiOHaq. solution. After firing, the samples were obtained as high conductivity sintered (porous) materials composed of an orthorhombic perovskite-type phase. Next, charge discharge performances of the electrodes consisting of the sintered sample were investigated. The discharge capacity of Ca0.9Y0.1MnO3-δwas 185 mAh·g-1on the 1st cycling, and the 1st charging was possible by 130 mAh·g-1. However, the 2nd discharge capacity remarkably decreased to lower than 50 mAh·g-1. Considering no obvious charging property on the previous La-substituted sample of Ca0.9La0.1MnO3-δ, it would mean that change of the substituent for CaMnO3 affects the electrochemical property. The roll of lithium ions, the effect of the cut-off potential range on the cycle performance would be discussed leading to the charge/discharge results of the cell (-)Zn/LiOHaq./Ca0.9Y0.1MnO3-δ(+).
Application of the COPD Assessment Test (CAT) to Patients with Interstitial Lung Disease  [PDF]
Fujiko Someya, Takao Nakagawa
Health (Health) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/health.2014.619295
Abstract: The COPD Assessment Test was recently developed to assess health status in patients with COPD. However, little was known about its application to patients with interstitial lung disease, so we examined the relationship between the COPD Assessment Test score and respiratory impairment including the clinical picture in subjects with interstitial lung disease. Data were collected retrospectively from 52 consecutive subjects with interstitial lung disease on admission to our facility. All subjects completed the COPD Assessment Test, in which a higher score represented a worse health status. They were also assessed by pulmonary function test, SpO2 during 6-min walk test, and arterial blood gases. The COPD Assessment Test score was negatively correlated with the percentage of predicted forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 second, total lung capacity, diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide, and PaO2 (p = 0.0005, 0.005, 0.0002, 0.0005, and 0.002, respectively). Breathlessness was detected as the high scoring item, while phlegm and sleep were the last affected items. The COPD Assessment Test score was higher in subjects with oxygen desaturation in SpO2 (≥4%) during 6-min walk test (p = 0.0001) and in subjects on home oxygen therapy (p = 0.0007). More than 75% of subjects with oxygen desaturation during walking were classified into a medium or severer impact level of the COPD Assessment Test score, and subjects on home oxygen therapy were classified into a high or severer impact level. PaCO2 in room air and SpO2 at rest did not correlate with the COPD Assessment Test score. The reliability of items in the COPD Assessment Test was 0.87 by Cronbach’s α coefficient. Our results suggest that the COPD Assessment Test may be a candidate for evaluating the health status and impact of disease on patients with interstitial lung disease.
A Study of the Strategy and Operation of Japanese Agriculture Cloud Computing  [PDF]
Takao Nomakuchi, Suguru Yanata
Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment (JACEN) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jacen.2015.42B002

Amid declining Japanese agriculture solutions, agriculture cloud attracts much attention and expectations. However, the strategy and the operation of the agriculture cloud have not been investigated adequately. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to examine the strategy and the operation in the agriculture cloud. In this study, we performed a case study regarding agriculture cloud. Based on our consideration, the strategy and the operation of the agriculture cloud are a reinforcement of conventional competitive advantages.

Isolation, Purification and Characterization of Nucleoids from Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942  [PDF]
Ali Azam Talukder, Takao Kondo
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2014.415121
Abstract: The genomic DNA of bacteria is highly compacted in one or a few bodies known as nucleoids. In order to understand the overall configuration and physiological activities of the cyanobacterial nucleoid under various growth conditions and the role(s) of each nucleoid protein in clock function, thylakoid membrane-associated nucleoids from the Synechococcus elongatus (se) PCC 7942 strain were isolated and purified in presence of spermidine at low salt concentrations by sucrose density gradient centrifugation. The sedimentation rates, protein/DNA composition and microscopic appearances as well as variation in structural components of clock proteins from the isolated nucleoids were compared under identical conditions. Microscopic appearances of the nucleoids were consistent with the sedimentation profiles. The nucleoid structure in the wild type was more tightly compacted than that in the KaiABC mutant strain. Western immunoblot analyses revealed that the KaiC was associated with the nucleoid fraction whereas maximum KaiA was localized in the cytosolic fraction, supposedly in association with the translation machinery.
The new era of autoimmune disease research
Takao Koike
Arthritis Research & Therapy , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/ar3335
Abstract: Microarray analysis and gene expression profiling allow patterns of gene expression in diseases and developmental processes to be assessed. Advances in biological databases have enabled the large-scale expression profiling data to be processed and the foundation for biological interpretation to be laid. Despite this, a major limitation involves the interpretation of massive amounts of microarray data. In microarray analysis, which is often used to identify differentially expressed genes, genes that are expressed at higher or lower levels than controls are of interest. In the previous issue of Arthritis Research & Therapy, Lee and colleagues [1] conducted gene expression and bioinformatics analyses between healthy individuals and patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and provided insights into biological and functional abnormalities in SLE as well as abnormal regulatory networks. Such analyses - that is, gene ontology analysis, which is used to classify genes into functionally related gene groups, and network pathway analysis, which identifies relationships among these genes - provide an additional layer of insight that cannot be achieved by focusing on individual molecules [1].Lee and colleagues [2] previously demonstrated, by DNA microarray and bioinformatics analyses, that genes related to the immune response were differentially expressed in patients with SLE compared with healthy controls. Other studies have also reported increased expression of IFN-inducible genes (that is, the 'IFN signature') in peripheral blood cells from patients with SLE [2-4]. Many groups are currently looking into pathological roles of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) and IFN-inducible genes in SLE since pDCs are major producers of IFN-α [4-7]. Given that SLE is a systemic disease that influences multiple organs, Lee and colleagues [1] emphasized the importance of assessing biological and cellular abnormalities associated with SLE other than those related to the immune respo
The concept of exploitation in a general linear model with heterogeneous labour
Fujimoto, Takao;
Investigación económica , 2009,
Abstract: in this paper we consider the concept of exploitation and the so-called fundamental marxian theorem in a general linear model in which proper joint production, heterogeneous labour, and durable consumption goods are all allowed for. one of the features of our approach is that we deal with goods and various types of labour in a completely symmetrical way so long as technological data are concerned. there are no capitalists in the beginning, but a spectrum of workers who supply various types of labour as well as other services. some workers may make savings, or have properties which yield incomes other than wages. when prices and wage rates are given, we can determine which types of labour are exploited and which types exploit others. all the main propositions are valid irrespective of whether or not our model economy is in a sort of equilibrium.
índice Tornozelo-Braquial (ITB) determinado por esfigmoman?metros oscilométricos automáticos
Kawamura, Takao;
Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0066-782X2008000500003
Abstract: background: assessing ankle-brachial index is an essential procedure in clinical settings, but since its measurement by the gold standard doppler ultrasonic (du) technique is impaired by technical difficulties, it is underperformed. objective: the aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of an automated oscillometric device (aod) by performing ankle-brachial index (abi) assessments and to suggest delta brachial-brachial (delta-bb) and delta-abi as markers of cardiovascular risk. methods: in this observational and descriptive study, 247 patients (56.2% females, mean age 62.0 years) had their arterial blood pressure (abp) measured for abi calculation. two aod (omron-hem705cp) devices were used for simultaneous measurements of the abp, first of the two arms and then of the arm with higher systolic abp and a leg, first the left and then the right one. when leg abp measurements were not possible, abi determination was performed by using the standard doppler ultrasonic (du) technique. patients were designated to group n (normal abi: 0.91 to 1.30) or group a (abnormal abi: <0.90 or >1.30). other indexes were also calculated: delta-bb (absolute difference in mmhg of systolic abp between arms) and delta-abi (absolute difference of abi between legs) and the results were compared. results: in most patients (90.7%), it was possible to determine the abi. group n data allowed calculation of the 95th percentile reference values (rv) of delta-bb (0 to 8 mmhg) and delta-abi (0 to 0.13). when compared to group n, group a had a significantly higher prevalence of high values greater than the rvs of delta-abi (30 of 52 and 10 of 195, respectively; odds ratio = 25.23; p<0.0001) and delta-bb (13 of 52 and 7 of 195, respectively; odds ratio = 8.95; p<0.0001). conclusion: in most patients, the abi could be measured by aod. both indexes, delta-bb and delta-abi greater than the rvs, were significantly more prevalent in patients with abnormal abi values, and their usefulness as new markers
Second-Order Partial Differentiation of Real Ternary Functions
Takao Inoué
Formalized Mathematics , 2010, DOI: 10.2478/v10037-010-0015-9
Abstract: In this article, we shall extend the result of [17] to discuss second-order partial differentiation of real ternary functions (refer to [7] and [14] for partial differentiation).
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